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AMERICAN NATURALIST, 



AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 



NATURAL HISTORY 



A. S. PACKARD, Jr., and EDWARD D. COPE. 



Dr. ELLIOTT COUES, Department o 
Prof. O. T. MASON, Department of Anthr 
ELLIS H. YARNALL, Dep. of Geography and Tra 
Dr. R. H. WARD, Department of Microscopy. 



VOLUME XIII. 



1879. /£* 






CONTENTS. 



e Destructive Nature of the Boring Sponge, i 






Insect Destroyer 



General Geology. 178: Gegent 



: I- 



Ingersoll's Nests and Eggs e 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xiii. — JANUARY, 1879. — No. 1. 



SINCE the first announcement of the principle of cross-fertili- 
zation, by Darwin, many most interesting and instructive 
examples have been noted and published, but the field is by no 
means exhausted. 

Some ingenious contrivances for cross-fertilization are charm- 
ingly described by Prof. Gray in his little work " How Plants 
Bjhave," which he published a few years since as earnest of a 
larger work, which, wo hope, may be soon forthcoming. One as 
wonderful as any is the Iris. His description applies nearly 
equally well to any species of that beautiful genus. His figure, 
perhaps, is open to slight criticism . the pistil is too erect ami the 
stigma, therefore, too high above ^r-*i 

the sepal to illustrate its function 

to the best advantage. The posi- '¥// r'^Uut 

tion given is sometimes observed 
after the pistil is fertilized, but before \\ W' 

that the pistil turns down so clos_ 
to the sepal that a large bee in wy vfnl% 

entering must touch the stigma YV/t 

with his back, which has been pow- 
dered with pollen while working 
in some previously visited flower 
(Fig. 1). Not stopping, how- 
ever, to repeat what has been so 
well stated before, I would simply FlG ,._ Asecuot 
call attention to one point which I I$ is flower, a, stigr 
think is worthy of mention, viz: the plush -like " 1 



•v rlozi'crs. 



sepal. Is it not well adapted for tripping the smaller insects, or 
raising them, so that they shall hit the stamen and stigma, forcing 



them by increased act 
pensate for lack of s 
Iris we have the m; 
many other flowers. 
Strangely e 



foal 



»r by their walking on its top, to con 
In this arrangement of parts in tl 
plan which is traceable 



irregular monopetalons corollas seem to 
copy this regular polypetalous one 
in its method of cross-fertiliza- 
tion. This is especially true of 
Mart y iiia proboscidea Glox., the 
unicorn plant. The general form 
and structure of the flower is 
shown in the figures. The 
lower petal forms a broad plat- 
form upon which the bee 
alights. As it enters the tube 
(which I believe is broader be- 
fore fertilization, the roof rising 
Fig.. 2.— Side view of Martynia pro- as the corolla fades), it first 
iaura size.j brushes the lower lip of the 

stigma, Fig. 3 a, then while getting the nectar at the bottom of 
the tube its back is dusted by the anthers. As it withdraws, the 
flexible lobe of the pistil, like a valve, allows the pollen to pass 
vithout touching the stigma, 





bolddea'^^Z- tlle UPPCr l0bC 



toward 
apidly that 
motion was very perceptible. 
In the Penstemons (my obser- 
species, P.jglauciis [?] Grah. 1 ), we 

ast June on a species occurring abundantly in 
lot familiar to me : I made a hasty sketch of 



1 879.] 

have another slight variation of the plan. The corolla tube is 
broad and large. On the upper side are the four anthers in two 
pairs, and above them, or back of them, the pistil with undivided 
stigma. Before the anthers discharge their pollen the style is 
straight lying close to the upper side of the tube. While the 
pollen ripens and is dis- 

charging, the style elon- /Ml 

gates, and its end, after 
passing the longer 



n^I 



downward. This position *^ L_=S; 
is not usually 
the pollen is 

from the flower. This Fig. 4. _ Penstemon glaums (/). Side view, 
arrangement brings the ( Natural S17e ) "~ 

stigma right in the way of any insect entering the flower, and 

. scrapes from it the pollen it 

may have received from 

some neighboring flower in 

T^T**^ which the stamens are dis- 

- „ charging pollen. 



;x 




The following table, showing relative development of pistil and 
tamens in P. glaums, gives full authority for the above state- 



egretted that the degree of < 
i carefully noted; it may b< 



4 Cross-Fertilization in Flowers. [January, 

generally it was considerably less when the pollen was partially 
discharged, than when it was entirely discharged. 

We see very clearly, therefore, how the later development of 
the pistil with the curving of the style in this case accomplishes 
the same end as the flexible bi-lobed stigma placed in front of the 
stamens, as in the Martynia. 

It is very interesting to find in the lower side of the tube, in 
the Penstemon, the fifth stamen, which is sterile and bristling 
with hairs, serving the same purpose, apparently, as the crested 
sepal in the Iris. 

In the Gladiolus a relation of pistil to stamens is found similar 
to that in the Penstemon, while in several of the Labiates we find 
both the valve-like arrangement of the stigma and the later 
lengthening and bending of the style. 

In Lobelia syphilitica L., as probably in all the Lobelias, we find 
a very different arrangement, but accomplishing the same result, 
viz : cross-fertilization of the plant. 

The corolla is monopetalous and two-lipped, the lower lip con- 
sLsLng of three petals and the upper of two. Between the latter 
is a slit extending to the base of the tube. The five stamens are 
free from the corolla and united, their anthers and upper parts of 
the filaments forming a tube; or it may be said, the anthers com- 



1 A 



j=-y- 



mon cell for the pol- 
len, which opens by a 
pore at its apex. On 
the lower margin of 
the pore are many 
short stiff hairs, which 
at first project across 

Fig. 7 -Lobelia syphilitica L., bllt when the P° llen is 

^^^ in the staminate stage. ripe they turn abruptly 

sU j ; '• !n '" t downwards and leave 

enlarged:/; it open. There is only 

armed near the end of 
the style with a collar of short stiff hairs, similar in size and 
character to those on the anthers just mentioned. The end of the 
style with its hairs forms the bottom of the pollen-cell before 



1 879.] Cross-Fertilization in Flowers. 5 

described. We have, therefore, the stigma shut up with the pol- 
len in the same cell. " A capital arrangement for .sr^"- fertiliza- 
tion," one says. Nay, not too fast! The stigma is composed of 
two fleshy lobes, its receiving surface being on their inner surface. 
And they are closed firmly together, so that the end of the pistil 
looks like a closed mouth with its lips firmly pressed together. 
With its bristly collar it reminds one of Jack-in-a-box, with an 
unusually "stiff upper lip." 

This combined pistil and stamens is S-shaped, and when the 
flower opens, it springs through the slit on the upper side of the 
corolh and stands with the tip of the pollen-cell just behind the 
upper lip of the corolla, vide Fig. 7 a. The front view of the 
same is given in Fig. 7 b. Sometimes there is no trace of the 
stamens seen from the front ; but if an insect tries to enter, the 
slit between the petals opens, the hairs of the anthers strike his 
back, and as he forces his way in, they 
produce a jarring of the pollen-cell which 
freely sprinkles the pollen upon him. 

As the pollen escapes it is kept up to 
the pore by the pressure caused by the 
gradual lengthening of the style. The 
hairy collar acting like a swab, sweeps the 
cell clean. When all the pollen is gone, 
the style, continuing its growth, pushes the 
stigma through the pore and forward 
through between the upper petals. The 
end of the style then comes downward, 
the lips of the stigma open and roll back ica in the pistillate ; 

as though turning inside OUt. This ex- ^ Sn"Tv! anlhe'ri'ami 

poses the whole surface of the stigma to be stigma, enlarged. 
covered with pollen from the back of the first insect which comes 
from a flower discharging pollen. So the cross-fertilization is 
beautifully accomplished. 

These entertaining structures present some very suggestive 
ideas. We are impressed with the importance of cross-fertiliza- 
tion in the economy of nature, but why it should be of any 
advantage who can tell ? We readily see that in several of these 
cases cross-fertilization between flowers upon different roots is likely 
to be quite rare. In Martynia such fertilization may be quite 
frequent, as there are comparatively few flowers open at once, but 







; a 


'.rioiis Aboriginal Customs. 




[January, 


n Gladiolus, Pcnstenic 


m, Labiatce, etc., there ar 




ny flowers on 


he same root at the s 


ame time, presenting th< 


; var 


ious stages of 


idvancement. The chances are strongly in 


favor 


, therefore, of 


heir being fertilized by pollen from flowers or 


the ; 


same root. In 


he Iris, notwithstand: 


ing its elaborate structui 


e to 


secure cross- 


ertilization, it is quite 


: probable that a particul; 


ir pistil will be fer- 


ilized by the pollen from a stigma of the sam 


e flower. 


While, therefore, w< 


2 may admit that these c< 




ances may be 



to render a little more frequent the transfer of pollen to ovules 
on different plants, yet it impresses the thought upon us that each 
flower (and in the Iris each third of what is commonly called a 
flower) is a distinct vegetable unit. Therefore separate plants, 
as they are commonly called, like their marine mimics, the Hy- 
droids, would be colonies, composed of hundreds or even thou- 
sands of phytons. 

One more lesson, which we find given in the following admira- 
ble words of Prof. Gray: 

" Now, no matter whether or not the flowers themselves, with all 
these structures, have been perfected step by step, through no 
matter how long a series of natural stages — if these structures 
and their operations, which so strike the mind of the philosopher 
no less than of the common observer, that he cannot avoid call- 
ing them contrivances, do not argue intention, what stronger 
evidence of intention in nature can there anywhere possibly be ? 
If they do, such evidences are countless, and almost every blos- 
som brings distinct testimony to the existence and providence of 
a Designer and Ordainer, without whom, we may well believe, 
not merely a sparrow, not even a grain of pollen may fall." 



CURIOUS ABORIGINAL CUSTOMS. 

ONE of the most singular and wide-spread customs practiced 
by the aborigines of North America, was that of cutting off 
the nose of the woman found guilty of adultery. In a previous 
article in the Naturalist, 1 several tribes were referred to as hav- 
ing practiced this mode of mutilation — one or two of them to 
within recent times. Since the publication of that paper, I have 
met with various references upon the same subject, which may- 
be of sufficient interest to enumerate. The earliest notice of the 



1 879.] Curious Aboriginal Customs. 7 

execution of this punishment dates back to the year 1660, when 
the Jesuit Fathers first penetrated the then extreme North-west. 
The informant says, in a letter to Father Claude Boucher, 1 that 
the Nadouechiouec (Dakotas) cut off the cartilaginous portion of 
the nose of an adulteress. John Payne, 2 in quoting Carver, states 
that, "Among this nation of Indians (Nawdowessies, i. e., Dako- 
tas), if a married woman is found to have been false to wedlock, 
the punishment inflicted upon her is for the husband to bite off 
her nose ; this our author saw inflicted whilst he was in the 

I had received information to this effect in 1872-73, while I 
was stationed on the Upper Missouri, but coming as it did from 
unreliable sources, I gave no credence to the stories of bygone 
punishments, as I had not seen any references to this practice 
among any tribes north of Arizona. Now, however, I am in- 
clined to believe that there was some truth in the assertions above 
referred to. Several days ago, in conversation with several 
gentlemen upon aboriginal customs and manners, I chanced to 
mention this form of punishment, when one of them (a promi- 
nent official of the B. & O. R. R. Co.) remarked that he had seen 
squaws among the Utes, near Ft. Bridger, thus mutilated, and 
was told at the time, less than two years ago, that they had been 
punished for infidelity. No doubt others scattered over the extreme 
western portion of the continent practiced the same cruel custom 

This extended throughout some of the tribes formerly inhabit- 
ing the country between the Mississippi -and the Atlantic. Caleb 
Swan, writing about 179 1, says, 3 that prostitution was common 
among the Creeks, and scarcely any attention was paid to it, as 
far as any punishment was concerned. But, when a marriage 
has been contracted according to the more ancient and serious 
custom of the tribe, it is considered more binding than ordinary, 
and in violation of this law, or in taking the least freedom with 
any other person, is considered adultery, " and invariably pun- 
ished by the relations of the offended party, by whipping, and 
cutting off the hair and ears close to the head." In this case the 
ears are named only, but very probably the nose was included in 

iMargry, Jesuit Rel. i, 1S76, p. 53 et seq. [Extrait de la Relation de la Nouvelle- 
France, de 1660, addressee au Reverend Pere Claude Boucher.] 
-Universal Geography, iv., 1799, p. 42. 



8 Curious Aboriginal Customs. [January, 

some instances, as the latter was the organ chosen by tribes living 
near the border of the territory occupied by the Creeks. As 
before stated in the Naturalist (Vol. xii, p. 561), Gregg 1 says of 
the Comanches that the " punishment is most usually to cut off 
the nose or ears, or both." The same author also says that the 
Creeks practiced the same custom 2 (having reference to the pre- 
ceding). 

Bancroft 3 , in quoting Las Casas, says that in Itztepec (Mexico) 
" the guilty woman's husband cut off her ears and nose." The 
punishment among the Meztecs was sometimes commuted to 
mutilation of the ears, nose and lips. 4 

John Johnson, 5 referring to the Indian tribes inhabiting Ohio, 
says, " Adultery is punished by the family and tribe of the hus- 
band. They collect, consult and decree. If they determine to 
punish the offenders, they usually divide and proceed to appre- 
hend them, one-half going to the house of the woman, and the 
other half to the family house of the man, or they go together, 
as they have decreed. They apprehend them, beat them severely 
with sticks, cut off their noses, and sometimes crop them, and 
cut off the hair of the woman which they carry home in triumph. 
If both parties escape, and those in pursuit return home and lay- 
down their weapons, the crime is satisfied; if they apprehend but 
one of the offenders, and the other escape, they take satisfaction 
from the nearest of kin." 

In this paper of Johnson's (who by the way was considered 
good authority) are enumerated the following tribes, viz: " Wy- 
andots, Shawanoese, Senecas, Ottawas, Delawares, Miamies, 
Putawatimies and the Weas." It is questionable whether the 
Senecas, who were of the Six Nations, ever practiced this cus- 
tom, as at no other time have I met with the names of any of the 
latter in this connection. 

As before stated, the custom of cutting off both the ears and 
nose extended down into Central America, and Cesar de Roche- 
fort, 6 in speaking of the Caribs, refers to this custom as practiced 



1 879.] Notes on a Lost Race of America. 9 

by the Bengalese, but makes no mention of it in reference to the 
Caribs. It would appear that some similarity existed, or he 
would not have been prompted to make reference to such an odd 
custom practiced near the opposite side of the globe. The 
Egyptians 1 cut off the nose of the guilty woman, and the man 
was beaten with rods ; this is again, and very remarkably too, 
noticed in the punishment of the Nicaraguans. 

The above references have been collated with the intention of 
illustrating the wide-spread prevalence of this singular and bar- 
barous custom, and for the purpose of inducing the publication 
from others upon the same subject, for the purpose of a 
to what tribes and families the knowledge of it extended. 



A LOST RACE OF AMERICA. 



NO department of natural history appears at present to attract 
more general interest than that which relates to the pre- 
historic Aborigines of North America; nor is this to be won- 
dered at, for throughout the extensive valley of the Mississippi, 
and also in the Gulf States, we find numerous mounds and re- 
mains of ancient fortifications; they have, however, been so ably 
described in the different scientific journals, that we shall confine 
the subject of this essay to those of Western Florida, which are 
not so generally known. 

Of these ancient people no written history remains, nor can 
any reliable account be obtained from the Indians inhabiting the 
States, or from the earliest Spanish explorers. The Spaniards 
are silent upon the shell mounds of Florida, although they visited 
Tampa in 15 12. We know only of the existence of these 
mounds, and of the arts, industries and manner of interment of 
the people who made them, and from these we can only add 
a link to the chain of evidence that connects the eastern mounds 
of Florida with those of the western coast. 

The only group at Tampa, Fla., of importance to the archaeolo- 
gist, is a series of shell mounds running obliquely across the 
town, commencing on the southern seashore, on the military 
reservation of Fort Brooke, and extending to the Hillsboro 



io Notes on a Lost Race of America. [January, 

river. During the Florida war this series was complete, but at 
present it consists only of a large mound on the military reserva- 
tion. The, second, which was located immediately outside of the 
reservation, has been destroyed with the third mound situated 
near the site of the present town market. At the foot of the last 
mound in the clay banks of a small stream which flows into the 
river we find chippings of flint implements. 

The only remaining representative of the ancient series of 
mounds is conical in form, being about fifteen feet in height, with 
a diameter at its base of about fifty feet. By digging into this 
mound, commencing at its apex, we found that its surface con- 
sisted of drifted sand, about five feet in depth ; immediately 
beneath this we uncovered a layer of shells made up of the edible 
species of our southern coast, and generally composed of old 
valves of Ostn t < ^i> via, although among the shells there are 
a few fossil species which are common to our tertiary marls. 

Immediately beneath the shells, in a white sand which forms 
the principal material of the mound, we uncovered a male skele- 
ton, which was interred at an angle so that the head laid toward 
the east and south. It is remarkable that in the vicinity of the 
body we were unable to discover implements or ornaments. Con- 
tinuing our excavations on the same level in a southerly direction, 
we found the remains of a second body, consisting of the pelvic 
bone of a female, and other parts with the exception of the 
skull. 

It is worthy of remark that the sandy structure of this series 
of mounds corresponds with that of the sand dunes of our pres- 
ent sea coast which, in connection with the well-known geological 
fact of the former elevations and depressions of the Atlantic 
coast, would give a reasonable explanation for the phenomena 
observed in the study of the Tampa mounds. The recent eleva- 
tion of the shore around Tampa is evident from the fact that 
immediately in the rear of the Fort Brooke mound we found a 
ridge parallel with the present southern shore line; it is composed 
of wave-broken shells, and probably formed the ancient shore 
line during the occupation of the mound, and has since been 
raised, although previous to its existence the whole shore line had 
a series of elevations and depressions, a fact which becomes self 
evident from an observation of the country directly in rear of the 
town of Tampa. 



1 879.] Notes on a Lost Race of America. 1 1 

We would suggest the theory that these mounds were formed 
in the same way as^our present sand hills along the Atlantic 
coast, and that in their sheltered position in Tampa bay, their 
form was preserved during the series of depressions of the coast 
by the shelly deposits made upon them by their inhabitants. 

In digging into the sides of the Fort Brooke mound, we dis- 
covered the position of the original fire places, and in their ashes 
we found that the largest proportion of animal remains consisted 
of those of mankind. The longer bones, and especially the flat- 
tened tibiae were charred and split ; these were intermixed with 
those of the dog, deer and also burned oyster shells and portions 
of the common edible sea crab. 

These incremations of human remains by the mound-builders, 
were evidently for the purpose of preparing food ; at least we 
would so judge from the fact that the marrow bones are charred 
and split. We have then here the kitchen of a race of cannibals. 

The pottery of the mound found near the former fire-places 
and also the implements, are very primitive ; the latter consist of 
arrow heads, and in the former, which is generally plain in style, 
although now and then a few pieces of an ornamented pottery 
marked with chevron lines are found, the typical forms of the 
eastern mound group of Florida generally prevails. 

The Cedar Key group of Florida is not contemporary with 
the shell mounds of Tampa, at least we would so judge after our 
investigations of that group with our friend Mr. Calkins, of Chi- 
cago. The pottery of the Cedar Key group is certainly much 
more ornamented than the former ; this taken in connection with 
the number of implements found in these mounds by Mr. Calkins 
would certainly show a higher degree of advancement. 

The habits, ceremonies and manner of interment of this lost 
race are parallel with those of the ancient Danes. These people 
constructed artificial hills for the sepulchre of their kings. 1 The 
cannibalistic habits are similar to those of the Troglodytes found 
in the caverns of Mount Chauvaux in the province of Namur, 
Belgium. 



The Gemmule vs. the Plastidule as the [January 



BY JOHN A. RYDER. 

AS is well known to every well informed person, protoplasm is 
now regarded as the substance which enters universally and 
constantly into the composition of the living form-elements or 
cells of all living things. It is, therefore, the material basis of 
life. All the varieties of organic structure, no matter how differ- 
ent from each other, have been primarily differentiated from 
apparently homogeneous protoplasm. Premising, therefore, that 
we understand that all histological differences presented by the 
tissues of living organisms arise by differentiations of, or secre- 
tions, derivatives of plastids (cells) primitively alike, we are ready 
to consider the theories advanced to account for the phenomenon 
of hereditary transmission. Transmission or heredity may be 
defined as that inherent tendency acquired from ancestry and 
manifested by developing or growing organisms to become essen- 
tially like, in appearance and structure, their immediate ancestor 
or ancestors, if the parentage be a sexual one. The appearance 
of a characteristic belonging to a remote ancestor in a new organ- 
ism, which characteristic did not belong to its immediate ancestor, 
is said to be a case of reversion or atavism. This is explained 
upon the assumption — a rational one — that in the germinal matter, 
that is, a plastid, or an egg-cell or a sperm-cell or cells, if reproduc- 
tion be sexual, derived from the immediate ancestor, may still 
inhere a tendency to develop characteristics belonging to the 
most remote of, an indefinite number of removes back, from such 
immediate ancestor. The tendency to develop such pala^onto- 
logical characters is supposed to remain in a latent or potential 
state in all those generations intermediate between the ancestor 
in which this characteristic was present and the young organism 
in which it has again made its appearance. In this way gradually 
but continuously, and adaptively acquired characteristics arc trans- 
mitted, as well as habits. It may be that profound and enduring 
sensory impressions upon the maternal organism in higher forms, 
by their persistence, may produce immediate effects upon the 
offspring which cannot be attributed to ancestry. The many 

1 Embracing the substance of an essay read before the Microscopical and liiologi- 



1 879-] Ultimate Physical Unit ot Living Matter. 13 

an family of the effect of the 
aid justify such an inference. 
The phenomena of development presented by the embryologi- 
cal history of an organism, are serially or successively related to 
series of ancestral forms in a way which shows that the most 
remote ancestor was indubitably unicellular, for all beings com- 
mence their embryonic history as a one-celled egg, or as an egg- 
cell fused with one or more unicellular spermatozooids. To this 
law no exception has ever been discovered. It passes at first by 
a process, then by processes, as complication is established by the 
former ; not by leaps, but from one stage to the next higher, and 
so on in an absolutely continuous manner, so that it is impossible 
to mark the transitions, so that absolute continuity becomes a 
fundamental characteristic of the process of development. 

It has also been noted that these successive stages, or a part of 
them, often represent, perhaps always within the limits of groups, 
a sort of recapitulation or successive shadowing forth, sometimes 
faintly, sometimes strongly, of the forms which appear to repre- 
sent the phases through which the organism has passed in attain- 
ing its present form and structure. The process of development 
accordingly shows in a pronounced, or may be dim way, the 
types which have successively formed the starting points of its 
development in past time. A phylum or branch from the tree of 
life or chain of ancestors, is thus represented in its embryonic 
history. The being, in its evolution from the ovum, accordingly 
recapitulates the forms of its successively more and more com- 
plex, or more and more modified ancestral scries— -its palaeon- 
tological history preserved in the rocks together with more or 
less note of its living cotemporary allies. The fossil forms of 
successive formations are frequently found to bear such a rela- 
tion to the developing embryo. The rock record linked with the 
now living one is said to be the phyi .,. tetu history, that is. it 
unfolds the history of the phyla, or branches of the tree of life. 
The history of the being or ontological history, therefore, becomes 
a more or less distinct record of the phylogenetic. In a word, 
Ontogeny, or the development of individual beings, is an epitome 
of the Phylogeny or phylogenesis of the race to which they 

This doctrine and its modifications is the motive force of 
modern Biology. Upon this ground, Laplace, Lamarck, Wolff, 



14 The Gemmuh rs. the Plastninle as the [January, 

Von Baer, Darwin, Spencer and Haeckel have given to the science 
new impulses and aims far higher than possessed its masters in 
its infancy. 

Dr. Darwin, in order to account for the phenomena briefly set 
forth in the above remarks, had recourse to what he called the 
" Provisional Hypothesis of Pangenesis!' The following is Mr. 
Galton's brief statement of the hypothesis : 

i. Each of the myriad cells in every living body is, to a great 
extent, an independent organism. 

2. Before the cell is developed, and in all stages of its develop- 
ment, it throws " gemmules " into the circulation, which live there 
and breed, each truly to its kind, by the process of self-division, 
and that consequently they swarm in the blood in large numbers 
of each variety, and circulate freely in it. 

3. The sexual elements consist of organized groups of these 

4. The development of certain of the gemmules in the off- 
spring depends upon their consecutive union through their natural 
affinities, each attaching itself to its predecessor in a natural order 
of growth. 

5. That gemmules of innumerable varieties maybe transmitted 
[lumber of generations without being developed 



Galton, in order to test the truth of the foregoing hypothesis, 
transferred the blood of different breeds of rabbits from one to 
the other, actually establishing a cross-circulation, in which cases 
the blood flowing from one individual to another was practically 
unchanged. After this operation upon the animals, the young 
ones reared by these were not found to have been influenced in 
the slightest degree by the admixture of foreign blood with that 
already contained in the vessels of their parents, which should 
not have been the result were the hypothesis of pangenesis a true 
one. Pangenesis having been subjected to a crucial test and found 
wanting, nothing was offered, as an avowed substitute, until 
Haeckel proposed his Provisional hypothesis of the Peregenesis of 
the Plastidule, except by Prof. Cope, who, in his " Origin of 
Genera" (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1868), and afterwards in a 
paper entitled " On the Methods of Creation of Organic Types " 
(Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 187 1) more fully developed the views 
presented in the first mentioned. His views will be considered 
after 11 1 - .. ive been discussed. 



1 879.] Ultimate Physical Unit of Living Mailer. 15 

The plastidnle of Haeckel is hypothetically the molecule of 
protoplasm, and therefore the simplest possible form in which 
protoplasm can exist as protoplasm. The theoretically high 
degree of complexity of the molecule of protoplasm renders it in 
the highest degree susceptible to influences brought to bear upon 
it by its environment. Primarily its atomic constitution C H O N, 
must be related in some way to its properties. 

Haeckel attributes to every existing atom a modicum of force 
or energy as eternal and quantitatively unchangeable as the atom 
itself, which he calls the atom-soul ; by aggregation of the atoms 
into chemical compounds, the mode and nature of the manifes- 
tation of individual atomic energies become mutually modified, 
and as resultants we have different properties and behavior mani- 
fested by such different compounds. By a long process of differ- 
entiation a compound was finally evolved answering in composi- 
tion and properties approximately, or entirely, to existing proto- 
plasm. This highly unstable matter, representing the aggregate 
or resultant of the energies of its component atoms as the energy 
of living matter, became the ancestor of some primordial amor- 
phous being out of which, by adaptation and "survival of the 
fittest" the ancestors of the Protista became differentiated. On 
the principle that motion or impulses once imparted to bodies 
tend to be perpetuated in the absence of other interfering causes, 
the energy of movement, called life, once set going tended to be 
kept up, and in order that it could withstand the interference of a 
great variety af disturbing causes, it gradually acquired the power 
of adaptation. This adaptation being simply vibration of its 
molecules in unison with outer conditions as a resultant of those 
conditions. From the well known postulates in regard to the 
persistence of matter and motion, it is clear that the molecules of 
different masses, subjected to differing conditions, would grad- 
ually acquire different modes of molecular motion, which would 
tend to be persistent and perhaps approximately alike throughout 
the same mass. Any part of this mass broken off would tend to 
retain the molecular movements and consequently the properties 
of that of which it at first formed a part, but the new conditions 
to which it might become subject in the event of separation, ren- 
der it probable that these motions might have others superadded, 
or the old ones so changed as to give rise to different phenomena. 
Different food, temperature, surrounding, media, etc., are thinkable 



1 6 The Gemmule vs. the Plastidule as the [January, 

as immediately active causes in the differentiation of the modes 
of molecular activity. Accordingly by the persistence of the 
type of molecular motion or motion of the plastidule, its charac- 
teristics tend to be exactly reproduced where reproduction is a 
process of mere division, as in the Protista. On the other hand, 
the motion of plastidule tends to vary as the surrounding condi- 
tions vary. Hence the difference in individuals arising from this 
adaptive power of the plastidule to accommodate its motions to 
the environment. Where the process of reproduction is sexual 
the fusion or blending of the products of the sex-glands to form 
embryos, there results a blending of the plastidular motion of the 
two. The characteristics of the resulting being is hence a result- 
ant of two molecular modes of motion in the same way as the 
diagonal of a parallelogram of forces is the resultant of two more 
or less antagonistic forces. Putting this and that together, it is 
clear in what manner the characteristics of the offspring of sexual 
unions may come to preponderate in favor of the one or the other 
parent as the plastidular-molecular motion of the germ elements 
preponderates over that of the sperm element, and vice versa, 
thus mutually modifying each other in order to produce a result- 
ant. It is also conceivable that the plastidular motions of remote 
ancestors as well as of approximal ones, tending to be persistent, 
may suddenly re-appear under favorable conditions, and that in 
this way there may arise a tendency to revert to such ancient 
progenitor. This hypothesis, if extended so as to conceive 
of the molecular vibrations of different stages of develop- 
ment as composing parts of a great molecular rhythm 
coeval with the first appearance of life on the e.irth, also 
explains the phenomenon of the recapitulation of Phytogeny and 

in the order in which they succeeded each other in time. The 
registry or repetition in ontogeny being not always exact, it may 
be assumed that in the process of differentiation some of the types 
of vibration were in these instances irrecoverably lost. 

Stated thus briefly, it seems to me unnecessary to enter into the 
account of the hypothesis of perigenesis further than to impress upon 
the mind of the reader that the vibrations of the plastidules are 
adaptive in character, that is, they are the resultants of outward con- 
ditions, represented hypothetically by X or any other unknown 
static or dynamic quantity. The theory is therefore purely me- 



1 879.] Ultimate Physical Unit of Living Matter. 1 7 

chanical and causal, and hence the word pangenesis — generated by 
surroundings. It seems to me that some form of hypothesis 
similar to this will be adopted unless the current views in regard 
to the physical constitution of matter undergo very great changes. 
It may be, if reports be true, that the so-called elements are not 
elementary, as Mr. Lockyer has been led to suspect from his 
spectroscopic researches, but even this will not destroy the essen- 
tial elements of the problem, which are undoubtedly to be ex- 
pressed in terms of matter and force without respect to what the 
nature of that matter may be. 

Prof. Cope (I. c.) after discussing at length the evidence in 
favor of the correlation of life forces with the other physical forces 
and its conservation, goes on to particularize as follows : " Dr. 
Carpenter, in describing the correlation of physical and vital 
forces, defines the difference of organic species to be similar to 
that prevailing between different chemical bodies (the latter de- 
pending on different molecular and atomic constitution), which 
leads them 'to behave differently' from each other under similar 
circumstances. This may be more fully expressed by saying that 
different species possess different capacities for the location of the 
conversion of the physical forces into growth force." On this 
basis, "A 'descent with modifications' contemplated by evolution 
signifies a progressive change in this capacity." Applied to the 
explanation of his law of Acceleration and Retardation, he says: 
"Acceleration means an increase in this capacity; retardation a 
diminution of it." In other words, the undulations or vibrations 
of the molecules of different organisms and different parts of 
organisms differ in character, which is essentially the doctrine of 
Haeckel. He also speaks of growth force [energy] as cumu- 
latively potential (p. 26). Its degree of potentiality he considers 
as marking the degree or grade of grade influence as manifested 
by successive higher forms. Grade influence is supposed to be 
the resultant of" effort and use " in the process, so that the static 
or dynamic environment and the organism are considered to be 
in a relation of retroactivity — in a state of interaction. At page 
29, " Method of Creation," On the transmission of Grade Influence, 
the author admits : " How force potential in nerve structure is in- 
herited through the reproductive elements is a great mystery," 
but he observes further: "In the spermatozooids * * * growth 
force [energy] remains potential," that is, in a static condition, 



1 8 The Gemmule vs. the Plastidule as the [January, 

ready to be set free in the dynamic process of fertilization of the 
ovum, and of embryonic development. " Growth force potential 
in the spermatozoid, on its destruction [fusion with the egg] be- 
comes converted into heat or other force. Thus may originate 
the growth force of the ovum, which, once commenced, is con- 
tinued thro lgh the period of growth." It seems to me probable 
that the process of repetition is simply a phase of the manifestation 
of growth force as in the asexual fusion of growing cells, forma- 
tion of spores in low plants and navicellae cysts in Gregarince. It 
seems to me probable, also, that the cleavage of the yelk of the 
ovum supervenes just as soon as the static condition of its mole- 
cules is interfered with by blending with the spermatozooid whose 
molecules are in a dynamical or potential condition as aforesaid. 
It is clear that if this is true, we get a composite result or resultant. 
In point of fact, this is tacitly implied where Prof. Cope says in 
continuation : " The process might be compared to the application 
of fire to a piece of wood. The force conversion is communicated 
to other material than that first inflamed." That is, the molecular 
movements of the embryonic mass, viz., sperm and germ, tends 
to be assumed by all the material which it appropriates to itself; 
this may be extended to the process of digestion or appropria- 
tion of protoplasm in animals and to the formation of protoplasm 
by plants when in growing conditions from binary and ternary 
compounds It is also clear that the quantitatively indefinite 
element x of the modifying environment of the plastidule is ad- 
mittedly involved in consideration of the effect of use and effort, 
as held by this distinguished biologist, and that if use and effort 
are modifying causes, and molecular vibrations, whether they be 
in waves or ellipses or curves of any kind, will be influenced and 
accordingly modified. It must also necessarily be implied that 
these effects are persistent and that they involve the idea of 
Perigenesis quite as much as the plastidule. 

The totality of the phenomena of differentiation and rcdution 
{specialization, cephalization) in living forms, are, in view of the 
foregoing considerations, it seems to me, to be referred to dynami- 
cal causes. Laplace, from a mathematical standpoint, saw that 
this must be so. Lamarck, in his Philosophie Zoologique} in the 
chapter VII, torn I, pp. 218-26S, entitled, " The influence of cir- 
cumstances upon the actions of animals" has some observations 

iNouvelle Edition, torn. I and II, Baillere, Taris, 1830. 



1 879.] Ultima tit of Lit ing Matter. 19 

which show what a profound conception he possessed of the 
causal relations existing between the uses of parts and their de- 
velopment. Of recent authors, Darwin must occupy the first 
place, as many of his hosts of facts are admitted by him to bear a 
more or less distinctly dynamico-causal interpretation (vide, Varia- 
tion of Animals and Plants under Domestication). By far the most 
comprehensive principles of dynamical biology have, however, 
been suggested by Herbert Spencer, 1 and they must be regarded 
as the first attempts at scientific presentation of the subject, in 
which, although the factors of the problem were not stated quanti- 
tatively in most instances, yet enough was said to show the appli- 
cability of the quantitative method. Besides these authors, more 
recent writers have begun to pay attention to the subject. Prof. 
Owen has for many years avowed his leaning to Lamarckianism. 
Prof. Jager, 2 of Stuttgart, has written upon the influence of me- 
chanical strains in determining the length, etc., of bones. Prof. 
Lucae, of Frankfort, a. M., has also contributed to this subject. 
Gegenbaur, in his "Elements 0/ Comparative Anatomy," has nu- 
merous observations upon this subject. Prof. Cope may be added 
to this list, having contributed an article bearing solely upon this 
subject, to this journal, within the past year. This author, who, 
as we have seen, had already advanced views similar to Haeckel's, 
which, if not as clearly expressed, were nevertheless published 
more than five years previously. These names show that I have 
not been alone in the study of animal metamorphosis as produced 
by means of dynamical agencies. I have always held that both 
the organism by means of its voluntary acts and its passive sur- 
roundings reacted upon each other so as to produce morpho- 
logical and consequently structural changes. My short essay, 
" On the Laws of Digital Reduction," which appeared in this 
Journal (Oct., 1877), and which was republished in the Kosmos, 
for 1878, illustrates what I have just said. My papers on the 
"Mechanical Genesis of Tooth-forms" 3 also show the application 
of the method, besides minor papers on the mechanical differen- 
tiation of certain portions of the vertebral column, in this Journal 
and Popular Science Monthly, 1877. 

The logical consequences of the acceptance of the Hypothesis 



, and the Dental Cosmos, 187S (Etiologi- 



20 Absorption of Water by the Leaves of Plants. [January, 

of the Perigenesis of the plastidule, and with it the theory of 
dynamical differentiation — because the latter is no longer a 
hypothesis — forever relegates teleological doctrines to the cate- 
gory of extinct ideas. No matter how much our ideas may need 
to undergo modification, some similar hypothesis must eventually 
hold sway over the minds of biological thinkers, as the facts of 
science point in that direction and in no other. 

It has been suggested in conversation by my friend Dr. A. J. 
Parker, of this city, that the assumption of the plastidnle as the 
ultimate physical unit of living matter was unnecessary, as it con- 
sisted merely in naming the protoplasm molecule, and it must be 
admitted that this view of the case is not without reason. Prof. 
Haeckel, it is to be supposed, however, adopted this name merely 
to distinguish his own provisional hypothesis from that of his 
acknowledged master. The word plastidule is a diminutive of the 
current word plastid, which is synonymous with cell, and there- 
for, implies and correctly, too, that the plastids are aggregates of 
varying numbers of plastidules, which are for physical reasons the 
smallest possible or conceivable units of living matter, of which 
even the most minute gemma or budding cells are composed. 



ALTHOUGH gardeners universally maintain that growing 
plants have the power of absorbing water through their 
leaves, both in the liquid and the gaseous form, in addition to the 
power of suction through the root, yet the contrary theory has 
been in favor during recent years among vegetable physiologists. 
The first recorded experiment, of any value on the subject, was 
about the year 173 1 by Hales, as described in his " Vegetable 
Statistics;" the conclusion to which he came being that "it is 
very probable that rain and dew are imbibed by vegetables, espe- 
cially in dry seasons." This result was confirmed by Bonnet in 
1733. A century later, however, in 1857, Duchartre, experimenting 
on the absorptive power of plants, came, after considerable waver- 
ing, to the conclusion that rain and dew are not absorbed by the 
leaves of plants. This opinion has been, with but little exception, 
held by all physiologists during the last twenty years, notably by 



1 879-1 Absorption of Water by the Leaves of Plants. 21 

DeCandolle and Sachs ; the explanation offered of the fact that 
withered plants revive when placed in moist air or when the 
leaves are moistened, being that transpiration is thus stopped, or 
is more than counterbalanced by the root-absorption. In his 
"Text-book of Botany" (English edition, p. 613) Sachs says: 
" When land plants wither on a hot day and revive again in the 
evening, this is the result of diminished transpiration with the 
decrease of temperature and increase of the moisture in the air 
in the evening, the activity of the roots continuing; not of any 
absorption of aqueous vapor or dew through the leaves. Rain 
again revives withered plants, not by penetrating the leaves, but 
by moistening them and thus hindering further transpiration, and 
conveying water to the roots, which they then conduct to the 
leaves." McNab has, however, proved that leaves do transpire, 
even in a moist atmosphere, provided they are exposed to the 
action of light. The result of recent experiments, conducted by 
Boussingault in France, and by the Rev. George Henslow, in 
England, seem to force us to return to the earlier theory held 
before the time of Duchartre. 

Boussingault's experiments relate not only to the absorption of 
water by leaves, but also to transpiration under various atmos- 
pheric conditions. The first experiments were as to the amount 
of transpiration from the Jerusalem artichoke in sunshine, in 
shade and by night. This he found to be hourly, for every 
square metre of foliage, sixty-five grammes in sunshine, eight 
grammes in the shade, and three grammes during the night. In 
the vine the corresponding numbers were thirty-five grammes in 
sunshine, eleven grammes in shade, 0.5 grammes by night. lie 
reckoned that an acre of beet could give off, in the course of 
twenty-four hours, the enormous amount of between 8000 and 
9000 kilogrammes of water, and a chestnut tree, thirty-five years 
old, sixty litres of water in the same time. The next question 
investigated was whether the absorption of water by plants, and 
the ascent of the sap, are due to the force resulting from transpi- 
ration on the surface of the leaves, or whether the roots exercise 
also a certain amount of force to this end. In the case of mint, 
a plant with roots, showed an hourly evaporation per square 
metre of eighty-two grammes in the sunshine, and thirty-six 
grammes in the shade ; without roots the evaporation was six- 
teen grammes in sunshine, fifteen grammes in shade. The effects 



22 Absorption of Water by the Leaves of Plants. [January. 

of pressure on the absorption were next examined. A chestnut 
branch dipped in water was found to transpire hourly sixteen 
grammes per square metre; when inserted into a tube of water and 
subjected to the pressure of a column of water twoand a-half metres 
high, the evaporation amounted to fifty-five grammes per square 
metre per hour, and the branch, at the end of five hours, weighed 
more than at the commencement. As to the effect of the epi- 
dermis in restraining evaporation, he found that an apple deprived 
of its skin loses fifty-five times as much water in the same time 
as one with its skin entire ; while similar experiments in the case 
of a cactus leaf showed a difference in the proportion of fifteen 
to one. Losses by rapid evaporation lessen appreciably the phy- 
siological energy of leaves. Thus an oleander leaf containing 
sixty per cent, of water, when introduced into an atmosphere 
containing carbonic acid gas, decomposed sixteen c. cm. of' the 
gas ; one containing thirty-six per cent, of water decomposed 
eleven c. cm. ; while one containing twenty-nine per cent, of water 
was without action. As respects the relative power of evapora- 
tion possessed by the upper and under surfaces of leaves, he found 
the average proportien in a dozen different kinds to be as one in 
the former to 4.3 in the latter case. 

Boussingault then proceeded to investigate the question of the 
ability of leaves to replace the roots of a plant in serving as the 
agent of absorption. A forked branch of lilac was so placed that 
one portion was immersed in water in a reversed position, while 
the other was exposed to the atmosphere, the superficies of foliage 
in both portions being the same. The transpiration from the 
exposed portion was found to be the same as under normal cir- 
cumstances, and after the lapse of two weeks the foliage was as 
fresh as at the commencement, showing that the submerged leaves 
were fully able to replace the roots in supplying the shoot with 
moisture. A vine-shoot half plunged in water maintained a nor- 
mal evaporation in the free foliage, and remained fresh for over a 
month. An oleander shoot, under similar circumstances main- 
tained its normal appearance for four months. With the arti- 
choke it was found necessary that the amount of surface of leaves 
beneath the water should be four times that above it. A number 
of experiments, with regard to the power of leaves to absorb 
water in the state of vapor from a saturated atmosphere, showed 
that they could do this only when they had previously lost a por- 



1879-] Absorption of Water by the Leaves of Plants. 23 

tion of their water of constitution, i. e., that which is essential to 
their normal existence. Thus a wilted branch of periwinkle, 
weighing four grammes, after remaining for a day and a-half in 
an atmosphere saturated with aqueous vapor, weighed 4.2 grammes; 
after twelve hours immersion in water it weighed 9.4 grammes. 
His last experiments related to the power of leaves to absorb 
aqueous solutions. Drops of water containing 0.2 per cent, of 
calcium sulphate in solution were placed on the leaves of a great 
variety of plants under conditions favoring absorption, and pro- 
tected from evaporation by inverted watch glasses with greased 
edges. In most instances the drops were entirely absorbed, 
leaving no trace of the mineral matter. As in the case of pure 
water, the under surface of the leaf absorbed much more rapidly 
than the upper surface. Solutions of potassium sulphate and 
nitrate gave corresponding results; the absorption of solutions 

It is obvious that these results must considerably modify the view 
at present held by physiological botanists, th it the small quantity 
of ammonium carbonate contained in the air, which is believed to 
be the sole source of the nitrogen in the tissues and secretions of 
plants, can only be absorbed by the roots after having been 
brought down to the soil by rain. 

Mr. Henslow's experiments, as detailed in a paper read at a 
recent meeting of the Linnsean Society of London, are altogether 
in harmony with those of the French professor. The results of 
a very large number of experiments extending over several years, 
may be epitomized as follows : 

1. The absorption of water by intemodes. — The experiment con- 
sisted of wrapping up one or more internodes of herbaceous 
plants in saturated blotting-paper, and in noting the effects. As 
a rule the leaves on the shoots rapidly perished, showing that 

kept fresh for different periods up to six weeks. 

2. Absorption by leaves to see Juno far they could balance transpi- 
ration in others on the same shoot.— The general result is that as 
long as the leaves remain green and fresh in or on water, they act 
as absorbents; but that the leaves in air keep fresh or wither 
according as the supplv equals or falls short ol~ the demand. 

3. To test how far leaves on a shoot can nourish lower ones on the 
same. — It appears that it is quite immaterial to plants whether 
they be supplied with water lY. >m the absorbing leaves being above 
or below those transpiring. Water flows in either direction equally 
well. 



24 Absorption of Water by the Leaves of Plants. [January, 

4. Leaves floating on water. — It was found that one part of a 
leaf can nourish another part for various periods, though the 
edges out of water died first. 

5. Absorption of dew. — A long series of cut leaves and shoots 
were gathered at 4 p. m., then exposed to sun and wind for three 
hours, then carefully weighed and exposed all night to dew. At 
7.30 a. m., after having been dried, they were weighed again, and 
all had gained weight, and quite recovered their freshness, 
proving that slightly wetted detached portions do absorb dew. 

6. Imitation dew. — Like results followed from using the 
"spray," by which dew could be exactly imitated. 

7. Plants growing in pots, and of which the earth was not 
watered, were kept alive by the ends of one or more shoots being 
placed in water ; e.g., Mimulus vioschatus not only grew vigor- 
ously and developed auxiliary buds into shoots, but also blos- 

By these interesting experiments the physiological botanist is 
again placed in harmony with the gardener who syringes his 
plants not merely for the purpose of washing off dust and insects, 
but in order to facilitate the actual absorption of water by the sur- 
face ; and with the field botanist who sprinkles the plants in his 
vasculum with water to keep them fresh till he reaches home. 
Mr. Henslow concludes with the following hints as to preparing 
bouquets of cut flowers : 

If some plants have buds upon them, let the stalks long, and allow 
a few leaves to remain on and be also immersed in the water, and 
the buds will then be often found to expand successively. The cut 
end, to be more absorbent than it otherwise would be, should be 
again cut off under water. If the blossoms be on a ligneous stem, as 
of lilac, then the loss of water by evaporation is greater than the 
woody stalk can supply, so that in this case the addition of leaves 
in the water will greatly aid, and retain the bunch of flowers fresh 
for a longer time. On the other hand, if a blossom be already 
about to shed its petals, then the additional supply of water fur- 
nished by the leaves on the stalk appears to hasten the coming dis- 
solution, and the flower perishes rather sooner than it would other- 
wise do. The water must be changed every day, and the sub- 
merged leaves must be lightly wiped with a cloth, as by endos- 
motic action they soon become more or less coated with mucus. 
No leaves must be in water unless perfectly green and of vigorous 



1 879.] The Breeding Habits of the Eel. 25 

THE BREEDING HABITS OF THE EEL. 

BY A. S. PACKARD, JR. 

THERE is a considerable degree of mystery regarding the 
spawning time of the common eel (Anguilla bostoniensis), the 
place of spawning, and especially the differences between the 
male and female. The following facts appear to throw some light 
on the subject, and are published with the hope that it may stim- 
ulate others to observe with care and in detail all the facts 
regarding the spawning habits of a fish which is interesting as 
being the lowest bony fish, and is more and more used as an 
article of food, several eel-fishing establishments having been 
lately started in this country. 

So far as we are aware, the eggs of the American eel were first 
discovered by Mr. John Mooney, of Providence, R. I., in October, 
1877. Mr. Mooney is an intelligent mechanic and a close observer, 
but entirely self-taught. He carried the eggs to Prof. John Pierce, 
of Providence, who assures me they were veritable eggs, and 
measured one-hundredth of an inch in diameter. 

Late in December, 1877, Mr. Vinal Edwards sent eight eels to 
the Museum at Cambridge. These were examined by Mr. F. W. 
Putnam, who reported upon them to the Boston Society of Natu- 
ral History. 1 He states that during the month of December eels 
were brought into New Bedford " with eggs in various stages of 
development ; where they spawn is not yet known." The speci- 
mens examined by Mr. Putnam "had the ovaries in various 
stages of development. In two the ovaries were very small, and 
the eggs in them exceedingly minute. From these the series 
showed a gradual increase in the size of the ovaries and the con- 
tained eggs, to the specimen exhibited, in which the eggs were still 
so small as only to be seen by a lens of considerable magnifying 
power, and not yet ready to be excluded, though the ovaries 
themselves were large and full." 

During the month of November, 1878, I found several eels in 
spawn in the Providence market, and at my request, Mr. Mooney 
brought me two eels, one of which he pronounced to be a female 
and the other a male. The ovaries of the female were larger and 
fuller than in any other female I have examined, and the eggs 
riper. The eggs of this eel, which was about two feet in length 
judging by the portion secured from the fisherman by Mr. 



26 The Breeding Habits of the Eel. [January, 

Mooney, were distinguishable by the naked eye, were well filled 
with yolk cells, with a clear nucleus, and measured nearly two 
millimetres (1.90 inch) in diameter. The under side of the eel 
was tinged with golden-yellow. Mr. Mooney 's so-called male 
was darker, dull silvery beneath. A microscopic examination 
showed that the thin sexual gland was quite different in histologi- 
cal structure from that of the ovary, and the examination of sev- 
eral undoubted male eels, with active spermatozoa, showed that 
Mr. Mooney was right in his conjecture that his supposed male 
was really such. 

Fourteen eels were then obtained, from twelve to about sixteen 
inches in length, and ten of them were examined with a Tolles 
fifth and Hartnack immersion, No. 10. Several females were 
examined, and it was found that it was easy with the microscope 
to determine the sexes, from the different nature of the histologi- 
cal structure of the reproductive glands. The results of our 
examination are as follows : The males are abundant, and it 
seems probable that there is an equality in the number of indi- 
viduals of the sexes. When about a foot in length, namely, 
when the eels are about a year old, there are no external structural 
differences, but at this period the males contain sperm cysts, 
sperm cells and immature (?) spermatozoa. 

When the eels are from eighteen inches to two feet in length, 
in the autumn and early winter, the external sexual characters 
appear. This is confined to the style of coloration. No external 
structural characters could be detected, the form of the head, lips, 
body, fins and even the single genital pore being identical in the 
two sexes. In color the females are of a rich yellow on the 
under side, especially the long anal fin ; the median line is silvery, 
but on each side there is a pale yellowish line. In the males the 
yellowish tint is entirely wanting, except on the long anal fin, the 
belly is dull silvery, and pigment spots are numerous beneath the 

It is probable that the females are larger than the males, and 
when the ovaries are filled with ripe eggs, the body is a little 
more swollen than in the males. 

The testis, as well as the ovary, is in the eel attached by 
one edge to each side of the intestine, and hangs vertically 
down in the body cavity. There is no oviduct, but the eggs or 
spermatic particles, as the case may be, drop directly by dehis- 



1 879.] The Breeding Habits of the Eel. 27 

cence into the body cavity, and pass out through a funnel-shaped 
fold of the peritoneum by a single small pore or opening identi- 
cal in form and situation (just behind the anus) in each sex. 
There are not two openings, as has been stated by some authors. 
The testis does not differ in form and appearance from the ovary 
when the female is not in spawn, at least we could find no differ- 
ences except that it is rather thinner. Both the right testis and 
ovary extend, in individuals about seventeen inches long, from 
about an inch and a quarter behind the vent, to near the dia- 
phragm ; extending on the right side to half way between the 
anterior end of the gall bladder and the diaphragm, while both 
the left testis and ovary are shorter than the right, ending an inch 
behind the diaphragm. 

Microscopically examined the ovarian eggs lie in rows, with the 
stroma or tissue of fat cells between them. In the testis the sper- 
matozoa are developed in sperm cysts, or " mother cells," much 
smaller than the ovarian egg (one-sixth to one-fifth mm). The 
mother cells contain a nucleus about one-third the diameter of the 
mother cell ; in the nucleus is a dusky nucleolus about one-half 
the diameter of the nucleus. The sperm-cells are developed in the 
nucleus. They are nucleated, the nucleus large, and they (the 
sperm-cells) vary from i^w to ^Vr inch in diameter. The sper- 
matozoa themselves are very minute, from ZX shw to whins incn m 
diameter. They are active in their movements, the tail was indis- 
tinctly seen, but is present. It is doubtful in my mind whether a 
male eel when less than eighteen or twenty inches long, i. e'., when 
in its first year, is capable of fertilizing the eggs, as most of the 
spermatozoa noticed seemed not fully developed. In males twelve 
to fifteen inches long, i. e., about one year old, the number of 
spermatozoa was much less than in larger, older individuals. 

From information collected from persons living in Providence, 
it appears -that the eels begin to descend the rivers and brooks of 
Rhode Island and Connecticut at the first frosts, when fishermen 
begin to catch them in eel-pots. They are in spawn in October, 
November and December, and probably through the winter, and 
they probably spawn in shallow salt and brackish water in har- 
bors and at the mouth of estuaries and rivers, where it is well- 
known eels are speared in winter. That eels spawn in the autumn 
and early winter, and that the young soon hatch, seems proved 
by the fact that young eels from two to three inches long appear 



28 The Breeding Habits of the Eel. [January, 

in the spring, in April and May. I caught an eel at Providence, 
six inches long in October. It seems probable from this fact 
and the statements of others, 1 that by the last of summer and early 
part of autumn the eel hatched in late autumn or the winter at- 
tains a length of from six inches to a foot in length, and becomes 
from sixteen to twenty-four inches long the second year. It is 
well-known to all who have raised fish, or studied the embryology 
of animals, that individuals of the same brood may be accelerated 
or retarded in growth, so that eels a year old may vary greatly 

In conclusion, so far as our observations extend, our common 
American eel descends fresh water streams into the salt water of 
harbors and estuaries, while those habitually living in the sea 
spawn at the mouths of rivers and in shallow harbors in the 
autumn and early winter, if not through the winter ; the sexes 
only differ in color and in the histological structure of the repro- 
ductive glands, and do not breed until at least the second year. 
The eggs and spermatozoa are exceedingly minute, the former 
must be laid by millions ; the young are two or three inches long 
in the middle or last of the spring, and the eel grows about an inch 
a month until maturity. It is desirable that these facts and induc- 
tions should be proved or disproved, and that the entire history 
of the breeding habits of the eel, hitherto so obscure, should be 
cleared up. 

Since the preceding lines were written I have read Dr. Syrski's 
" lecture on the organs of reproduction and the fecundation of 
fishes and especially of eels" (1874), translated in the Report of 
the U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1873-4 and 
1874-5. The author gives an interesting review of the various 
and discordant opinions as to the breeding habits of the European 



1 Last 


June Mr. I 


K G. Colwell 


procure- f si. 


rveral 


thousa 




placed th 




I pond. They 






ches long at that time. Last 






rig in the mil 










inches ii 


1 length, sh„« 


ring that they 


had grown 


aboul 




ch per month since 
















the Shiawassee. -Quot 


cdjrom Fetitot, 


■ Indtpmdm 




higan, i 


n Forest and Stream, 


N ^Vo^ 


example, the i 


small eel abov 


e referred tc 


,. abot 




aches in length, col- 




















As regards the 










ldence,ii 


iforms me tha 


t eels sometimes feed on the eggs 


Of the 


king crab (Limulus), 




g under the Ir 


Ittet when spav 











'I he Breeding Habits of the Eel. 



eel 


1. It 


appears that Carlo Mundini 


first 1 


liscovered the o^ 


/ary of 


th< 


;eel 


in May.i 777; this was cc 


.nfirme 


d by Rathke, w 


ho de- 


SCI 


ibed 


the eggs. Siebold (1863) 


states 


that eels may 


repro- 


du 


cc by 


parthenogenesis, or are hen 


naphrodite. In 1872 E 


rcolani 


cla 


ims t 


have found spermatozoa 


in eels 


;, but Syrski is positive 


th; 


it lie 


mistook them for " the molecular 


movement of th< 


; gran- 


ult 


3 fou 


nd so frequently in the ti 


ssues 


of the animal 


body." 


Whethe 


r Ercolani was right we hav 


e not . 


it present the m< 


;ans of 



ascertaining, but think it more probable he was right than his 
critic, Syrski. In the same year (1872), Crivelli and Maggi, of 
Pavia, claim to have discovered, and have figured the spermato- 
zoa. This memoir we have not yet seen. Syrski does not seem 
to endorse their statements. In 1874 Prof. Miinter stated that 
he found ovaries in about 3000 eels examined for that purpose, 
but he never found a male eel, i. e., a milter. He therefore admits 
that eels are reproduced by parthenogenesis, /. e., from non- 
fecundated eggs, and remarks, " In all probability the eggs are 
deposited at the bottom of the Baltic sea from the middle of 
March to the middle of April, and the young eels, one-half to 
two inches long, born from such eggs, migrate into fresh water 
about the beginning of May." 

Syrski then describes and figures the ovaries and " testes," as 
he regards them, of the eel. The " eggs " figured as such by him 
are certainly not such, but are the male sperm-cysts, .and he has 
thus entirely mistaken the sex of the eel. He does not figure 
or describe the true ovarian egg or the ripe eg-, which are, in the 
American eel at least, wholly different in their mode of develop- 
ment from Syrski's so-called eggs, and so different that we doubt 
not but that his females were really the males of the European 
species. He figures and describes a portion of what he regards 
as a testis, but gives no description of the mother-cells, sperm- 
cysts and spermatozoa ; of the latter he says nothing. It is evi- 
dent that this observer has been throughout mistaken, and has 
thrown little light on the subject. 

To be sure that I have not been over confident in regard to this 
matter, after reading Syrski's article I have dissected another living 
male, and found the mother-cells, sperm-cysts and the exceed- 
ingly minute, free-moving spermatozoa, which were more abun- 
dant than usual in small males. I also reexamined the ovary of 
a female not in spawn, and demonstrated them to Mr. J. S. Kings- 



30 Recent Literature. [January, 

ley, who adopted the view that the bodies he saw could not have 
been anything else than spermatozoa. My friend, Prof. John Pierce, 
an experienced microscopist, several times with me examined 
the free moving spermatozoa (we saw hundreds in active motion), 
and agrees with me that the bodies we repeatedly observed from 
different males could not have been organic particles vibrating 
through the Brownian motion. We both, without distinctly 
observing the tails, witnessed effects that must have resulted from 
a rapidly vibrating appendage or " tail." 



U the yellow bellied ones were females and the silver bellied ones wer 

ig the colors of the sexes may apply to what eels F examined from Provi 
iver, in the Wood's Holl specimen,, there was absolutely no colorations 
e between the sexes, and the difference in color is probably due to the cole 
iter, and especially the nature of the sea bottom, whether sandy or muddj 
lies from Wood's Holl were about ready to *pnwn, and the males contain© 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Saks' Molluscan Fauna of Arctic Norway. 1 — The connection 
between the northern faunae of East America and Europe is so 
close that monographic work of any kind done for one region, 
deserves and usually obtains the careful attention of students 
whose field of research is in the other ; and it is daily becoming 
more necessary as wider observation reveals with greater clear- 
ness the intimate relations which the two districts bear to one 
another. This is especially true of the marine animals, and 
therefore the appearance of Prof. Sars' important work on the 
Mollusca of Arctic Norway is an event of no little interest for the 
American student of northern invertebrates. The well known 
ability of the author as an observer, an investigator and an artis- 
tic delineator of the objects he describes, warrant us in expecting 
results, in the main, of the highest excellence. Yet candor com- 
pels us to admit that these expectations are only partly fulfilled. 

The work contains a short introduction followed by a descrip- 
tion of each species in zoological order, without synonymy or des- 

^Bidrag til hot, tabett cm A es arktii I m , f, M t a Regi m ArditS 



1S7S. Christiania, 1878. 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 31 

criptions of the genera, and with occasional but incomplete ref- 
erences to specific synonyms, followed by such remarks on each 
species as the wide experience gained by the author from eighteen 
years of stud)- lias suggested. The length of time over which 
the work has extended, has rendered a short supplement neces- 
sary to the main body of the book, which is followed by tables 
of geographical distribution and a discussion of the questions 
involved in this branch of the work, a full index, and the plates 
with their explanation. The text is in Norwegian and the 
descriptions of families and species in Latin. 

The plates are autotypic and contain an amount of work which 

of progress may be traced in them, a few of the earlier ones being 
slightly less artistic than the rest, and an occasional correction 
will suggest itself to the special student, but aside from these 
inconsiderable matters, it may well be doubted if the animals of 
any other fauna have ever been so thoroughly and effectively 
treated by the pencil of a competent draughtsman. They are 
simply invaluable to the student of Arctic and boreal Mollusca, 
not only for their delineation of species (often unfigured else- 
where), but for the thoroughness with which accessories, too often 
neglected, s,uch as dentition, opercula, anatomical details, etc., are 
represented whenever known. These plates alone would form for 
the author an enduring claim to the gratitude of his fellow natu- 

A serious drawback, however, to the fullest 



;efulness 


of the 


unfort 


to con- 
unately 


f Sars e 


onymy 
xhibits 


lest extc 


:nt, and 


careful! 


y done. 


: case, 


ne may 



:zi 



while this alone is not particularly reprehensib 
yet when done without great care, as in the pn 
be pardoned for taking exception to the method, and lament- 
ing the inevitable results. Thus we have as absolute synonyms 
stablished names. Boreocliiton Sars {Trachydermon 
>.), Porcofitsus Sars ( Troselidhx Morch), and S»!cn»pus M. Sars 
" Tullb.) first described by Tullberg. Craspcdochilus 
Sars, also belongs in a section first characterized and named by 
Carpenter. In this connection it may be mentioned that a reex- 
amination of the dentition of the Chitons would probably result 
in a revision of some of the figures. Of names which have been 
adopted without that search into their credentials which would 
have shown them to be untenable, a few may be mentioned. 
Such are/W/,W/^Meu-ch, TrnLmta Schumacher. Nicama Leach, 
Timodea Romer, Ftitpicola {/'), Anta/:s Aldrovandus ('/!, Pc'pfiiuoi- 
dea Brown, Pilidium Midd.. Pyrcue Uoltcn, and Co/udus Nardo. 
Of names applied erroneously to forms which cannot by any 



32 Recent Literature. [January, 

recognized rules come under them, there are quite a number, 
such as Chiton (restricted) for Chiton ha/deyi ; Lcpidopleunis to 
Chiton alveolus M. Sars, Nacella to Patina pcllncida, Acnusa (re- 
stricted) to ( , while Tectura is retained for 

Acnuca vnjnico, St 'it </a to /' - ' ', , ' ipnllina to Z*V/- 

/w.v .SV////////. Chrysodomus fas of Swainson) to /y/<v/.y 7///^///, while 
a typical Chrysodomus is called Xcptnnca, and so on. We are far 

wholly a work which will always be of permanent value, yet it is 
impossible not to regret, that while the greater part of it is so 
very good the remainder was not brought a little nearer perfec- 
tion. We presume the work, though not provided with a nominal 
publisher may be had of the author, or of the authorities of the 
University of Christiania. It was actually issued on the 6th of 
June, 1878, though proofs of part of the plates had been kindly 
furnished to several naturalists some time before their publication. 
— W.H.Dall. 

Smithsonian Report for 1877. 1 — This report, the last made 
by the lamented Henry, contains matter of very general interest, 
not only as to the workings of the Smithsonian Institution but 
also the progress in the scientific explorations of the United 
States. Of particular value is the full " List of the more important 
Explorations and Expeditions, the collections of which have con- 
stituted the principal sources of supply to the National Museum, 
with indication of the department of the Government under 
which prosecuted." Besides the numerous articles in the appen- 
dix, translated and original, concerning archaeology, physics and 
meteorology, zoologists will be interested in the translation of 
Weismann's interesting paper " On the Change of the Mexican 
Axolotl to an Amblystoma." 

Pal/EOntological Report of the. Princeton Scientific Ex- 
pedition of 1877. 2 — This stout pamphlet represents the work of 
an expedition of students of Princeton College, who, under the 
auspices of Prof. Guyot, director of the museum of that institu- 
tion, made an exploration of the fossiliferous beds of the Bridger 
Basin of Wyoming, and the fish-bearing shales of the South Park 
of Colorado. It is cause of congratulation on the part of the 
friends of scientific education, that the liberal endowment of this 
department at Princeton College should have commenced thus 
early to bear fruit, and in so profitable a direction. The seed 
sown by the late Mr. Green has evidently fallen into good ground, 
and we see at once the realization of President McCosh's view, 
that the great schools should not only be institutions for teaching, 

lS-~. Washington, 1878. 8vo, pp. 500. 

• - ' :■:'.:■ 

No 1, Palaeontological Report, etc. By IIf.nk', Immpum, Wm. B. ScoTr and 
Francis Spier, Jr. Sept. 1, 1878. Svo. pp. 146. pi. x. 



but also furnish the facilities for the prosecution of original 

The present report gives descriptions of the osteology and 
dentition of species of most of the leading forms of the Bridger 
Eocene fauna. These are, among Mcsoa'onfa, / '/yopsodus pattlus ; 
Perissodactyla,f( h-o/uppi/s major, /\i/,oosvops ma/or <\nd /'. hrvidctts ; 
Leiiroctphalits ntitridens gen. et sp. nov., Amblypoda, Uintatlicrittm 
leidyianum sp. nov. and U. prince ps sp. nov. The new species are 
Xlcgcnccphalott (Carnivora new genus) I sp. ; Hyrachyus, 3 sp. ; 
Hclaletes, 1 sp. [t!iyp;raviMod<>n gen. nov., supposed to be Artio- 
dactyle and related to the Camclidce, 1 sp. Crocodilns, 1 sp. Of 
the above, the most interesting novelty is the Leurocephalus, 
which is doubtless a genus distinct from Palceosyops, although 
the authors have not seized its single character in their diagnosis. 
The most beautiful specimen is the Uintathcrinnt leidyianum, of 
which the party obtained a nearly complete cranium and much 
of the skeleton. The excellent heliotype engraving which 
accompanies the report gives a good idea of the appearance of 
this extraordinary animal, whose place is evidently between the 
two extreme forms, I tnd Loxolophodon conta- 

ins. Other figures representing vertebrae and other parts of the 
skeleton will prove very useful. Several of the other species are 
represented by figures engraved by photographic process. We 
can only* wish, tor a few representing the crowns of the teeth. 

The fish-beds of Florissant, Col, yielded some fine specimens 
of several species, among which is a new Trichophancs. 

The authors of this catalogue may congratulate themselves on 
having measureably mastered one of the most difficult branches 
of our palaeontology, considered from the standpoint of literature 
and synonym)-. They have presented the results of their labors 
in a form which is available to their fellow workers. We con- 
clude this notice with the single regret that they did not retain in 
MS. the compiled catalogue which closes the report. There are 
several reasons why this course should have been followed; one of 
which is that a large proportion of its names are as yet without 
authority, but are rather in the condition of those that fill sales 
catalogues of different kinds, than available for scientific purposes. 

Packard's Guide to the Study of Insects. 1 — We notice the 
present edition for the purpose of drawing attention to certain 
changes and suggestions which may prove of interest to those 
who do not possess the last edition, and for this purpose quote as 
follows from the preface. " More important additions and altera- 
tions have been made in this edition than in any previous one. 
The author has decided to consider the Hexapoda, Arachnida 



34 Recent Literature. [January, 

and Myriopoda as sub-classes of Tracheata, and consequently 
what have been in former editions regarded as sub-orders are 
called orders. The Thysanura, moreover, are separated from 
the Neuroptera and regarded as a distinct order, comprising syn- 
thetic types with features allying them to the Orthoptera, Neurop- 
tera and Myriopoda. They are divided into two sub-orders, 
the lower the Collembola of Lubbock, and for the higher sub- 
order, comprising the Lepismatidae and Campodeae, the term 

tenaculum and elater are adopted from the author's previous 
writings for the " holder " and " spring " of the Collembola ; and 
for the sucker, or organ secreting the adhesive material character-, 
istic of the Collembola, the term collophore is proposed. 

" Brief mention has been made of the Pycnogonidce, which are 
placed among the mites ; also of the Peripatidae, which are given 
a place next to the sucking Myriopoda, since they have been 
proved by the researches of Mr. Moseley to be Tracheata ." 

Thomas' Noxious Insects of Illinois. 1 — This voluminous 
report evinces the activity shown the past year in Illinois as 
regards the prevention and cure of injuries from injurious insects. 
The State entomologist has employed Prof. G. H. French as 
general assistant, Miss Nettie Middleton as office assistant, and 
Miss Emily A. Smith as special assistant for the north-western 
part of the State. Over a hundred pages are devoted by Prof. 
Thomas to insects injurious to corn; an excellent report by Miss 
Smith relates also to corn insects and to the maple-tree bark- 
louse, while the second half of the report is devoted by Prof. 
French to a description of the butterflies and moths, with their 
caterpillars, especially injurious in Illinois. The volume is well 
calculated to interest and instruct the people of the West in 
economic entomology, and, we think, is an improvement on last 
year's report. 

Lockyer's Guillemin's Forces of Nature. 2 — By its general 
accuracy of statement, simplicity and clearness of style, and the 
excellence of the wood-cuts and full page illustrations, this work 
in its English dress, will commend itself to those naturalists who 
wish to broaden their field of study and to ascertain the nature of 
the environment by which the life of the globe is surrounded. 
From many points of view the naturalist and geologist will need 
to review and utilize his knowledge, or if that be wanting, acquire 
some idea of the physical ph< nomena of nature. 



L„. kyi-.r. an. 
Iiiu.r.U.,1 I,y 
8vo, pp. 725. 



18/9-] Recent Literature. 35 

The work after having had, as the English publishers claim, an 
" enormous circulation " in France, and two very large editions in 
England, is republished in England in eighteen parts, " at about 
half the original cost." It is divided into seven books, treating 
of gravity and attraction, sound, light and color, heat, magnetism 
and" electricity, the rainbow, the rise of clouds and fogs, and 
atmospheric meteors, with a full index. A brief appendix con- 
tains the reprint of a paper by Prof. Henry Draper on the dis- 
covery of oxygen in the sun by photography, and a new theory 
of the solar spectrum. 

Letter from O. C. Marsh, etc., transmitting the report on 
the Scientific Surveys of the Territories, etc. 1 — We have 
received a copy of this document, which consists of the report of 
a committee which was appointed by Prof. O. C. Marsh under 
the following circumstances: Certain persons, not friendly to 
some cf the U. S. Geological Surveys as at present constituted, 
succeeded in having included in the Sundry Civil Appropriation 
Bill, of June 30, 1878, the following clause: 

" And the National Academy of Sciences is hereby required, 
at their next meeting, to take into consideration the methods and 
expenses of conducting all surveys of a scientific character under 
the War or Interior Department, and the surveys of the I and 
Office, and to report to Congress as soon thereafter as may be 
practicable, a plan for surveying and mapping the Territories of 
the United States on such general system as will, in their judg- 
ment, secure the best results .it the least possible cost; and also 
to recommend to Congress a suitable plan for the publication and 
distribution of the reports, maps and documents, and other results 

In pursuance of this act. Prof. Marsh, who is acting president 
of the Academy, pending the appointment of Prof. Henry's suc- 
cessor, selected a committee consisting of six gentlemen who 
were not personally connected with the surveys. Of the seven 
members of the committee, four were geologists, of whom the 
two younger and more capable members were known to desire 
changes in the personnel of some of the surveys. In accordance 
with the constitution of the National Academy, a committee may 
be appointed in the interval of the meetings, in response to a 
request of Congress, and such committee is not required to refer 
to the Academy for advice and assistance, but reports its conclu- 
sions to Congress direct, and its proceedings to the next meeting 
of the Academy. It is evident that reports made in this way lose 
much of their authority as utterances of the Academy, especially 
when, as in the present instance it has just been deprived of 
its president and has not yet secured the services of a sue- 



36 Recent Literature. [January, 

The report of the committee makes three recommendations ; as 
follows : First, that the geodetic surveying of the Territories of 
the United States be placed in the hands of one organization, and 
that that one be the United States Coast Survey, which they also 
propose shall be transferred to the Interior Department. Secondly, 
that all of the existing geological and geographical surveys be 
abolished, and that a new organization be created under the In- 
terior Department, to be called the United States Geological Sur- 
vey. Thirdly, the limitation of the duties of the Land Office to 
questions relating to the disposition and sale of public lands, their 
titles, the records, etc. 

At first sight there is a simplicity and harmony about the plan 
thus recommended, which is pleasing to one's sense of order and 
fitness. The proposition for the unification of all geodetic work 
is every way reasonable, and we hope to see it adopted. So, also, 
with the plan of conduct of the Land Office. But as regards the 
geological work proper of the country, there is no such reason for 
consolidation. If the work be well done, it matters not to how 
many organizations it be confided, provided it be not duplicated, 
and of this there is now no danger. In fact, in view of the utter 
absence of reasonable grounds for the committee's proposition on 
this head, we seek for the presentation of some in the report, but 

ganizations fully equipped at great expense, and ably manned, all 
doing work which is the admiration of the older countries, as 
well as of our our,, which this committee proposes to snuff out of 
existence. And this while they are in the midst of their useful- 
ness, and preparing to bring out work which is the result of years 
of preparation. The proposition seems especially absurd in view 
of the other fact, that the term of existence of Government su- 
pervision of this work is, at most, limited. One portion after an- 
other of the territory west of the lOOth meridian will be entering 
the Union as States, and then the sustenance of the geological 
surveying will fall to the State Governments. It does, therefore, 
seem particularly unnecessary to create a new body for this ob- 
ject at this time. We can only account for the proposition in 
view of the universal truth that "some men labor, and other 
men enter into their labors." 

The following summary includes the more important objections 

(1.) The surveys as they now e 
effort and energy, and the force of personal interest 
of their directors is an important element in their success. Re- 
move this, and much of their working power is gone. 

(2.) The territories will, before many years, become States, and 
the services of the General Government in surveying will be su- 
perseded by the State Govenments. It is therefore unnecessary 
to create a new organization to accomplish a work which is 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 37 

now in large part completed, and for which competent organiza- 
tions already exist. 

(3.) The present organizations are abundantly capable of doing 
the work, in the opinion of competent critics in America and 
Europe. 

(4.) The existence of several distinct organizations is a guar- 
antee of better work than where but one exists. The emulation 
which exists between different surveys, and the constant neces- 
sity for preserving each other's respect, secures a high standard of 
work, and prevents the development of a Beaurocracy which is 
foreign to our methods and tastes. 

(5.) The objection raised on account of the duplication of work, 
ceases to exist with the proper division of territory between the 

(6.) No department of the U. S. Government should be pre- 
cluded from entering on any geological or other scientific work 
germane to its objects. 

(7.) The more numerous the surveys, the more numerous the 



Co., 187S. 121110, pp. 44. 

Note Rectificative sur quelques Diptere-. Tertiaire, et en particulier sur un diptert 

trait du Bulletin S. h-ntilique du department du Nord.) Avril, 1878. 8vo, pp. 9. 
Note sur un nouveau Genre d'Onhopte^e Fo^ile de la Famille des Phasmiens 






Sept., 1878. 
Ph.D. 



I'.v Ceo. N. Laurence. 8vo, pp. 185-198. (Ext. from Pmc. V. S. Nation d Mu- 

\Ya>hin-ton, 1878. 

Birds of the Colorado Vallev. A repository of scientific and popular inform.itio 
conceinin- North An.erio.m i )n,i:i.oi.,..y. B\ Fiiioft Crnies. Part i. Passere* I 
1 miida Bil>li in p cal \ppen 70 iintions 8vo, pp. 833. (Dept.< 

Interior. U. S. Geol. and Geo-. Survey of the Terrlione,. \1 
No. 11.) Washin-ton. Gov. Printing OihVe, 1S7S. From Dr. F. V. llayden, U. .- 



Recent Literature. [January, 



Sc e:.c« . \\„ ,. [u! } : , ;^;,^). ' From the author. 

i-" : ^< ( ' l \ ■ 1' « '■! 'I sM> du K. A 

1878. 'By Dr.] na. From lh« 



13. Liege, 1878. From the authors, 
ethnologic ou L'Antiquite de L' Homme dans les Alpes-Maritixnes 

. 4 to. I ivi-iiiNnns .. ii, iii - d., 1878-79. Fri 

- iii< \„ri ■ ... "l\r <;. Vincent .- \ 

35. Liege, 1878. From the uthors. 



bar !e [Jr. Cli,r!e, Uun'oi- e: biles de Guerne. 8vo, P] 

Sue. Geul. du Nord.) Lille, 1878. From the authors. 

Description de la Faune de 1'Etage Landenien infe 



don, Taylor & Francis, 

A Century'. Fre--.es. in Zoological Knowledge Address in the De 
Zoology and Botanv ot -he bnti-di Aoociation, Dublin, 1878. By Wil 
Flower, F.R.S., President ot" the Section. 8vo, pp. 9. London. 

at Dublin, 1878. By John E. 8vo, pp. 23. L 

The Geological History of New Vwrk Unid.ind Harbor. By Prof 
berry, of Columbia College. 8vo, pp. 20. New York, 187 8. From tl 



1 879.] 








Botany. 






3' 


The K< 


ittle Ran£re 


of the Gk 


:at Lake 


Disti 


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1S7S. 














J. Moriere. 8vo, pp. ] 






















« La Ca 


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Pari* en 


iS;.S. 


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ncte 


des 


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oi„-K- 


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GENERAL NOTES. 



Association of an Inconspicuous Corolla with Proterogyn- 
ous Dichogamy in Insec i-pi.k tilized Flowers.— Mr. A. S.Wilson, 
at the last meeting of the British association, read a paper on this sub- 
ject. He said that there is a class of flowers represented by the com- 
mon figwort {Schrophularia nodosa) which are shown, by their se- 
creting nectar and emitting odors, to be dependant on the visits 
of insects for their fertilization, and not on the wind, and yet do 
not possess a conspicuous colored or marked corolla for the guid- 
ance of insects to the flowers. Moreover, the flowers are in them 
not massed together to gain additional conspicuousness, as in highly 
colored flowers, like heaths, foxgloves, gladiolus, etc. Highly 
colored conspicuous flowers are usually proteranhous, i. e. 
the anthers are matured before the stigma, and as flowers are us- 
ually developed from below upwards, it follows that in any given 
plant the lower flowers will have shed their pollen and have "their 



40 General Notes. [January, 

stigmas ready to receive it by the time the upper flowers are be- 
ginning to shed their pollen. In this inconspicuous class, on the 
other hand, the lower flowers will be in the second or male stage 
when the upper flowers are as yet in the younger or female stage. 
Now it is clear that an insect visiting such flowers, must adhere 
to the habit of the bee, which invariably begins at the lower flower 
on a stalk and goes upwards, taking each flower in regular suc- 
cession. By this means it invariably enters first a female flower 
and there deposits the pollen it brings with it from another plant. 
Were the bee to reverse this order, the whole elaborate arrange- 
ments of many plants for cross-fertilization would be upset, for the 
bee would simply transfer pollen from the upper male flowers and 
deposit it on the lower female ones. This would be fertilization 
by flowers of the same plant, and this Mr. Darwin has shown to 
be little or no better than self-fertilization. In the case of the in- 
conspicuous flowers, where the opposite condition obtains, a bee 
would frustrate fertilization by adhering to its ordinary ascending 
habit. Mr. Wilson's observations of a wasp visiting these plants 
indicate that the wasp begins at the top flower and proceeds down- 
wards — so that they are adapted specially to such insects, and 
as wasps are generally predatory in their habits, and not entirely 
vegetable feeders, as bees are, it is probable that, like other car- 
nivorous creatures, their perceptions of vision and scent are keen- 
er ; hence wasps can probably find these obscure flowers quite as 
easily as a bee can a highly-colored one. The plant, therefore, 
finds that the material can be more economically utilized than in 
the production of a colored corolla just as in the case of self-fer- 
tile cleistogamic flowers. 

Botanical News.— At the last meeting of the British Associa- 
tion Mr. A. S. Wilson read some notes on dimorphic plants. 
The plants referred to in this paper were Erytlinea ccntaurium 
which appears from a microscopic examination of the pollen to 
be a dimorphic plant like the primrose or bog-bean; and Silene 
acaulis, which presents three forms — a male, having stamens only, 
a female, with rudimentary stamens and perfect pistils, and a per- 
fect hermaphrodite form, having both complete. In this respect 
it resembles 5. infiata, which, according to Axell, is triceciously 
polygamous. 

Mr. Wilson also remarked on "Some Mechanical Arrangement- 
Subserving Cross-Fertilization of Plants !>v Insects." This pa- 
per had reference to the three plants, / Inra 'minor, Pinguicula vul- 
garis, and foxglove — and was a description of latch-like arrange- 
ments in the latter two, and a knee-shaped bend in the first, which 
when depressed by an insect entering the flowers, cause the pollen 
to be deposited on the insect, and, in the case of Vinca, to 
smear the pollen with viscid matter from the circumference of the 
curiously-shaped disc forming the lower part of the stigma. 

Dr. Bay ley Balfour referred to certain peculiarities in the struc- 



1 879.] Zoology. 41 

ture of the Naiidaccce. He especially described the arrangement 
of leaves in the genus Hdopkila. In this marine tropical phnaeo- 
gam, the stem is a creeping jointed rhizoma; at each joint occurs 
a pair of sheafing scale leaves. No foliage leaves occur on the 
main axis. In the axil of one scale leaf of each pair arises eccen- 
trically a lateral secondary shoot, which is a jointed rhizoma like 
the parent, and the first pair of leaves upon it is a pair of foliage 
leaves, the succeeding leaves on this axis are all scale leaves. 
From these secondary axes tertiary ones arise, which again re- 
peat the process. Thus the foliage leaves in these plants only oc- 
cur as the first pair of leaves on the lateral shoots. This is prob- 
ably unique in the vegetable kingdom. The homologies of the 
parts of the male and female flowers were also pointed out. 

The Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club for October (which 
was late in coming) contains several notes by Messrs. Eaton, 
Underwood and Gilbert, on the ferns of the United States. 

In the Botanical Gazette for November, Fendler's Ferns of Trini- 
dad are noticed by Prof. Eaton. The leaves of Darlingtonia cali- 
fornica and their two secretions are described by Mrs. R. M. 
Austin. 

ZOOLOGY. 1 

On the Origin of Bilateral Symmetry and the Numerous 
Segments of the Soft Rays of Fishes.— As is well. known, the 
soft fin-rays of Acanthopterous fishes and all or most of the fin- 
rays of Malacoptcrygians, are composed of two bilaterally sym- 
metrical ossified and more or less completely segmented halves, 
semicircular in section, each having a groove on its inner face to 
receive between them a cartilaginous medulla. Their embryo- 
logical history shows that the process of ossification is progressive 
from without inwards, or in the language of recent authorities it 
may be styled ectosteal. 

Viewed in a non-teleological, or in the light of what seem to 
be the probable mechanical (dynamical) differentiating causes, their 
origin becomes extremely simple. No type of vertebrate limb 
has such exceedingly short and numerous segments in relation to 
its total length. In extreme contrast with them we may place the 
digital wing-elements of the Chuoptcra and Pterosaur in, and of 
these it may be said no vertebrate types exhibit such excessive 
elongation of the digital elements in proportion to their aggre- 
gate length. Contrasting their habitual modes of use in relation 
to their surroundings, we find the media, water and air, in which 
the two, respectively fins and wings, are used differ as widely in 
respect to density. That such difference in structure should ac- 
company such widely differing conditions would seem to be 
caused by those conditions. Then, like those types which peram- 
bulate over approximate planes, there are no definite points of im- 

^ iThe departments o( < >rnithoIo-y and Mammalogy arc conducted by Dr. ELLIOTT 



42 General Notes. [January, 

pact, hence we find no specialization of structure for counteract- 
ing, or rather for preventing injuries which such impacts might 
cause, as we find in hoofs, corneous pads or soles, nails and claws, 
but the whole impinging surface of the osseous supporting struc- 
ture is differentiated or developed in degrees ; in general terms it 
is most developed proximally and gradually shades off, becom- 
ing least developed distally. Again, in the fish but little osseous 
tissue is found developed anywhere except in opposition to the 
lines of greatest mechanical resistance encountered in locomotion, 
so that paradoxical as it may appear, it looks a- though the means 
of locomotion have actually been cumulatively and phylogeneti- 
cally developed by the means used to effect the movements. In 
this way we may probably explain the bilaterally symmetrical 
disposition of the osseous part of the soft rays which are thickest 
where the resistance is theoretically the greatest. On the other 
hand, the volant types, which are provided with interdigital alar 
membranes, have their bones of the ordinary type, that is, ossified 
alike on all sides, hence essentially tubular; in the Pterosauria the 
walls of the tubular digital bones are very thin but dense, which 
is in agreement with the requirements of their environments and 
is probably caused by them. 

As a non-teleological summary the following principles are 
derived : 

1. In proportion to the degree of resistance or density of the 
medium traversed, do osseous segments tend to be abbreviated 
and vice versa. (This tendency is only overcome by means of 
relatively great muscular specialization, as in the long-limbed 
Anourous Batrachians and Ungulate Mammals, but even here the 
remote impinging elements tend to become shorter.) 

2. The tendency to the development of osseous structure in the 
lines of greatest resistance seems to be an invariable phenomenon 
attending the exhibition of vertebrate life on our planet, and in 
this way bilateral symmetry of the osseous halves of soft fin-rays 
is accounted for, and. on the self-evident assumption that the ryth- 
mical efforts exerted in opposite directions in overcoming inertia 
are potentially alike, the morphological effects tending from this 
cause to be repeated on opposite sides of a part or the whole of 
the body as the case may be. The general truth that bone is de- 
veloped ecto-chondrialJy is accordingly in large part explained. 

The segmentation of limbs, of the notochord of arthropods, 
etc., into series of phalanges, vertebrae, osteomeres, neuromeres, 
myomeres, renomeres.antimeres, somites, etc., becomes clearly sub- 
ordinate to the foregoing. 

It will be apparent to those familiar with a sufficiently great 
number of animal types and structural features that the above, 
when taken together with the doctrine universal of mutual retroac- 
tivity existing between living forms and their environment, will 
explain away deductively the origin of a great majority of the 



vh In 



enting only the mil 
ical and universal 






varieties, -;> ;i. -, renera, etc. 

it were, of the great non-teleological and universal process of 
evolution by means of knowable and discoverable causes origin- 
ating in the mechanical and dynamical conditions which surround 
living organisms, and by which they are related to the cosmos. 
This, however, goes without saying, that types may not be more 
or less persistent from the persistence of a uniformity of condi- 
tions. — John A. Ryder. 



Some New Points ] 



Co 



he Tongues 



Woodpeckers. — The tongue of the woodpeck* 
horny, and at its end armed with a number of 
short barbs. By means of a peculiar mechan- 
ism it can be suddenly pushed out, so as to reach 
far beyond the point of the bill. The two car- 
tilaginous appendices to the hyoid bone, known 
as " the horns," are curved into wide arches, 
each horn making a loop down the neck, and 
thence bending upwards, sliding around the 
skull down on the forehead. Through a pe- 
culiar muscular arrangement of the sheaths, in 
which the horns slide, they can be retracted 
down on the occiput, and will then work as 
springs on the base of the tongue, forcing it out 
with great velocity. These peculiarities in the 
construction of the tongues of woodpeckers 
have long been known, and the above descrip- 
tion is pretty nearly the same as that given by 
Claus in his " Grundziige der Zoologie." 

Some years ago I was engaged in Sweden, in 
preparing zootomical specimens, among which 
were some woodpeckers' heads, viz : one Picus 
tridactvlns, two P. martins and more than twenty 
P. virldis. . 

In every one of them I noticed a peculiar ^|',,' 'j,;,,^^',- '^'i 
asymmetric arrangement of the horns, which, lot ] 
upon reaching the upper part of the skull, met ity covered by thein- 
in abroad groove of its surface, and following the t'-'rmaxillare. 
groove, are turned towards the right side of the forehead, running 
down between the right orbit and the crest, which is raised 
along the median line of the lower part of the forehead, slightly 
inclined towards the right side. 

In P. tridactylus and P. martins I found that the horns end 
above the base of the forehead. But in P. viridis they extend 
through the nasal fossa into the cavity, which is covered by the 




44 General Notes. [January, 

o.s intermaxillare, their ends reaching all the way out to the ex- 
treme end of the said cavity. 

Since that time I have had no opportunity of making further 
investigations in this matter. It seems probable that such an ar- 
rangement as found in the tongue of P. viridis would enable the 
bird to project its tongue further and with greater velocity than 
those that have shorter horns. Therefore I would suppose that 
P. viridis feeds on larvae which live in the deeper parts of the 
wood and are quick in their motions. This, however, I must ac- 
knowledge to be merely a supposition, but it is a point worthy of 
the attention of zoologists. — Dr. Josaa Lindahl. 

Amphioxus and Lingula at the Mouth of Chesapeake Bay. 
— In his account of a foundation of a zoological laboratory at the 
mouth of Chesapeake bay, as a summer school of instruction for 
the students of John Hopkins University, Prof. W. K. Brooks, in 
the third Annual Report of the University, thus speaks of the 
scientific results of the summer's work, and of the discovery of 
the early stages; of Ymph »: is and ! ingula We shall elsewhere 
notice the workings of this laboratory : 

"The amount of advantage which zoological science can 
derive from the di.icov r\ uid ! i ipt met new species is very- 
slight as compared with that which is gained by the careful study 
of the whole life-history of any form of life — old or new. As 
this work can be done only where the living animals can be 
had, it is properly laboratory work, as distinguished from museum 
work, or the identification of species. 

" I accordingly made no attempt to find and describe new 
forms, but devoted all our time to the careful study of a few 
important species ; selecting for this purpose, from among those 
which were abundant at our station, the ones a knowledge of 
which is most desirable to science. I may say, however, that two 
of the forms which we selected for careful study were new addi- 
tions to the fauna of this region. One of these, Amphioxus, was 
studied by Mr. Rice. Amphioxus is a small worm-like animal, 
the lowest of the vertebrates, and it is of very great scientific 
interest, since it has preserved many evidences of a relationship 
to various groups of invertebrates, and thus serves to bridge over 
the gap which was supposed by Cuvier and Agassiz to separate 
the vertebrata from all lower forms of life. Its embryology, 
which may be termed the key to the embryology of all the 
higher animals, has been ably studied by several of the most 
distinguished zoologists of Europe, and a number of papers have 
appeared upon the subject within a few years. We fortunately 
found several larvae which had passed beyond the stages studied 
by these naturalists, but which had not yet acquired the adult 
characteristics. Mr. Rice succeeded in keeping these alive, and 
was thus able to supply the information necessary to complete 
our knowledge of it- development Me also mad very interest- 



1 879.] Zoology. 45 

ing observations upon tv lioxus. Amphioxus has 

been found upon the coast of North Carolina, and last winter one 
of the assistants of the Smithsonion Institution discovered it in the 
Bermudas ; until this summer these were the only instances of 
its occurrence upon this side of the Atlantic. 

" Another important form of life which was carefully studied, 
is Lingula, one of the Brachiopods, a group which has been of 
great importance during past geological periods, but has now 
almost entirely disappeared. Lingula itself has persisted un- 
changed from the time of formation of the oldest fossiliferous 
rocks, and is one of the first living things of which we have any 
knowledge. As Lingida has not before been found under cir- 
cumstances which admitted of careful study, almost nothing was 
known cf its development, but I was able to trace its life-hutory 
this summer from a very early stage up to the adult form, and to 
show that, old as it is, each individual, from the time of the 
lower Silurian up to the present time, has transmitted to its 
children a developmental record which proves that Lingula itself 
is the descendant of a much older form." 

Singular Habit of a Meloid Beetle.— I have noticed for the 
past two seasons a singular habit of one of the Meloid beetles, 
Tricrania staiisharii, which, so tar as I am aware, seems some- 
what at variance with the known habits of this family. Previous 
to the spring of 1877 this beetle was very rarely taken, and is 
yet, I believe, not common in collections. In April of that year 
a few were caught on the Kansas plains, slowly flying over the 
uplands on warm sunny days. In the latter part of the month, 
however, a number of specimens were observed in the bottom of 
a wagon bed that had been used to collect buffalo bones for the 
market ; upon further investigation large quantities were 
obtained from the decaying buffalo and antelope bones on the 
high prairies. They chose only the cancellous tissue of the limb 
bones, or more c sp L \ i illy t i 1 thorn , 1! and sphenoidal regions of 
the skull in weathered skeletons. None were ever taken after the 
latter part of May. In early May of the present year several 
were taken from a 'decayed railroad tie in the vicinity of Como, 
Wyoming; one. female having apparently just deposited a mass 
of eggs in a warm fissure. 

The large number upon the plains, both of species and indi- 
viduals, in this genus, together with Mdoc, Nomaspis, Macrobasis, 
Epicauta, Pyrota\ Z s \\ // , 1 a^ 1 G ' and the par- 

asitism of several of these, as'. shown by Prof. Riley, upon the 

an interesting one. — 5. W. Williston. 

New Carcinological Papers.— Mr. E. J. Miers, of the British 
Museum, publishes a " Revision of the Hippidea " in the Journal 
of the Linnoean Society. Vol. xiv, in which he enumerate six 



46 General Notes. [January, 

genera and twenty-two species from the whole world. This 
author rejects Dana's view of placing these Crustacea immedi- 
ately beneath the Corystoidea, but would rather follow Lamarck 
and Milne Edwards and connect them with the Oxystomatous 
Crustacea through the family Raninidae. 

These Crustacea are represented on our coast (south of Cape 
Cod by Hippa talpoida Say, which our author is inclined to con- 
sider the same as Hippa emeritus of Fabricius ( Cancer emeritus L.). 

A second paper by the same author on a collection of Crus- 
tacea from the Gulf of Akabo, at the northern extremity of the 
Red Sea (Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist, Nov., 1878), has some inter- 
esting remarks upon some species of the difficult genus Trapezia. 
— J. S. Kingsley, Providence, R. I. 

Mode of Drinking of the Red Squirrel. — In a late camping 
excursion in the wilderness of Wisconsin, on the Upper Manom- 
inee, we frequently met the common red or Hudson's bay 
squirrel (Sciunts h ■ Is u ins) swimming the river, when they were 
easily taken into the canoes. Several of the ladies of the party 
interested themselves by confining the squirrels in boxes, and 
then feeding and watenng [hern; in most cases they gnawed 



ay out 


and were goi 


le the next n 


lorning, b 


»ut not all. They 




g girls, and ;: 


1 discussion 


soon aro 


se among them, 


r these 


juirrels drank 


: water by the 


; sucking 


or by the lapping 




1 was finally r 




fordecisi 


on. Miss H. had 


lich h; 


id already b. 


icome quite 


domestic 


:ated, and would 


it her 




and drink, w 


hicli was 


i done through a 


ritice 11 




igh to admit 


the pass. 


ige of the whole 


A littl. 


c triangular c 


up was formed of a le 


af and filled with 


unl on 


e angle pres 


ented to the 


opening 


and the squirrel 


Hen 


istantly came 


, projected h 




nt about half an 



inch to the water and commenced drinking. This, beyond all 
doubt, was done by lapping up the water, as is the habit of the 
dog and the cat, but the process was so exceedingly rapid as to 
require a very careful scrutiny to detect it with certainty. The 
position was very favorable for accurate observation, and the 
point was finally yielded by the doubters. 

This may be familiar to naturalists, but I do not remember to 
have observed any examination as to the modes in which the 
various quadrupeds drink, nor had the subject previously occu- 
pied my attention. Do all the rodents lap their drink like the 

tie the question as to what quadrupeds drink by lapping and what 

istics of scientific importance, and worthy of attention. — j. D. 
Caton, Ottawa, Ills. 

CAND. Robt. Collett, of the University of Christiania, has 
lately published a list of Norwegian Zoological literature for 
1877. of which the following is a summary : 



i <S/9 ] Zoology. 47 

R. Collett, " On Myodes Ummus in Norway.' 1 Some remarks 
on the migratory habits of the Norwegian lemmings (Journ. Lin. 
Soc. Zool. Vol. Mil., pp. 327-334). Id., three papers containing 
contributions to the Ornithology of Norway (Proc. Zool. Soc, 
Lond., 1877, pp. 43-46; Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. Vol. xxiii, No. 4, 
pp. 85-225; and Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christiania, 1877, No. 5; 
pp. 4). Id., a synopsis of fifty-nine species of birds from Mada- 
gascar and Bourbon, presented to the Christiania Museum (Forh. 
Vid. Selsk. Christiania, 1877, No. 6; pp. 20). 

J. Koren and D. Danielsen, descriptions of six new species of 
the gastropod tribe Solenopus M. Sars (Arch. f. Math. Naturv., 
Vol. ii, No. 2, pp. 120-128). 

H. Friele, " Preliminary report on Mollusca from the Norwegian 
North Atlantic Expedition in 1876," with one autograph plate 
(Nyt Mag. f. Naturv., Vol. xxiii, No. 3, pp. 1-10). " Id., a paper 
on the radula of Norwegian Rhipiavglossa, with four auto- 
graph plates (Arch. f. Math, and Naturv., Vol. ii, No. 2 ; pp. 
217). Id., "The development of the skeleton in the genus 
Waldheimia" with six lithograph plates (Arch. f. Math, and 
Naturv., Vol. ii, No. 4, pp. 380-386). 

J. Sparre Schneider, a report on the Lepidoptera collected by 
the author near Drammen in 1876 (Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christiania, 
1877, No. 4; pp. 30). 

H. Siebke, " Enitmcratio Inscctorinn Nurvcgicornm. Fasc. iv, 
catalogum Diptcrorum conr/nens." Ed. J. Sp. Schneider. 255 
pages (University programme, 1877). 

V. Storm, a report on the Museum of " Videnskabernes 
Selskab," and some notices of rare Coleoptera, found around 
Drontheim (Det Kgl. N. Vid. Selsk. Skr. i 19 Aarh., Vol. viii, No. 
4; pages 1 31-162). 

G. O. Sars, on the Mysida of the Mediterranean, with thirty-six 
autograph plates (Arch. f. Math, and Naturv., Vol. ii, No. 1, pp. 
IO-119). M; Rrodromus discriptionis cnistaccoi inn Pycnogo- 
nidarum, qua in expeditione Norvegica, anno 1876, obscrvavit 
(Arch. t. Math, and Naturv., Vol. ii, No. 3; pp. 237-269). 

D. Danielson and J. Koren, a synopsis of the EchinodmnaUi, 
collected in the Norwegian expedition to the North Atlantic, in 
1876. Several new species, among them one crinoid, Iycrinus car- 
pentcrii, from a depth oi nearly 1 500 fathoms in a temperature of 
— 1.6° C ; three lithograph plates (Nyt Mag. f. Naturv., Vol. xxiii, 
No. 3; pp. 45-^3)- 

J. Koren and D. Danielsen, " Fauna littoralis Norvegiae," Part 
III, with sixteen plates, pp. 163, folio. Bergen, 1877. This 
volume forms the third part of the important work, of which the 
first part was published in 1840, bv the late Prof. M. Sars, and the 
second in 1856, by M. Sars. J. Koren and D. Danielsen. The third 
part contains seven separate papers, viz. : 1. New or little known 
CaienU-rata. by M. Sars ; ed. G. O. Sars. 2. New EciiuudounUa, 



4-8 General Notes. [January, 

by M. Sars ; ed. G. O. Sars. 3. New Norwegian Ccelenterata, 
by Koren and Danielsen. 4. Norwegian Pennatulidce, by Koren 
and Danielson. 5. New Bryosoa, by Koren and Danielson. 6. 
Norwegian Gephyrea, by Koren and Danielson. 7. A new species 
of the genus Pennella, by Koren and Danielson.— (?. L). 

ANTHROPOLOGY. » 
Anthropological News.— Dr. George A. Otis, the curator 
of the U. S. Army Medical Museum, writes the following with 
reference to the work done at the museum under his charge: 
" Since January 1, 1878, Section IV, of the Army Medical 
Museum, has received specimens numbered from 1830 to 
1952, inclusive, and comprising skeletons, crania and calvaria of 
American orjgin, with the exception of fifteen New Zealand cal- 
varia transmitted from the Smithsonian Institution. These speci- 
mens have been carefully prepared, numbered and mounted ; the 
principal measurements, in each case, made and recorded. 
Among the additions to the complete skeletons of American In- 
dians was a series of seven Sioux, exhumed by Assistant Surgeon 
Corbusier; specimens from the shell-heaps of Florida, from Col- 
orado and from Tennessee, of supposed pre-historic date, are of 
especial interest." The immense amount of work required by 
the Medical History of the War has exhausted all the funds 
appropriated for this institution. But Dr. Otis, with his trained 
assistants, has measured and mounted every important cranium 
which he has received, and has reconstructed from fragments 
many pre-historic skulls, an art in which he is exceedingly skillful. 
As soon as time and funds will allow, the results of these meas- 
urements will be laid before the scientific 'world. 

The Rev. S. D. Peet, editor of the American Antiquarian, sends 
us his Prospectus, and it gives us great pleasure not only to draw 
attention to it, but to urge upon all lovers of American archaeology 
to make sacrifices to sustain it Mr. Peet, without State or Gov- 
ernment patronage, has for years given his leisure freely to 
aboriginal history. It is due to him as well as to the subject 
which we love in common, that he be not left alone in the matter. 
The brilliant success achieved in anthropology in England and 
Germany, but most of all in France, is due mainly to the interest 
awakened by the periodicals devoted solely to this one subject. 
The advantage of a special organ ever disseminating our efforts 
throughout all the periodicals of the country is apparent to all. 
Mr. Peet's address is at present Unionville, O. 

The New York Herald, of November 5th, contains a review of 
Col. Mallery's paper on the supposed decrease in the number of 
our aborigines. Having once drawn attention to this paper, our 
space and our duty to the truth will not allow us to refer to it 
again, lest mistaken zeal rob the truth of its reward. Col. Mal- 
1 Edited by Prof. Otis T. Mason, Columbian College, Washington, D. C. 



1 879] Anthropology. 49 

lery meant to say, and did say, that the Aborigines of America 
have been overestimated in numbers, that many tribes have been 
partly or wholly destroyed by whisky, disease and persecution, 
that others, after the first shock of contact, had continued to 
increase, and that, on the whole, there is not much difference 
between the present number of Indians and that of the " Discov- 
ery." The main argument of Col. Mallery was to show that, 
since the " necessary withering before the white man " is a fallacy, 
all efforts to help him to destruction are cruel and unpardonable. 

We take great pleasure in recording the discovery of a large 
obsidian quarry, the largest yet found in America, in the Yellow- 
stone National Park. Near the head of the middle fork of Gar- 
diner's river, in the north-western part of the park, deposits of 
this rock nearly 600 feet in thickness and of unknown horizontal 
extent, were found. The discovery is reported by Mr. W. H. 
Holmes, assistant geologist of the Hayden Survey, who reports 
the finding of whole and broken implements, flakes and cores in 
great abundance. 

In the November number of Science News, Dr. C. C. Abbott 
gives some valuable hints to collectors how to proceed in order 
to realize the full benefit of their work. Such cautions are 
exceedingly timely, coming from one who has devoted so much 
time in obeying his own instructions. 

Dr. Emil Schmidt, of Essen, contributes to Archiv fur Anthro- 
pologic, 1878, Parts 1,2, an article of forty-two pages, on the 
pre-historic copper implements of North America. The article 
is illustrated by three plates and fifty-three figures, and is abun- 
dantly furnished with foot notes referring to the best authorities 
on the subject. 

Through the kindness of Prof. J. Duncan Putnam we are in 
receipt of advanced sheets of the forthcoming Proceedings of the 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Quite a large portion 
of the volume is devoted to a description of Mound excavations 
by Messrs. Pratt, Gass, Palmer and Harrison. Mr. VV. W. Calkins 
read a paper, Feb. 28th, on the Shell-heaps of Florida. 

Prof. Ph. Valentine has published Vortrag iiber den Mexica- 
nischen Calender-stein, gehalten am 30 April 1878, in Republican 
Hall vor dem Deutsch ges. wissenschaftlichen Verein. New 
York, 1878. 

Mr. G. Laurence Gomme, honorary secretary of the English 
Folk Lore Society, has written to the secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution asking cooperation in carrying out the aims of 
the society. Perhaps there is no country where the facts of prim- 
itive culture are so easily accessible as our own. In addition to 
the fertile field offered by our aborigines, we have the negroes of 
the South, and the myth-pi serving pe.is mtry transported to our 
shores from all the lands of the earth. The Naturalist will be 



50 General Notes. [January, 

foremost in encouraging this as it has been with other branches 
of anthropological study. 

The first number of Vol. viii, of the Journal of the Anthro- 
pological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, dated August, is 
an unusually interesting brochure. The paper which will prove 
most interesting to the general student is " On the coloring mat- 
ter found in human hair," by H. C. Sorby. The author is begged 
to reconsider his statement that black hair is not made lighter by 
direct sunlight. Our black horses at the South all become a 
dirty brown color in August, and many will recall the foxy red hair 
of the little negroes that greeted the traveler at every wayside 
before the late war. Mr. W. St. Chad Boscawen makes a com- 
munication upon the Primitive culture of Babylonia, which reviews 
the evolution of the cuneiform writing. Other papers are: 
On the original range of the Papuan and Negrette races, by 
Francis A. Allen; The spread of the Slaves, Part 2, by H. H. 
Ho worth. 

The first and second quarterly parts of Archiv fin 
for 1878, come at the same time. The paper on pre-historic cop- 
per implements of North America has already been noticed. 
The following titles may have some interest to special students : 
Upon the value of the frontal pro. 1 quamm ossis 

temporum, Stinijortsa icr Sc> ap\ ' 1 '/yV) as a race character- 
istic, by Dr. Lucfwig Stieda ; Upon the problem of the origin of 
marriage; Communications at the sessions of the Society of 
the Lower Rhine, by Prof. Schaafhausen ; C. Von Baers' anthro- 
pological and geographical writings, by L. Stieda; Upon meas- 
uring and fixing the horizontal of the skull, by Prof. Schaaf- 
hausen. Bound up with Archiv arc Nos. 9, 10 and II of Cone- 
spondaiz-Blatt, giving a full account of the general meeting of 
the German Anthropological society at Constanz, 24-26 Sept. 
1877. This is by far the most instructive part of the number, and 
lets us glance at the immense activity of our German brethren. 

The October number of Revue d. Anthropologic contains the 
following original papers : Note on a pre-historic tumulus in 
Buenos Ayres, by Estasnilao Ceballos ; Study of the Soninkes 
(Senegal), by Dr. Berenger-Feraud ; The Skulls of the blacks of 
India (tribe of Maravars), by K. Callamand; Note on the Bahnars 
(Cochin China), by Dr. A. Morice. The most valuable part of 
the number is that occupied by the description of the " Interna- 
tional Congress of A ,.:.. ; ;, The following are 
given in full: Openihgaddres , by Dr. Paul Broca; Report of anthro- 
pological societies, by M. Thulie; Report on general anthropology, 
by P. Topinard; Reports on ethnology, by MM. Girardde Rialle 
and Bordier ; Reports on palaeontology, by MM. G. de Mortillet, 
E. Cartaillac and E. Chautre ; Report on demography, by M. 
Chervin. 

The Societe Imperiale des Amis des Sciences Naturelles 



d' Anthropologic et d'Ethnographie de Moscow has not only taken 
an active part in the Universal Exposition, but has also published 
a pamphlet giving a brief sketch of the society and the work 
which it has done for the ethnology of the countries within Rus- 



GBOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS.' 
Unknown Africa. — M. H. Duveyrier has recently read a 
learned paper before the Paris Geographical Society in which he 
divides the unexplored portions of Africa into six great regions. 
These regions are: I. The Sahara and the Libyan Desert, meas- 
uring 5,750,000 square kilometres, and notwithstanding its deso- 
late aspect containing in its ancient populations and rich oases 
much of great interest. 2. In the west the country between the 
Joliba and the coast of Guinea, covering the surface of 1,200.000 
square kilometres. 3. In the center north of the equator the 
upper courses and the sources of the Benue and the Shari com- 
posing an area of 800,000 square kilometres in which to seek to 
complete our knowledge of the basins of the Nile and the Shari, 
and to discover the sources of the latter and those of the Benue. 
4. In the southern equatorial zone adjacent to the preceding and 
embracing the head waters of the Nile, the sources of the Ogowe 
and the basin of the Congo, extending over 2,000,000 square kilo- 
metres, some of the greatest problems of African geography re- 
main to be decided. 5. In the south the basin of the Cunene 
and the districts about Angola and Benguela. 6. Finally, in the 
east, the region which forms a triangle culminating in Cape Garda- 
fui whose interior is totally unexplored, and presents subjects of 
investigation not only geographical, but also historical of the high- 
Adding together the areas of these six great lacunae, we find 

than one-third of the African continent. But there is no reason 
to be discouraged at this large figure. Since the beginning of 
the present century the exploration of Africa has pro- 
gressed at a mean rate of 234,285 square kilometres per year, 
and if it goes on at this rate, the whole of the African inter- 
ior ought to be known in less than forty-eight years. But this 
calculation takes no account of the geometric progression of the 
figure of these discoveries which now produce in one year more 
than in the first twenty years of the century. 

African Exploration.— Dr. Gerhard Rohlfs arrived at Tripo- 
lis on the 24th of October last. He expects to proceed early in 
December to Kufrah and thence to Wadai. He will then en- 
deavor to trace the rivers Shari and Benue to their sources, and 
to explore the region intervening between them and the rivers 

1 Edited by Ei.i.is FI. Yarnu.l. Philadelphia. 



5 2 General Notes. [January, 

Ogowe and Congo. He is accompanied by a zoologist, Dr. 
Stecker. The German African Association has granted him 
57,500, and the German Emperor has entrusted him with valua- 
ble presents for the ruler of Wadai, in recognition of the kindness 
shown Dr. Nachtigal. 

M. Paul Solleilet, who endeavored a few years ago to open up 
a commercial route between Algiers and Senegal, started from 
Bordeaux in the early part of 1878, on a second expedition with 
the same object for Saint Louis in Senegal. From there he pro- 
ceeded to Backel, 250 leagues from the mouth of the Senegal 
river. Leaving there on the 8th of June, he arrived at Kuniakaro 
on the 23d of that month. When last heard from he was on the 
point of starting for Sego on the Niger. He proposes to winter 
in that town, and descend the river as far as Timbuktu in the 
ensuing spring. From thence he hopes to go to In-Salah and 
from thence to Algiers. 

The feasibility of connecting the depression of the Shot-el- 
Jerid with the Mediterranean, and thus flooding the Algerian Sa- 
hara, is being investigated by Capt. Roudaire at the expense of the 
French Minister of Education. He has with him Dr. Andre who 
will examine into the natural history of the country. 

The Portugese African Expedition, under Major Serpa Pinto, 
left Benguela on November 12, 1877, for Bihe, and reached the 
latter place in the following March. From particulars gathered 
by the Academy from Lisbon journals, we learn that they found 
the porter-difficulty even greater on the west than on the east 
coast, because as a rule the natives are only willing to engage for 
short journeys and specific destinations. At Bihe the explorers 
resolved to separate into two parties ; Messrs. Capello and Ivens 
starting in a northern direction, whilst Major Serpa Pinto, on May 
18, 1878, was on the eve of departing for the Upper Zambesi, in- 
tending to reach Zumbo early next year. This journey is likely 
to be very difficult, owing to the small escort and limited amount 
of goods taken and the hostile character of the tribes to be en- 
countered. He proposes first to explore the region between the 
Cubango and the Zambesi. The geographical and meteorological 
observations already obtained are said to be very interesting. 
The Cubango has its source at a great distance west of Bihe, near 
that of the Cunene at Bailundo. The streams flowing to the west 
directly to the sea, or north into the Quanza, or south into the 
Cunene, have their sources in the vast marshy depressions of the 
country, between 12 30' and 13 S. latitude. 

A successful experiment in the introduction of trained ele- 
phants from India into Africa has been made this year by Col. 
Gordon in Egypt. The elephants were first taken to Khartum 
and thence marched to Duffli, where they were employed in carry- 
ing all kinds of heavy goods. During their march they swam 
across the Nile three times. A portion of their journey from the 



1 879.] Geography and Travels. 53 

Sobat to Bahr was over territory never before traversed. The 
negroes along the line of march were frightened by them and 
made no attempt to attack the party. The elephants have gradu- 
ally learned to live on leaves and grass as the wild elephants do, 
and keep in first rate condition. Col. Gordon consequently ad- 
vises travelers to the interior from Zanzibar to use elephants, and 
thus avoid the necessity for a host of porters — a never ending 
source of delay and annoyance. 

The Abbe Debaize, for whose scientific mission to Central Af- 
rica the French Government has apportioned a sum of 100,000 
francs, reached Zanzibar early in June of last year. After the in- 
evitable delay in obtaining porters and supplies, he started at the 
head of a caravan of 400 persons from Kikoka near Bagamoyo, on 
August 6th, and was last heard from at Mpwapwa, on Septem- 
ber 1st. He has a good knowledge of Arabic, Coptic and of some 
East African languages, and has recently received instructions in 
Natural History from Milne-Edwards and from Capt. Mouchez, of 
the Paris Observatory, for astronomical observation. 

The Belgian East African Expedition sent out under the aus- 
pices of the International African Association, at Brussels, after 
very great delay and several changes in its corps (caused by the 
death of two and the resignation of other members), and now 
conducted by M. M. Cambier, Wantier and Dutrieux, set out 
from Bagamoyo on July 4th. The Expedition included probably 
over 500 natives, of whom, however, 325 soon deserted with a 
large quantity of valuable goods. Leaving his companions to 
obtain other porters in place of the deserters, M. Cambier pushed 
on by a route half way between those of Mr. Stanley and Mr. 
Price to Mpwapwa. On August 13th, he started for Urambo in 
Unyamwesi where he contemplates founding the first of the 
"stations //< yi/ai , es et s ■t/itiju/ucs." Dr. Dutrieux had reached 
Mpwapwa on August 26th. 

Ten Catholic Missionaries from Algeria also departed from 
Bagamoyo, on June 16th, 1878, and arriving at Mpwapwa on 
July 27th, separated — one party going to the Victoria Nyanza 
and the remainder to Ujiji. These missionaries have been prac- 
ticed in the use of scientific instruments. 

The Academy states that the London Missionary Society has 
heard of the arrival of its Tanganyika mission party at Ujiji. The 
march from Urambo, the capital of Unyamwesi, occupied but 
eighteen days, and the news " reached London in the short space 
of seventy-eight days, of which forty -five only were required for 
the transmission of the letter from Ujiji to Zanzibar, a distance 
of some 650 miles, and yet but eight years ago Dr. Livingstone 
was looked upon as lost, though he was residing at the former 
place." 

Mr. Keith Johnston, the leader of the expedition which the 
Committee of the African Exploration Fund are about to dispatch 



54 General Notes. [January, 

from the east coast of Africa to Lake Nyassa, 1 left England for 
Zanzibar on the 14th of November last. Nature states that his 
second in command, Mr. Thomson, has had an excellent train- 
ing as a geologist, and it is expected that he will make important 
contributions to our knowledge of the geology of the region to 
be visited. 

Sir Fowell Buxton stated, at a recent meeting of the Royal 
Geographical Society, that during the last year forty miles of the 
road from Dar-es-Salaam to the north end of the Nyassa have 
been made. The natives give no trouble and gladly use the road, 
but continue to walk in Indian file, so that the rapid growth of 
vegetation is but little impeded. One of the missionaries at 
Livingstonia, Lake Nyassa, departed, in June, 1878, on a journey 
through a portion of the country west of the lake. 

The mission sent out by the Church Missionary Society to the 
Victoria Nyanza and Uganda has not been abandoned, although 
of the four who reached the lake in 1877, one, Dr. Smith, died of 
disease, and Lieut. Smith and Mr. O'Neil were murdered. The 
Rev. C. T. Wilson was at King Mtesa's capital, Rubaga, in 
Uganda, when the news of the massacre of his companions 
reached him, when he crossed the lake to Speke's Bay and made 
his way to Unyanyembe. The Society, however, has at least 
fourteen agents in the field, some of whom are carpenters, me- 
chanics and agriculturists, and expect to have a chain of mission 
stations between Speke's Bay and Zanzibar. Mr. Wilson returned 
to Uganda in January, 1878, and up to the date of his last letter 
(May 9, 1878), was living comfortably at Rubaga, where he awaits 
the arrival of three colleagues sent out by the Nile route. From 
letters quoted in the Academy we learn that he has been favorably 
impressed with the quickness and skill in imitation of the Waganda. 
In his opinion they deserve the title of "the Chinese in Africa." 
They excel in basket making and in working in iron, copper and 
brass. They also dress skins beautifully. He also writes that 
the north-west corner of the Victoria Nyanza is thickly dotted with 
islands, some of which are fifteen miles long. The people say 
there are four hundred of them, and he has himself seen fifty or 
sixty. They are all called "Sasse" or "Sesse Islands," which 
maybe translated "Isles of the Fishermen." These islands by 
dead reckoning extend to about S. lat. o° 40'. In the winter and 
spring of 1877 the Nyanza slowly rose until the middle of May, 
when the maximum of two feet above the ordinary level was 
reached, and it then began to recede. In January, 1878, however, 
the water was within an inch or an inch and a half of its maximum 
in the previous May. The Academy remarks that in 1878, there 
was "a good Nile." which was not the case in 1877. 

The Church Missionary Society, the Academy also states, has 
decided to despatch an expedition to the south-western end of the 



1 879.] Geography and Travels. 5 5 

Albert Nyanza, and in Dr. Behm's Monatsbcricht in the October 
■.•••. it is announce*! that the Swedish Mission Society, 
assisted by a wealthy English gentleman, proposes also to estab- 
lish a station at Fatiko, northeast of the lake. The latest ex- 
plorations have considerably reduced the dimensions of the Albert 
Nyanza. Romolo Gessi placed its southern limit at o° 50' N. lat. 
Stanley discovered the Beatrice Gulf at about o° 25' N. lat., and 
believes it to be a portion of a hitherto unknown body of water — 
the Muta Nzige.and not connected with the Albert. Col. Mason 
Bey, who last circumnavigated the Albert Lake, shows that its 
shape is different, and its dimensions even smaller than were sup- 
posed by Gessi. His compass survey was checked by four astro- 
nomical observations. The lake is rectangular, not elliptical, in 
shape, and Mason Bey places its southern limit at N. lat. i° 10'. 
Both Gessi and Mason Bev agree that no large river discharges 
itself into the lake at its southern extremity, nor is there any 
communication with any other large lake. The Athenceum notices 
some views put forth on the subject by an Italian geographer, 
who suggests that the Albert Nyanza is simply a back water or 
reservoir of the Murchison or Victoria Mile, which would account 
for the varying dimensions of the lake. The Athenceum also 
doubts if the supposed isolation oi the I'anganyika from the basin 
of the Albert is yet satisfactorily proved. 

Summary of the Field Work of the United States Geo- 

Prof. F. V. IIavden. dl-i ixr, ini -i w>\ of 1 878.— During the 
past season the work of the United States Geological and Geo- 
graphical Survey, under the direction of Prof. F. V. Hayden, was 
continued northward into portions of Wyoming and Montana 
Territories. The usual appropriation for the survey was not 
passed by Congress until July, rendering the field season very 
short, yet the results were of considerable magnitude and of much 



The survey proper was divided into four parties, one of which 
was devoted 'to the extension of the primary triangulation to the 
northward, two were engaged in topographic and geologic work, 
and the fourth p rfo in ! hot o phi. p 1 ;p cial geologic dutv. 
All the parties left the Union Pacific Railroad from Point of 
Rocks and Green River Stations about July 25, and proceeded 
northward toward the Yellowstone National Park. To the second 
division was assigned the duty of making an exhaustive survey 
of the park and its surroundings, and to the third the exploration 
of the Wind River range and the Snake River country. The 
primary triangulation was extended over about twelve thousand 
square miles. Eight prim u v stations were occupied, among them 
Wind River, Fremont's and Grand Teton Peaks, which are among 
the most difficult and hazardous of ascent on the continent. This 
division would have performed double this amount of work had 



56 General Notes. [January, 

a band of hostile Indians not robbed it of its entire outfit about 
the middle of the season. 

The second division made a very detailed survey of the Na- 
tional Park, securing the materials for the preparation of a topo- 
graphical and geographical map on a scale of one mile to one 
inch. The geologist not only studied the geology minutely, but 
also sketched every square mile of the area. An unusually in- 
teresting and valuable collection of volcanic rocks and hot-spring 
specimens was obtained. The entire collection of the survey, 
which are of a varied character, will amount to about three tons 
weight. 

The third division explored with equal care the Wind River 
and Teton ranges of mountains, a region of which comparatively 
little was previously known. The peak named by the survey 
Fremont's Peak was found to be over 14,000 feet in height above 
the sea, with no trace that any human being had ever previously 
reached its summit. Three complete glaciers were discovered on 
the east side of the Wind River Mountains, the first ever known 
to exist east of the Pacific coast. The old glaciated rocks and 
morainal deposits were found on a remarkably grand scale in both 
the Wind River and Teton ranges. 

The object of again surveying the Yellowstone Park was to 
bring it under the system of triangulation which had been em- 
ployed with so much success in Colorado and to make the entire 
work uniform. All the old hot-spring basins were resurveyed in 
great detail, and several new ones were discovered and mapped. 
Soundings and temperatures of several thousand hot springs were 
taken. The history and habits of the geysers were carefully 
studied. The photographer of the survey obtained over fifty 
fine views of the bowls and other curious ornamental details of 
the Hot Springs. 

The results of the season's labors, though a short one, have 
been on the whole very satisfactory. About 12,000 square miles 
of very difficult country were surveyed, much of it in minute de- 
tail, and a mass of observation secured for the twelfth annual 
report, which will make it of more general interest and value than 
any of the preceding. 

The district assigned to this survey by this department for the 
next Atlas comprises all the area of the Territories of the United 
States north of latitude 41 45', east of meridian 117 and west 
of meridian 94 . It is estimated that the mapping of this area 
will occupy five years more, and when this is completed, the sur- 
vey will have mapped over one-fourth the territory of the United 
States west of the one hundredth meridian. 

Geographical News.— Peterman n's Mittlitihtn^oi will be con- 
tinued and conducted by Dr. E. Behm, who has been long con- 
nected with Justus Perthes l : ^t;ibli-hnii:nt, is one of the editors of 
the well-known Bevolkerung der Erde, and is the author of the 



1 879.] Microscopy. 57 

excellent monthly summaries of geographical news in this most 
important of geographical journals. Besides others, the number 
for November contains an article on the use of elephants in African 
exploration, written bv Dr. Petermann shortly before his death, 
and one concerning D'Alberti's New Guinea Exploration, with a 
map of the Fly River. The Geographical Magazine for No- 
vember contains the best map of the seat of war in Afghanistan 
which has yet appeared, both as regards accuracy, fullness of in- 
formation and excellence in the mechanical execution. With the 
December number this periodical ceased to be published, but is 
replaced by the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and 
\Ionud\ (a -n ' nderth< l r^c: .1 the Secretary of 

the Society, Mr. Clements R. Markham, who so ably conducted the 

magazine. Several new geographical monthly periodicals have 

recently appeared in Europe. The Deutsche Rundschau fur Geo- 
graphic ?t:id Statistik is edited by Prof. Arendts, of Munich, and 
published by Hartleben, Vienna. Aits fern en Zonen, published 
by Mutze, Leipzig, is especially intended for the reception of 
communications from members of the various Christian mis- 
sions in the less known portions of the globe ; whilst from 
Paris the Annates de ['Extreme Orient, edited by Count Mey- 
ners d'Estrey, of the Indian press, expects to keep the scientific 
world informed of literary and geographical progress in South- 
ern Asia, and especially in the Dutch Indies and in Dutch 

Oriental literature. Dr. Nachtigal, the distinguished African 

traveler, has been elected President of the Berlin Geographical 

Society. The Athenaum states that Mr. Johnson, the present 

Governor of Ladakh, when connected with the Indian Survey of 
1865, ascended Peak E. 61 of the Kuen Lun range, whose 
height it now appears is no less than 23,890 feet! This is be- 
lieved to be the greatest height above the level of the sea attained 
by any traveler on foot. The plains at the base of the Peak have 
probably an altitude of nearly 1 8,000 feet. 
MICROSCOPY. 1 

Removal of Air from Microscopic Specimens.— Much diffi- 
culty has been experienced by the working microscopist in 
removing air from his specimens. If he wishes to mount wood- 
sections the difficulty is increased. Some may suppose that such. 
an undertaking is physically impossible; for hitherto, in spite ot 
all the pains and labor taken, unless by some lucky stroke, as it 
were, bubbles of air will still be left in the objects, and the slide 
becomes entirely worthless as a perfect specimen. 

Various methods have been adopted to remove these bubbles 
of air, with greater or less success. One method has been to 
soak the specimens, after they have been cut, in different fluids 
for some length of time. The favorite fluids have been turpen- 

1 This department is edited by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy. X. V. 



tneral Notes. [January, 

ke ; these, however, give very unsatis- 
, Dr. C. B. Johnson, of Providence, 
K. I., informs me that he has sections of wood which have been 
laying in oil of cloves for over three years, and from which the 
bubbles of air have not been at all removed. Perhaps the same 
may be said of the oleo-resins. Recourse has also been had to the 
air-pump ; the idea being that an object placed beneath the bell 
glass, a few strokes of the piston will suck out all the air from it. 
But although in theory this seems plausible enough, yet as a per- 
fect vacuum cannot be attained, some air, be it ever so small 
an amount, must render the objects of no use for microscopic 

Thus have microscopists been at their wits' end to discover 
some process by which their object can be perfectly and satisfac- 
torily accomplished. As no notice has been made of late of any 
new procedure in this direction, I think my friend, Dr. Johnson, 
who has had great success in mounting objects for the micro- 
scope, can justly be entitled to the first discovery of a mode for 
the removal of air, at once simple and effective. The apparatus 
he employs is of very simple construction, being a digester, or, as 
in his case, a common dentists' vulcanizer, the means — steam. 
The specimens to be thus treated, especially those of wood, are 
prepared in the usual way, and made ready for mounting. They 
are next placed in a small vessel of any material which will resist 
a certain amount of heat. Dr. Johnson uses a small glass phial 
in his experiments ; this is filled up with water after all the speci- 

cork can be used, but a .-.lit must be cut in it to allow the escape 
of air and the admission of steam and hot water. A little water 
is now poured into the vulcanizer, the bottle of objects placed 
within and the lid of the machine screwed air tight. The whole 
is now heated to a temperature of about 300 Fahr. for a few 
minutes. This temp irature is sufficient for all practical purposes; 
a higher degree of heat is unnecessary, or a longer time to 
remain at the given temperature needless. 

When sufficiently cooled the phial is removed, the water 
drained from the bottle and alcohol substituted. The specimens 
are now ready for mounting, or can be bottled and set away 
indefinitely for use. 

This constitutes the whole process ; by it the specimens are 
absolutely free from air. Perfect satisfaction is guaranteed ; and 
in every case we are absolutely sure of the results, provided of 
course that the proper care has been taken. 

The modus operandi seems to be that the steam penetrates the 
pores of the wood or other substances, and forces out the air whose 
place it takes. The air is then absorbed by or dissolved in the sur- 
rounding medium. The woody fibres are not destroyed by the hot 
and compressed steam, except the soft tissues, as one would at first 



1879.] Microscopy. 59 

sight suppose. Theyar i. and their purposes for 

microscopic study remain as good as by any other process. Ten- 
der specimens in every case must be tenderly treated. This 
mode of procedure has been followed by several microscopic 
friends in my vicinity for two or three years, and all the specimens 
so treated have been remarked for their beauty and excellence. — 
F. C. Clark, Providence R. I. 

Limits of Accuracy in Measurements with the Microscope. 
— Before we can safely draw conclusions from a given series of 
measurements, it is necessary to know within what limits their 
errors can be determined. A simple and direct way to do this is 
to compare the measurements of the same space made by differ- 
ent observers and under entirely different conditions. I may get 
results which show an agreement, inter se t quite within the limits 
of the accuracy required, and which are yet wide of the truth. 
But if another observer obtains substantially the same results 
from a series of measurements mad lifferent con- 

ditions, the inference of their general correctness may be drawn 
with tolerable safety. 



One must dra 


w a sl- 


larp distinction betw 


een absolute accuracv 


nd an appearance of 


accuracy. For exa 


mple, the 


head of the 


:rew of my divi 


uing < ngme can be set to c 


orrespond 




f one billionth 




1 inch with entire < 




1 far as the 


lechanical indi 




3 of this degree of a- 






nd yet previou; 


s to May, 1877, the actual 1 


errors of a 


given ruled 


late amounted 






TiWofani 


nch. Even 


ow, after four 


epo h 


s of improvement, 


I can hard 


lv say of a 


iven space that 






nhn of an 


inch, until 


have made a s 


pedal 




iparator. 



the cooperation of Prof. Edward W. Morley, of Hudson, Ohio, 
an observer who possesses in a high degree the three requisites, 
patience, care and skill. I ruled five plates of bands, plates No. 
1 and No. 2, having spaces of ^ihy and ? ixr of an inch, respect- 
ively. These plates were ruled just as, I regret to say, all plates wen 
ruled previous to May, 1877, without any attempt to correct the 

previous to this date every effort was made to correct these errors 
by mechanical adjustments. After this date I deliberately aban- 
doned all attempts to do this. Instead, I resolved to admit the 
existence of these errors, and after determining their value, I 
adopted a device for correct nig them lining the process of ruling. 
Plate No. 3 was ruled like No. I, but with these systematic cor- 
rections applied. My next improvement consists in adopting a 
device for correcting not merely the systematic errors depending 
on one revolution of the screw, but also the errors peculiar to 
particular parts of the screw. Plate No. 4 consists of 101 lines 
separated bv an interval of 77 Vt) of an inch, and freed as nearly as 



6o Scientific News. [January, 

possible from errors of all kinds. Plate No. 5 consists of 21 
lines separated by an interval of ^ mm. After careful measure- 
ment with two different micrometers and two comparators, the 
plates were sent to Prof. Morley, the details of whose measure- 
ments will be found in the forthcoming volume of the Proceed- 
ings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The 
degree of agreement between his results and my own is much 
more perfect than I had anticipated before beginning this investi- 
gation. 

I<rom this investigation I think we may safely draw the follow- 
ing conclusions : (a.) Two equally skillful observers can measure 
the same space within about sTTsWr of an inch if the space does 
not exceed ^ of an inch. For a space of T ^ of an inch the 
deviation v/ill probably amount to *^<nf of an inch in case the 
measurements are made with an eye piece or a filar micrometer. 
(a). The average deviation for accumulated errors under similar 
conditions is not far from -g^v of an inch for eleven intervals. 
For a larger number of intervals the deviation will be somewhat 
larger, but it will not be in proportion to the number of intervals. 
(c). A single observer can obtain an agreement with a normal 
equation representing all the observed values as far as a solution 
by least squares can represent them, within somewhat smaller 
limits than those obtained by comparing the results obtained bv 
two different observers.— Win. A. Rogers, Harvard College Obser- 
vatory. {From a paper read at the X.ttioual Microscopical Congress y 
August, 1878. 

The Society Screw. — At a recent meeting of the State Micro- 
scopical Society of Illinois, Mr. Bulloch urged the desirability of 
adopting a uniform objective screw of larger size than the society 
screw now in use, as being essential to the efficiency of low power 
lenses of high angle. That the society screw, which has now 
become an almost indispensable convenience, is too small to 
admit of efficient work from these lenses, is a conceded fact, and 
some makers in this country who make low powers of enormous 
angle have already adopted special screws for them. The uni- 
formity urged by Mr. Bulloch is greatly to be desired, and could 
be easily attained if its importance were appreciated in time. 

Exchanges. — Gatherings containing polycystina, etc., wanted 
in exchange. Address I. F. Stidham, Columbus, Ohio. 

Western mosses, etc., for other species. George W. Wor- 
cester, West Side, Crawford Co., Ohio. 

Diatomaceous earths and named diatoms for named diatoms or 
other good mounted objects. M. A. Booth, Longmeadow, Mass. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

1, attached to 
urvey of the 



1879.] Scientific News. 61 

Territories, has issued its first report on the Rocky Mountain lo- 
cust, or destructive grasshopper of the West, a volume of 700 
pages, fully illustrated with maps, plates, and woodcuts. 

The favorable predictions made by the commission last winter 
had an encouraging effect, and stimulated the Immigration to the 
country of late years ravaged by locusts. The statement which a 
full survey of the field enabled the commission to make in ad- 
vance, viz : that there would be no serious injury in 1878, has 
been fully verified. The commissioners have continued their la- 
bors during the past summer, confining their attention to that 
northwestern portion of the country which they have designated 
as the Permanent Region, the object being to gather further 
knowledge of that region, with a view of preventing the ravages 
of the Rocky Mountain locust therein and its migration there- 

The problem of destroying the young- insects as they hatch out 
in the more fertile country in the agricultural regions of the 
West, is virtually solved in the report which the commission has 
already issued, and the task Which they now undertake is to en- 
deavor tfc> prevent the migration of the winged insects from the 
Permanent Region into the more thickly settled country. 

An appropriation of $25,000 was asked of the last Congress for 
the completion of the work mapped out, and $10,000 were appro- 
priated, and this only toward the end of the fiscal year. The com- 
missioners ask for an additional sum of $15,000, in order that they 
may be able to continue their investigation until the practical 
work is accomplished. It was too late in the season when the 
last appropriation was obtained to permit the completion of the 
work this year, but with such means as they have husbanded, 
added to the additional appropriation asked for, and with prom- 
ised assistance by the Dominion authorities, they will be enabled, 
by getting into the field early the coming spring, to complete 
fully the work assigned to them. — From the Report of the Secretary 
of the Interior for 187S. 

— A report of the Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory for the 
last summer appears in the Third Annual Report of the John 
Hopkins University, Baltimore. This laboratory was established 
by Prof. W. K. Brooks for the higher instruction of the students 
of the University and others in zoology. It was opened at Fort 
Wool, June 24, 1878, and closed Aug. 19th. Some excellent 
work was accomplished, notwithstanding the lack of the large 
marine animals. Enough was accomplished, we should judge, to 
warrant the authorities of the University in maintaining the 
school and rendering attendance upon it a necessary part of the 
biological course. 

We notice that the following papers in biology were read at the 
meetings of the Scientific Association of the John Hopkins Uni- 
versity : On the early stages in the development of Gastropod's, 



62 Scientific News. [January, 

by W. K. Brooks ; A review on the expenditure of energy by 
working muscle, by H. N. Martin; On the formation of the 
female pelvis, by C. Sihler; On the influence of stimulation of the 
optic lobes upon the respiratory center of the frog, by H. N. 
Martin ; Contributions towards a history of the Maryland Cam- 
ban, by P. R. Uhler; The Urodela of North America, by S. F. 
Clark. 

— The work of the United States Fish Commission was car- 
ried on with an unusual degree of success at Gloucester, Mass., 
during the past summer. The steamer Speedwell made her last 
trip September 26th, having been used almost daily in dredging 
trips since the middle of July. Prof. Baird, the commissioner, was 
assisted by Professor Verrill, Mr. Richard Rathbun and Mr. San- 
derson Smith, who paid special attention to the marine inverte- 
brates ; Prof. Farlow studied the algae, Prof. Goode, Dr. Bean and 
Mr. Earle attended to the fishes, while Mr. Asaph Hall, Jr., had 
charge of the temperature observations. A good many new 
fishes, corals and other invertebrates were collected, while much 
that is new regarding food-fishes and fisheries was discovered. 
The energy and success of the manifold operations of this 
important Commission are most apparent. 

— A goose belonging to a Gloucester, Mass., family died last 
week at the advanced age of 70 years. They have another still 
living that is known to be 50 years of age. 

We have not endeavored to substantiate this statement, but 
copy it from the daily papers. Geese of this age certainly 
deserve an obituary notice. Can any one give us authentic 
statements regarding the extreme old age of fowl and quad- 
rupeds ? 

— We learn from Mr. S. II. Scudder that a hymenopterous 
insect (Myrmarj very slightly larger than Pteratomus putnamii, 
being very slightly over one-ninetieth of an inch long, has been 
found in amber, according to Duisberg's Zur Bernstein Fauna 
(Schriften K. Phys. Okonomische Gesellschaft zu Konigsberg. 
Band 9, p. 23). These two insects are members of the same 
family {Proctotrupida) and are the smallest insects yet known. 

— B Westermann & Co. send us the title of an important work 
whose publication has just begun, viz: Buctecker's Systema En- 
tomologiae sistens Insectorum Classes, Genera, Species. Pars I. 
Odonata (Fabric.) Europ. 42 tabulae, photograph, floridisque 
coloribus distinctae. Colored $27.50, plain $13.20 This work 
will be published in fifteen volumes, and its continuation is 
secured, the MS. being all ready. 

— We have been repeatedly asked what is the figure on the 
first page of the cover of this magazine. It is copied from a figure 
in Haeckel's great work on. Radiolaria, of his Eucyrtidium cran- 



i 879.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 63 

aides. The bell-shaped shell is perforated by numerous holes, 
out of which stream in all directions the pseudopodia, some of 
which are enlarged at intervals into small masses of protoplasm. 

— The death has recently been announced of Sir Richard John 
Griffith, Bart, the geologist and engineer, who died in Dublin, 
aged 94 years ; of Thomas Belt, an English mining engineer and 
geologist, well known from his " Naturalist in Nicaragua," who 
died at Denver, Colorado, Sept. 22d ; and of Prof. Robert Hark- 
ness, who died Oct. 3d, at Dublin. 

— Subscriptions are solicited lor a Manual of Conchology ; 
structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species, by 
George VV. Tryon, Jr., conservator of conchological section of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia. Vol. i, Cephalo- 
poda, will be published by the author at Philadelphia, during the 
the coming year. 

— The schooner Florence, of the Howgate Arctic Expedition, 
which returned at the close of October, Congress having failed to 
appropriate money for Polar colonization, brought home valu- 
able collections of specimens and drawings, made by Mr. Kum- 
lein, the naturalist of the expedition. 

— Under the name of Science Nezvs, Mr. S. E. Cassino, of 
Salem, Mass., publishes an octavo fortnightlv magazine of sixteen 
pages, edited by Messrs. Ernest Ingersoll and VV. C. Wyckoff 
It is devoted to general science, physical as well as natural. 

Dr. Kalter, the editor of the Entomologische Nackrichten, pub- 
lished fortnightly at Putbus a Rugen, Germany, desires copies oi' 
papers and articles by North American entomologists for notice 
in his periodical. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Proceedings of the Academv of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, Nov. 5, 1878. — Thos. Meehan and others remarked upon 
the indigenous character of Calluna vulgaris. 

Nov. 12. — Dr. Jos. Leidy made some remarks on the dis- 
tribution of Choiopodium; he also described some parasites of 
Donax fossor, one of which he named Distomum cornutifrons. 
Meehan remarked on Mitchella repens. Dr. A. J. Parker made 
some remarks on the comparative development of the Island of 
Reil in the brains of Primates. 

Nov. 19.— Messrs. Gray, Redfield and Meehan spoke on the 
evidence in favor of the indigenous character of Calluna vulgaris . 
Drs. Leidy and Evarts made observations upon Gordius, tin- 
former gentleman describing a new species parasitic in Clepsine 
which he called G. tenuis. 

Dec. 3. — Dr. Leidv made some remarks on the raritv of Taenia 



64 Selected Articles in Scientific Journals. [January, 1879. 

solium, and the commoner occurrence of T. maliocaucllata, with 
some account of the specific differences which he had observed. 

Proceedings of the Sections of the Academy: — Microscopical 
and Biological, Nov. 4.— Mr. J. A. Ryder remarked "On the 
Gemmule vs. the Plastidule as the Ultimate Physical Unit of 
Living Matter." 

Nov. 18.— Dr. J. G. Hunt, on the classification of Fungi and 
the best modes for their microscopical study. Mr. Jos. Zentmayer 
exhibited a new mechanical revolving stage, which admitted of 
yo° of obliquity of illumination. 

Dec. 2.— Dr. H. C. McCook made a communication "On the 
minute anatomy of the stinging organs of ants." 

Boston Society of Natural History, Nov. 20. — Dr. David 
Hunt make a communication entitled Darwinism and the Human 
Eye; Dr. C. S. Minot remarked on growth as a function of cells. 

Dec. 4. — Dr. S. Kneeland remarked on traces of the Mediter- 
ranean nations in the Northern Ocean. Mr. S. H. Scudder read 
a paper on early types of insects, or the origin and succession of 
insect life in palaeozoic times. 

American Geographical Society, Dec. 12. — Mr. James Doug- 
las, Jr., gave an account of his journey along the West Coast of 
South America from Panama to Valparaiso. 

Appalachian Mountain Club — Prof. H. F. Walling gave some 
account of Mt. Toby, Mass., and Mr. W. H. Pickering described 
an ascent of the Half Dome. Yosemite. 



SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS. 

American Journal of Science and Arts.— December, 1878. 
Valley of the Minnesota river and of the Mississippi river to the 
junction of the Ohio: its origin considered, by G. K. Warren 
(with eight plates). On some points in lithology, J. D. Dana. 
Anatomical peculiarity by which crania of the Mound-builders 
may be distinguished from those of the modern Indians, by W. 
J. McGee. Discoveries in western caves, by H. C. Hovey. 

SlEBOLD AND KOLLIKER'S ZEITSCHRIFT FUR WISSENSCHAFTLICHE 

Zoologie. — November 11. On the convolutions of the brain of 
the Ungulates, by J. Krug. Contributions to the anatomy of the 
Ophiurans, by Prof. H. Ludwig. On some cases of parasitism 
in the Infusoria, by J. Van Rees. On the developmental history 
of the fresh-water mussels, by C. Schierholz. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles.— August 5. Anatomical 
and physiological researches on respiration in the fishes, by M. 
Jobert. Experiments on the conditions of development of 
Ligulse, by M. Deschamp. 



\ Vol XIII.— FEBRUARY, 1879.— No. 2. 



A SKETCH OF NEW ZEALAND, 



LET us turn our attention briefly 
from the historic lands of Europe 
and the East, to the wild and beauti- 
ful islands in the southern hemi- 
sphere. To a mind well stored with 
the poetry and art of ancient civiliza- 
tions, such a change will open out 
new paths for thought amid scenes 
of rare beauty and grandeur. Of all 
the islands which, like great emer- 
alds, stud the southern seas, none 



o\ 



A Sketch of A T c- 



L [February, 

have greater natural attractions than New Zealand. As but few 
Americans have visited those distant shores, we venture to offer 
the following notes, which we have gleaned not only from the 
writings of others, but also from personal observations while 
residing in those islands and from conversation with colonial and 
aboriginal inhabitants. 

Like Van Diemans Land, now changed to Tasmania, New 
Zealand is unfortunate in its name, as it is in every way in con- 
trast with the Zealand of the Netherlands ; while the latter is 
nearly as level and uniform as the sea, the former possesses some 
of the wildest and grandest scenery in the world. 

We owe the discovery of these islands to the Dutch navigator 
Tasman, who, in December, 1642, then on his great voyage of 




discovery in the southern hemisphere, came in sight of a bold 
mountainous land wreathed in clouds, which had never before 
been seen by Europeans. He relates in the narrative of his voy- 
age that upon sending a boat to this unknown shore, it was 
furiously attacked by the natives who thronged the beach, and 
three of his sailors killed. This bloody introduction, together 
with the knowledge which was soon gained, that the New Zea- 
landers were cannibals, at once stamped that race in the sight of 
all civilized people as a most fierce and cruel one. 

This land was next visited, in 1769, by Captain Cook, who, 



1 879.] 



A Sketch of New Zealand. 



6/ 



during his three voyages to the southern seas, very fully 
and surveyed its coast. Passing through the strait that now 
bears his name, Capt. Cook showed that New Zealand was com- 
posed of two main islands ; he also found associated with these 
a number of smaller and far less important ones. These are now 
looked upon as forming a distinct archipelago, which is not only 
isolated from the rest of the world by its geographical position, 
but in the peculiar character of its native inhabitants, and in the 
nature of its fauna and flora. 

The two main islands extend from the 34 of south latitude 
800 miles to the southward, 



,000 squ 



of about 



: ., 



; of Italy. 
These two countries have. 
also, a somewhat similar boot- 
shaped form, the toe in each 
case being turned towards the 
equator. These islands are 
known as the North and South 
Islands; or in the more poetic 
language of the aborigines, 
as Te Ika a Maui— the fish of 
Maui — referring to the form 
of the North Island ; and Te 
Wahi Punamu— the place of 

the locality that afforded the 

highly-prized nephrite from ( 7~ , . 

which the aborigines shaped zeaiuid bag. 

their stone implements and 

personal ornaments. The place of the " punamu " plays as 

important a part in the history and traditions of the New Zealand- 

ers, as did the celebrated red pipe-stone quarry of Minnesota 

among the red races of America. 

The North Island is mainly interesting for its lofty volcanic 
mountains and the indications of volcanic activity still exhibited 
by the smoking volcanoes, solfataras and hot springs which form 
the most striking features in its scenery. Among the numerous 
mountains that record the energy of the ancient volcanic erup- 




A Sketch of AV<v Zealand. 






nost remarkable are Mts. Egmont and Ruapeau, to- 
[ the still smoking peak of Tongario. The latter rises 
nter of the island to an elevation of 6500 feet, and is 
" tapu," mountain of the natives, which no one is 
ascend. The trachytic mountain, known as Ruapeau, 
neighbor of Tongario, and is the highest point in the 
id, its summit being 9165 feet above the sea, and 
.isand feet above the line of perpetual snow. According 
tionsof the Maoris, these mountains once had another 
neighbor whom they 
called Taranaki, a 
quarrel having arisen 
among them concern- 
Pihanga, the wife of 
Tongario, Taranaki 
was forced to flee to 
the westward as far 
as the sea, and now 
forms the grand Mt. 



Northward of the 
central volcanic re- 
gion is the beautiful 
Lake Topu, about 
twenty- five miles in 
length, which is espe- 
cially interesting for 
the numerous hot-springs and geysers along its shores, and also 
for its charming scenery, the grand summits of Tongario and 
Ruapeau limiting the view to the southward. Between Tongario 
and White island, in the Bay of Plenty, the only active volcanoes 
in New Zealand, lies the wonderful " Lake District," that is so 
widely known for the extent and beauty of its spouting geysers, 
mud- volcanoes, etc. The heated waters of these springs bring 
with them large quantities of silica which is deposited around 
them in a series of beautiful siliceous basins, which are orna- 
mented, as if by fairy art, with the most delicate tints and tracery; 




1 8 79 .] 



A Sketch of Net 



09 



from one to another of these snowy basins flow the clear bluish 
waters of the fountains. All these indications of the expiring 
volcanic energy that has been for a long time active, combine to 
make the Lake District one of the most remarkable places in 
New Zealand, and equal in interest to the geysers of Iceland, or 
to the wonderful region of the Yellowstone. 

Another area of former volcanic activity, is the peninsula of 
Auckland, forming the northern extremity of the island. This 
region is occupied throughout by a great number of volcanic 
cones, all of which are 
now extinct and are 
less remarkable for 
their size than for 
their regularity and 
beauty. Many of 
thesecones of eruption 
are surrounded from 
bottom to top with 



of 




years ago, supported 
palisades and formed 
the feudal castles of 

The South Island 
is traversed through- 
out its whole extent 
by a great chain of 



which were very just- 
ly named the Southern Alps. These lofty snow-clad summits 
give to the South Island a grandeur of scenery peculiarly its 
own. Midway down the west coast stand the giant peaks of this 
island; of these Mt. Cook is the highest, and attains an elevation 
of 13,200 feet. Mt. Cook and its host of sister mountains, all 
robed in eternal snow, combine to form the grandest mountain 
scenery in New Zealand, if not in the world. The snow-line is 
sharply drawn along the sides of these rugged mountains at an 
elevation of about 8000 feet. Above this height the snows and 
frozen mists accumulate, and form vast snow-fields which uive 



/O A Skehh o) New Zealand. [February, 

rise to the numerous glaciers that flow down from the Southern 
Alps. The largest of these ice-streams yet explored is the Great 
Tasman Glacier. This flowing river of solid ice has its source on 
Mt. Cook and the neighboring peaks, and flows for a distance of 
eighteen miles down the valley, bearing on its surface an immense 
load of debris which is slowly carried downwards and at last 
deposited at the extremity of the glacier as a terminal moraine. 
This immense glacier ends abruptly in a wall of ice, stretching 
across the valley one hundred and twenty feet high and nearly 
two miles in length. Another of the numerous glaciers of the 
South Island which has attracted considerable attention from the 
low position it attains before becoming melted by the warm air 
and winds in the lower portion of the valley, is the Francis 
Joseph Glacier. This ice-stream flows towards the west coast, 
and reaches to within about 700 feet of the sea level. 

Far below the present glaciers are found the records left by 
still greater streams of ice, that in times long past descended 
from the same mountains. Sometimes a hundred miles beyond 
the terminus of the existing glaciers, an immense wall of glacier- 
worn boulders and other debris is found, stretching completely 
across the valley. These huge moraines mark the place where 
an ancient glacier terminated, and for many centuries deposited, 
as a terminal moraine, the stones and rubbish that accumu- 
lated on the surface of the iee, and were carried slowly forward 
as lateral and medial moraines. 

To the eastward the mountains slope gradually to the ocean, 
and are bordered by the Plains of .Canterbury and other rich areas. 
On the westward they come boldly down to the sea, and are 
penetrated by many picturesque sounds and fiords that extend far 
into the heart of the mountains. Corresponding to the bays and 
sounds that fringe the west coast, we find to the eastward of the 
mountains many beautiful lakes which fill deep Alpine valleys 
and render back the grandeur of the snowy giants that surround 
them. Lake Wakatipu, which is the largest of these, extends 
for a distance of seventy miles into the Southern Alps, and seems 
like a great placid river winding down through the mountains. 
In the grandeur of its scenery this lake is unsurpassed by the 
most celebrated lakes of Switzerland or Scandinavia. Lake 
Wanaka, to the northward of Lake Wakatipu, is pronounced by 
all travelers who have visited it, to be " the most beautiful lake in 
all the world." 



colonists carried with the 
native land, and at once b 



agriculture, mining and other industries. The contrast between 
the thriving colony of to-day and the luxuriant wilderness 
described by early travelers is very striking. It almost seems as 
if some magician had waved his enchanted wand over those dis- 
tant islands and caused populous and beautiful cities to appear 
where before only rank ferns grew. 

The early voyagers to New Zealand found the land inhabited by 
an offshoot of the widely scattered Polynesian family. These 
aborigines still retained the stamp of the brown race from which 



A Sketch of New Zealand. 



[February, 



they sprang, were of good physique, having regular and often 
handsome features, and with long dark hair, indicating their 
superiority to the black races of Africa. 

These isolated people were still using implements of stone 
fashioned into the desired form by chipping and grinding, and 
frequently finished with a fine polish or covered with fanciful 
carvings. The material that was often used, not only for stone- 
axes and war clubs but also for long ear-rings and other personal 
ornaments, was the celebrated punamu, or green jade from the west- 
ern shore of the South Island. Many of the stone 
instruments in the hands of the New Zea- 
landers remind one forcibly of the similar 
implements used by the Lake-dwellers of 
Europe, and the stone axes, adzes, etc., from 
the ancient mounds of our own country 
Like the Neolithic men of Europe, the New 
Zealanders had their fish-hboks of bene and 
their personal ornaments of shell and stone. 
As is common with uncivilized people, they 
amused themselves in carving on bone — fre- 
quently of slain enemies — and on stone and 
wood. Many of these elaborate carvings are 
elegant in design and were beautifully exe- 
cuted with no other instruments than those of 
stone. Their desire for ornament was so great that they covered 
their features with tattooing, transferring indelibly to their faces 
complicated patterns of curved and spiral lines, similar to the 
designs with which they decorated their canoes and houses. 

These aborigines were well advanced in all the arts that pertain 
to barbarous life. They lived in well built houses, usually 
grouped in villages, or "pahs," and surrounded by strong pali- 
sades ; these, if well garrisoned, were impregnable until the intro- 
duction of fire-arms by the Europeans. The incessant warfare 
that was carried on between the various tribes was exceedingly 
fierce and bloody. From the nature of their arms the battles 
were usually hand-to-hand encounters. The wars were entered 
into not only from motives of self protection or revenge, but also 
to obtnin slaves and human flesh for the sustenance of the victo- 
rious tribe. As may be imagined, such a state of things did 
much towards keeping the population scanty and the various 
tribes widely separated. 



1 8/p.] A Sketch of New Zealand. /3 

These aborigines, Maoris, as they termed themselves, were 
without any form of worship; their nearest approach to a religion 
being the exaggerated myths and fables of their ancestors. They 
stand among the very first of uncivilized races, not yielding in 
personal vigor or bravery to the best of the North American 
Indians, and unlike them possessing a mind remarkably plastic 
and capable of improvement and ttion. Such 



were the people of New Zealand before the pale-faces came 
among them ; since that time their destiny has changed. Although 
they have abandoned the practice of cannibalism and ceased the 
fierce wars among themselves, yet they have met a new element 
in the struggle for existence that is more potent than either. The 
very presence of the white man seem to affect these children of 
nature like a deadly malaria. The Maoris, themselves, are aware 
of their destiny and say, " as the clover killed the fern, and the 
European dog the Maori dog; as the Maori rat was destroyed by 
the Pakeha rat, so our people also will be gradually supplanted 
a\m\ exterminated by the Europeans." According to Dieffen- 
bach's calculations the native population of New Zealand was, at 
one time, about 1 15,000 ; in 18/2 it had decreased to a little more 
than 45,000. The natives that remain are every day departing 
farther and farther from the customs and traditions of their 
ancestors. Many of the arts that occupied the people in former 
days are now forgotten ; they no longer shape and polish imple- 
ments of stone, or weave blankets and mats of Phortnium. The 



A Sketch of New Zealand. 



tattoo that i 


n former days was characteristic of the 




people, is now seen only on 




the older faces ; the younger 




generations having abandoned 




the custom through the influ- 




ence of the missionaries. 


W " j\ 


Not only has New Zealand 


■ ! { ***% 


i presented us with a new and 


'*JT m 


1 extremely interesting picture 



of . 



>vt 



the 



age, 



but its flora and fauna have 
been found to be equally in- 

The traveler who enters for 
the first time a New Zealand 
forest, no matter from what 
land he may have wandered, 
will find everything new and 
strange to him. What espe- 
cially attracts the attention is 
the great profusion of cryptog- 
amous or flowerless plants, 
in which these islands are 
°= '-""" flfltf l richer than any other country 

The Chiefs Son. in the world. The ferns alone 

number about a hundred and twenty species, and form the 
the most characteristic feature in the landscape. Thousands of 
these beautiful plants cover the ground with their low and deli- 
cate fronds, as in some portions of our own country ; others entwine 
the trunks of trees for support ; still others attain the size of 
forest trees and rear their great crowns of feathery fronds to a 
height of forty or fifty feet in the air, rivaling in their grace and 
elegance the date-palm of Arabia. As there are but a few birds 
of song in New Zealand, and a scarcity of insect life, the woods 
are always silent. This, together with the strange weird forms of 
the vegetation around, makes a deep impression on the visitor to 
whom such scenes are new. Despite the luxuriance of the ferns, 
we miss the numerous sweet flowers that in our own minds are 
so closely associated with the deep shade of the forest. In New 
Zealand the blossoms are, for the most part, small and inconspic- 
uous, and lacking i 



1 879.] 



A Sketch of N* 






75 



We would not have our readers conclude, however, that New 
Zealand is covered by one immense jungle of luxuriant vegeta- 
tion. Although this is true enough of the regions near the 
coast, yet in the interior, especially of the South Island, the 
country assumes a bold and barren appearance, the rounded hills 







:arc-l 






y any vegetation except the brownish bunch-grass 
' Pteris. Still farther inland the scenery becomes 
wild and Alpine in the extreme. The cause of this great con- 
trast in the aspect of the country lies not only in the elevation 
above the sea, but also in the peculiar physical features of the 
land. The high snow-clad mountains that border the western 



76 A Sketch of New Zealand. [February, 

shore of the island rob the prevailing westerly winds of their 
moisture, so that when they sweep on over the land to the east- 
ward, they have but little of this life-giving element to part with. 

The fauna of New Zealand, like its flora and scenery, is espe- 
cially peculiar to itself. The first feature that attracts our atten- 
tion is the almost total lack of land mammals and reptiles. The 
former are represented by two species of bats and the latter by a 
few small lizards. The position filled by the mammalia in other 
countries is there occupied by the feathered tribes. The birds 
having been, for a long time, almost the sole dwellers on the 
island, their development was carried on unchecked and unmodi- 
fied by many of the circumstances that influence their existence 
in other countries. This freedom of development resulted in the 
production of many strange and anomalous forms that were 
unknown and unlooked for until the studies of the naturalist 
had confirmed the tales told by sailors and adventurers who had 
visited those distant shores. 

One of the strangest birds in existence is the Apteryx, which, 
as the name signifies, is without wings. This bird is found only 
in New Zealand, and thus far only four species are known, mostly 
from the west coast of the South Island. These wingless birds are 
of great interest, not only from the strangeness of their structure 
and habits, but also for the information they afford in reference to 
the giant birds that at no distant day inhabited the same island, 
but which are now extinct. We refer to the huge Moa, whose bones 
are scattered over the country, often lying exposed beneath the 
thick groves of fern, and also occuring plentifully in caves and in 
recent river deposits. That these extinct birds far surpassed in 
size and strength any members of the feathered tribes now living, 
is shown by their ponderous bones which exceed even the bones 
of horses and oxen in size. Some of the tibias of these birds 
measured three feet in length, the femur that once articulated 
with it being between seven and eight inches in least circumfer- 
ence. The largest of these birds, when alive, must have stood at 
least ten feet high, as is unquestionably shown by some of the 
complete skeletons which have been mounted. There were surely 
giants in the days when these monsters strode along in the shad- 
ows of the tree-ferns, or tore up the roots of the Pteris with 
their powerful claws. That the Moa lived in New Zealand after 
the settlement of those islands by the aboriginal inhabitants is 
shown bv the remains of these birds, which have been found 



1 879.] A Sketch of New Zealand. 77 

mingled with the charred bones of men and dogs, in the ancient 
ovens — "kitchen-middens" — which have been recently dis- 
covered. The natives now living know nothing of these strange 
birds except the existence of their bones in the caves, etc. In 
their old traditions, however, which have been handed down 
through many generations, references to the Moa are found, con- 
taining instructions to the young hunter how to ensnare and slay 
them. 

In our wonder at the strangeness of these ancient creatures, 
we must not overlook the many smaller but extremely interesting 
birds now living in New Zealand. Many of these exhibit a tendency 
towards the wingless condition that formed such a characteristic 
feature in the ancient fauna. Among the numerous parrots, one 
large green species, called by the natives the Kakopo, attracts our 
attention in this connection, as the muscles of its wings are but 
poorly developed and useless for flight. The rails also afford two 
or three species that are incapable of flight. One of these the 
Wika, or wodd-hen, is very common about the swamps and fern 
thickets. Another is the rare Notornis, of which but two indi- 
viduals are known. The Pukeko is another of the rails that 
shows by the short, rounded form of its wings a tendency towards 
the apterous condition. Besides these more curious and inter- 
esting birds, New Zealand possesses a considerable variety of 
smaller and often very beautiful species, few of them, however, 
of remarkable for the sweetness of their song. Among these 
the Tui, or " parson bird " is one of the most interesting ; its 
trivial name has reference to the two tufts of white feathers on 
the throat, which resemble the tie of the parson. The crooked- 
bill plover, which inhabits the North Island, furnishes the only 
instance known of a bird with its bill turned to one side ; what 
useful purpose this strange curvature of the bill can serve is 

Since the colonization of New Zealand, a great number of 
plants and animals have been introduced from other countries ; 
many of these have found in those islands a congenial home, and 
often seem better adapted to the surrounding conditions than 
some of the native species, which they aie fast displacing. Much 
of the fauna and flora that is now so characteristic of New Zea- 
land is destined, like the Maoris themselves, to become exter- 
minated by the advance of European civilization. 



7% Pottery Among Savage Races. [February 

NOTES ON THE MANUFACTURE OF POTTERY 
AMONG SAVAGE RACES. 1 

BY CH. FRED. I1ARTT, A.M., LATE CHIEF OF 



making a critical study of the Indian pottery of Brazil, both 
ncient and modern, I have been led to investigate some facts 
onnection with the methods employed in primitive ceramic 

which, up to the present time, have received but little 



Some of the more important of the conclusions reached 
by a study of ceramic ornament have been already briefly 
sketched in a paper on " Evolution in Ornament " {Pop. Sc. 
Monthly, January, 1875), in which I have attempted to show 
the origin and function of Decorative Art, and describe some 
of the more important steps in the growth of these ornamental 
borders so common on pottery, and known as frets, scrolls and 
honey-suckle patterns. # 

The use of pottery is unknown to many savage peoples, as for 
instance to the Esquimaux, the northern Indians of North 
America, the Botocudos and Caya] ' impean races, 

the Fuegians, the Veddahs of Ceylon, the Andaman Islanders, 
the Australians, the Maoris and the Polynesian islanders gen- 
erally. In some cases this ignorance of the art may be accounted 
for by the exceedingly low degree of culture of the tribe, as 
among the Botocudos. In Greenland we should scarcely expect 
the manufacture of earthenware to flourish, and its absence among 
the Greenlanders is compatible with a considerable advance in 
other arts. 

Among the Algonkin tribes of Canada and the North-eastern 
United States, cooking is often done in vessels of bark, either by 
placing the vessel over the fire or by putting hot stones in the 
liquid (Relation de la Nouv. France, 1633, p. 4). 

I have seen the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia make square 



! mentioned th 



1 879.] Pottery Among Savage Races. 79 

or oblong vessels of the extremely thin, paper-like bark of the 
birch [Betula papyracea Ait.) and cook in them directly over the 
fire, just as water may be boiled in a paper cup. The Kutchin 
tribes of the MacKenzie river have no pottery, but they make 
kettles of tamarack roots, woven together very tightly and neatly, 
and ornamented with dyed porcupine quills, in which vessels they 
boil water with hot stones (Jones Smith's Report, pp. 66, 321). 

The Indians of Santa Catalina, in California " brought fresh 
water to the Spaniards in flaskets made of rushes " (Burney, 2d 
Voy. of Sebastian Vizcaino, So. Sea Described, p. 248). Similar 
vessels are still in use in the same region, and Major Powell 
brought home from the Colorado, water baskets lined inside with 
pitch. The Maues of the Amazonas use water-tight baskets, and 
so also do the Kaffirs. Wooden kettles for stone boiling are 
found among many tribes, both in America and elsewhere, and 
the inhabitants of Amboyna and Ternate cook in bamboos 
(Chardin, iv, pp. 171, 172; Receuil des voyages, &c, iii, 322.) 

The possession of a material like birch bark may render pot- 
tery to a certain extent unnecessary, and thus retard its invention 
and adoption. The whole subject of cooking in wooden vessels 
and of stone boiling has been admirably discussed by Tylor. 
That the inhabitants of the coral islands of the Pacific should be 
without pottery is not wonderful. It is said, also, that there is 
no potters' clay in the Sandwich Islands. 

Man is not the only animal that makes vessels of clay, but he 
is the only one that bakes them in the fire to make them durable. 
Other animals make nests of clay for their young, but primitive 
man makes earthenware vessels in which to hide away his dead. 
Man's most primitive vessel was his hand ; but leaves, shells, bark, 
tough skins or shells of fruits, sections of bamboos, &c, were 
soon used, as by means of these he could not only dip up water, 
but also transport it from place to place. The same vessels must 
also have served for the preservation and transportation of articles 
of food, etc. The art of pottery has, doubtless, originated inde- 
pendently in many different nations, and many circumstances 
may have led to the employment of clay for the manufacture of 
vessels. At Unalashka, Capt. Cook (Voy. ii, 5 10) saw " vessels of 
a flat stone, with sides of clay not unlike a standing pye." Lyons 
says (Private Journal, p. 320) that the Esquimaux women have 
an ingenious method of making lamps and cooking-pots of 



• So Pottery Among Savage Races. [February* 

fiat slabs of stone which they cement together with a composi- 
tion of seal's blood applied warm, the vessel being held at the 
same time over the flame of a lamp, which dries the plaster to the 
hardness of stone, and in a note he adds, that " the cement is 
composed of seal's blood, of whitish clay and of dog's hair. 
The natives think that the hair of a female dog would spoil the 
composition and prevent its sticking." On the Lower Murray the 
natives line a hole in the ground with clay, and cook their food 
in it, and sometimes they coat wooden vessels and gourds with 
clay to prevent their being burned. Both these customs just 
described might lead to the invention of pottery. 

The material of which pottery is made is clay. Ordinary clay 
consists of fine particles of more or less decomposed feldspar, 
mixed with a larger or smaller per centage of free silica, which 
last may exist, either as an impalpable powder, or as a more or less 
coarse sand. 

Kaolinite, used in the manufacture of porcelain, is a silicate of 
alumina derived from the decomposition of feldspar, containing 
soda or potash, and it consists mainly of a mixture of silicate of 
alumina and free silica. 

Pure clay will not make pottery, because of its tendency to 
shrink and crack in drying and baking. It must, therefore, be 
mixed with some substance to counteract this tendency. In the 
making of sundried bricks, the Egyptians found it necessary to 
mix the clay with straw. 

In pottery, the substance added is called by the French a 
Ugraissant. One of the best materials for this purpose is sand, 
or powdered silica in some form, especially if the ware is to be 
burned at a high temperature. 

The Danish archaeologists have shown that the clay of which 
the pottery of the Kjcekkenmceddings was made, was mixed 
with powdered granite, apparently obtained by heating the rock 
and plunging it into water. In Chiloe to-day, the natives obtain 
i degfedssant for pottery in the same way (Wagner Chiiuic luthis- 
trielle. Tom i, 555). In some kinds of earthenware manufac- 
tured in England and on the Continent, powdered flint is added 
to the clay, the flints being prepared by heating them red hot, 
then throwing them into water, and afterwards pulverizing them 
(Brogniart, Arts Cer. 1854, i, 71). 

Sometimes a cement of pulverized pot-shreds c 



1 879.] lottery Among Savage Races. Si 

added in the manufacture of certain kinds, both among civilized 
and savage nations. In making, for metallurgical purposes, cru- 
cibles that are required to stand great heat and sudden changes 
of temperature, burnt clay, obtained by powdering old crucibles, 
is sometimes added to the raw clay to prevent cracking (Fonck. 
Zeitsckr. f. Eth. ii. 1870, iv, 290, Ure's Diet, sub Pottery; Brog- 

The ancient Indians of Pacoval, on the island of Marajo, used 
to mingle powdered pottery with the clay for their ware, and in 
the mass composing the walls of fractured specimens from Sr. 
Ferreira Penna, I have found quite large fragments still showing 
their painted surfaces. 

In both North and South America, where the Indian pottery 
is rarely ever thoroughly burned, the clay is often mixed with 
broken shells. Mica enters frequently into the composition of 
pottery, and Dr. Berendt has informed me that in Yucatan, even 
wash gold was occasionally used. Gold is also found in the 
material composing the pottery of Palembang, in the East Indies 
(Jour. E. Ind. Archipelago, 1850, iv, 273). 

Powdered coke or furnace cinders, graphite, amianthus (Brog- 
niart, 1. c. i, 74), and even sawdust are employed in some kinds of 
modern European pottery, and where a low heat is used in 
baking, the clay is sometimes mixed with powdered limestone. 
At a higher heat this latter would serve as a flux. 

I am not aware that the Indians of North America ever mixed 
ashes with the clay, but the custom is very general in South 
America, where the ashes of the bark of several trees are 
employed. In Guiana the bark used is that of the Couepi tree, 
{Couepia guianensis) (Ferdinand Fermin, Description generate, 
&c, de Surinam, i, 61). 

On the Amazons the clay intended for the manufacture of pot- 
tery is mixed with the ash of the Caraipc tree, {Moquilea utilis 
Hooker) (Benth. Martius, Flora Braziliensis, Fasc. xli, PI. 8, f. 1 1 ; 
Wallace, Travels on the Amazon, &c, 484 ; Marryatt, " Pottery 
and Porcelain," 509; Bates, "Naturalistic." 225). The Carajas, 
Caraja-is, Chambioas, Chavautes, Chereutes, and Guajajaras of the 
Araguaya, mix with the clay the ashes of certain sipbs. I have 
seen the Caraipc bark prepared by stacking the fragments on end 
in a conical heap, and then burning them in the open air. The 
ash is very abundant and preserves the original form of the frag- 



82 Pottery Among Savage Races. [Februairy, 

ments. Having been reduced to powder and sifted, it is 
thoroughly intermingled with clay, to which, when wet, it gives 
a dark plumbaginous look, but this color grows much lighter on 
burning. The use of the Caraipc, according to universal testi- 
mony, makes the ware better able to stand the fire. The Indians 
of Sariacu use the ash of a bark called Apacarama, perhaps the 
same as Caraipc (Smythe & Lowe, Nar. of a Journ. from Lima to 
Para. Lond., 1836, 210). The Caraipc bark contains an enormous 
percentage of silica, which separates as a fine white powder. It 
is to this siliceous powder that the ash, doubtless, owes its value 
as a digraissant. In the Amazonian region is found a species of 
fresh-water sponge, called Cauxi, containing siliceous spicules, 
and whose ash is sometimes used to temper clay for pottery (De 
Souza, Lembrancas, etc. do Amazonas, 101). According to 
Semper (Der Stil. Band ii, 122) the use of these degraissants and 
cements, besides destroying the homogeneity of the paste, furnish 
innumerable points of rest throughout the mass that reduce the 
fragility of the ware after burning, and the danger of cracking, 
whether through change of temperature or by shock. The 
coarser particles serve to break up and distribute the undulations 
by which the cracks are propagated, very much as a fracture in a 
pane of glass may be arrested by boring a hole at the extremity 
of the crack. 

By the advent of Europeans, pottery in America was invariably 
made by hand, the potters wheel being unknown. In the prov- 
ince of Para, among the Indians, and to a considerable extent 
among the whites* as each family makes its own pottery, stores of 
this clay are often laid up. 

The clay, mixed with Cariapi., is kneaded with the hands into a 
mass, which is then divided into a number of balls about as large 
as the first. The woman potter then furnishes herself with a 
board or mat, on which to build up the vessel, some flat object 
on which to roll out the clay, a vessel of water, and a fragment < 
a citia or a shell to serve as a smoothing instrument. If the ves- 
sel is to have a flat bottom, she presses out upon the board a 
round flat piece of the required size and thickness. This takes 
the impress of the board or mat, and fragments of the bottoms of 
vessels from the ancient site of the " Bluff-Dwellers " at Taparinha, 
near Santarem,are often beautifully impressed by the mat on which 
they were formed. Indian women of Santaren 



1 879.] Pottery Among Savage Races. 83 

themselves on the ground holding a large ball of clay between 
the feet. On this the vessel is built up, the ball being afterwards 
cut off, leaving the bottom flat. 

After the bottom is formed, a piece of clay is rolled under the 
hand into a long rope-like cylinder. This rope is then coiled 
round the edge of the bottom of the vessel, being flattened side- 
ways by pinching with the fingers of the left hand, and caused to 
adhere to the bottom. On this, coil after coil is laid in like man- 
ner, each being flattened as before. 

After a few have been added they are worked into shape with 
the fingers, which are occasionally moistened in water, and the 
irregularities produced by the coils are caused to disappear. 
The vessel is formed by the hand alone, and the surface is 
smoothed down by means of a bit of gourd or a shell, which is, 
from time to time, dipped in water. If the vessel be large, it is 
now set away in the shade for a while to dry a little, after which 
new coils are added as above, no other instrument being used 
except the hands and the gourd or sfcell, with which alone the 
vessel may receive not only an extremely regular form but also a 
very smooth surface. According to Dr. de Magalhaes, "the pot- 
tery of the Carajas, the Carajais, Chambioas, Chavantes, Cher- 
entes, Guajajaras of the Araguaya river is always made by coil- 
ing, the surface being worked down by the hand and water, 
and the aid of a sort of spoon-like trowel made of bam- 
boo." The coils are so worked together that from a simple 
inspection of the vessel it is impossible to determine how it was 
built up. I should never have suspected that the pottery of 
Pacoval had been made by coiling, were it not that I found the 
coils still ununited on the inner surface of the heads of idols. 
The coils still preserve the delicate imprints of the fingers of the 
artist (Am. Naturalist, v. 1871). 

In building up a vessel, care must be taken to allow it to har- 
den as the process progresses, so as to avoid its settling by its 
own weight, as it is very likely to do, especially if the vessel be 
large. This settling, under the influence of gravity, is, however, 
likely to give rise to graceful curves, and it would be interesting 
to determine how far the beauty of outline of pottery may have 
resulted from the imitation of forms that originated in this way. 

Handles and all prominent ornaments are added afterwards, 
being luted on. Sometimes the outside of the vessel is orna- 



84 Pottery Among Savage Races. [February, 

merited by applying thin strips of clay laid on in spirals, and 
other figures as among the Greeks and Romans. 

The ancient Bluff-Dwellers were very fond of ornamenting their 
pottery in this way. The " apple-pie " border, made by impress- 
ing with the extremity of the finger, or by pinching up a line of 
elevations between the thumb and forefinger, was also in common 
use among the same Indians, and is still perpetuated on the 
modern pottery of the Amazonas. It was rarely used by the 
Indians of Pacoval. 

In Amazonian pottery, ornaments are rarely impressed or 
stamped. I have observed on the Bluff-Dwellers' pottery, circles 
made with the end of a hollow stick. The Chambioas and 
Carajas of the Araguaya make wooden dies, with which to 
their pottery, the Carajas using a sort of Maltese 



The surface of the vessel, after having been smoothed down, is 
often washed with a thin layer of pure, creamy clay, which appears 
to be sometimes burnished before cooking, producing a beautiful, 
hard and almost polished surface. The common ware of the 
civilized Indians of the province of Para is usually very plain and 
rarely ever painted, but that of the Upper Amazon is often most 
beautifully ornamented in several colors, with frets and borders, 
and other purely aesthetic forms, the absence of all attempt at 
representations of plant forms being remarkable. Edwards says 
that the colors are laid on this Amazon pottery with a brush 
made of the spine of a palm.' The black color is made of the 
juice of mandioca. 

The ancient pottery of Pacoval is often adorned with frets and 
scroll borders and other ornaments, drawn on a white ground 
with marvelous accuracy (Am. Naturalist, V., 1871 ; Pop. Sc. 
Monthly, Jan., 1875). 

Ornaments are sometimes scratched with a sharp point on the 
surface of modern Amazonian pottery, and, occasionally, ornaments 
are made consisting of a series of holes. The etching on the Pacoval 
pottery is exceedingly delicate. Sometimes the same pottery is 
decorated by first washing the surface with white clay, and then 
engraving so as to leave an ornament^ in relief. The instrument 
used seems to have been a tooth of a paca, or some other rodent. 
Some of the large burial vases are covered with ornaments of this 
kind, which must have required long and patient labor. 



1 879.] Pottery Among Savage Raees. 85 

Before burning, the vessels are allowed to dry slowly in the 
shade, and afterwards in the sun. The burning requires much 
care, and is performed in different ways. Usually, they are set at 
a distance from the fire, and allowed to become heated gradually, 
without actual contact with the flame, after which they are sur- 
rounded by fire and thoroughly burned. Very often they are 
covered with a heap of C ami ft hark, which is set on fire. Some- 
times, on the Amazonas, pottery is burned in an oven or in a 
hole in the ground. The Carajas and other tribes of the Ara- 
guaya burn their pottery in ovens made by hollowing out the 
nests of the white ant. The ware is introduced, another excava- 
tion is made below the fire, and still another in the top of the 
nest to serve as a chimney. The enormous earthern pans 
{jyapbnd) on which farina is cooked, and which are sometimes 
four or five feet across, require to be burned with great care, and 
their manufacture is usually entrusted only to women of much 
experience. Ordinarily the pottery of the Amazonas is not 
thoroughly cooked. That of the Bluff-Dwellers is particularly 
poor in this respect. While the vessel is still hot after burning, 
it often receives inside a coating of melted jutahy-siea resin, 
applied with a swab, but I am informed that before the vessel is 
used on the fire, this is first burned out. This resin is said to be 
obtained from the Jutahy tree of the Amazonas {Hymencea cour- 
baril) ; but it does not appear to be the product of the Jutahy 

At Breves, on the Island of Marajo, there is made a kind of 
pottery which is first washed with white clay, and after burning, 
painted in water color in the most gaudy and outrageous fashion. 
Over this color a varnish of jufa/iy-siea, dissolved in alcohol, is 
laid. A similar resin, said to be the product of the same species 
of Ilyi/ie/Kca, is used to varnish painted ware among the May- 
pures on the Orinoco (Humboldt, Pers. Nar. ii, 309). The Abi- 
ponian women rubbed their pottery with a kind of glue to make 
it shine (Dobritzhoffer, Hist, of Abipones, ii. 131). The Indians 
of Guiana paint their pottery with water color, and varnish it 
with the gum simin \ Siuiiri tin, toria) or buurgoiii\ Robinia boiagoui). 
In Yucatan. Behrendt reports the use of a varnish made from the 
Nun {Coeeus axin Lallave).' The Fijians glaze their ware with a 
resin, and the ancient Egyptians sometimes painted pottery in 
distemper and covered it with a resinous varnish (" Pottery, in 



86 Pottery Among Savage Races. [February, 

Chambers' Encyc. ; Williams and Calvert, Fiji, &c, 53; Jenkins' 
U. S. Expl. Ex., 347 ; Birch, Anct. Pottery, i, 48, 49 ; Brogniart, 
ut supra, i, 502). Von Martius alludes in general terms to the 
mode of building up an earthen vessel by coiling (Ethno. Amer- 
ikas, 712); and the same method appears to have been alluded to by 
Humboldt (Pers. Nar., ii, 309) when he says that the natives of 
the Maypures on the Orinoco " purify the clay by repeated wash- 
ings, form it into cylinders, and mould the largest vessels with 
the hand." 

We meet with the same method again in Chiloe, where it has 
been described by Dr. Fonck (Die Indier des Siidlichen Chile, 
&c), who speaks of the vessel as being built up exactly as at 
Erere, a flat piece being first made for the bottom, on the per- 
iphery of which the wall is formed by coiling up a sausage-like 
cylinder. He adds that the ware is dried in the smoke before 
burning [Zeitsch. fur Eth., 1870, iv., 290). 

Gili describes the process of coiling as found among the 
Indians of Orinoco, and adds that the surface of the vessel is 
worked down with a pebble and the fingers, which are. from time 
to time, dipped into water, the ware being burned in pits with a 
fire made of bark. 

Prof. Charles Rati, the first ethnologist to give due importance 
to the method of coiling, has, in his admirable essay on Indian 
Pottery (Smithson. Rep., 1866,351), translated the description 
given by Dumont of the manufactury of earthenware by the 
Indians of Louisiana, in which an account of the building up of 
a vessel by this method is given (Mem. Historiques sur la Loui- 
siane). Prof. Rau is of the opinion that the building up of pot- 
tery by coiling was practiced over a large area in North America. 
Certainly in South America it was widely known. 

Prof. Eggleston, of Columbia College, New York, informs me 
that in Germany, the large crucibles used in melting are, when 
broken, built up again with ropes of clay. In this case we have 
either a survival of an old pre-historic art, or its re-discovery in 

I will now give such information as I have been able to gather 
concerning the manufactory of pottery by the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of America, for the double purpose of giving a clearer idea 
of the various processes used, and also of showing that the manu- 
facture is everywhere exclusively in the hands of women. 



1 879.] Pottery Among Savage Races. 87 

Molina says (Saggio, &c, Bologna, 1872), that the Chilians 
have excellent pottery, which they burn in furnaces, or rather 
holes dug in the sides of the hills, and adds that they apply to 
their wares a sort of varnish made of a certain mineral earth. 
Schmidtmeyer (Trav. into Chile, Lond. 1824, 117) says that the 
present Chilenos are good potters for common ware : they intro- 
duce a certain quantity of earth or sand, containing an abundance 
of yellow mica ; and jars, holding seventy gallons or more, are 
made by them of great thinness, lightness and strength, and 
which sounds as if it were metal. The Pehuenches of Chili, a 
wandering tribe, made new vessels in every locality in which they 
establish themselves (Poppig, Reise in Chile, &c, Leipz., 1835, i, 
3S3). 

In Bolivia, the women fabricate the pottery with much super- 
stitious ceremony (D'Orbigny, L'Homme Amer.,ii, 150, 233, 339, 
363). According to Castelnau, the Chiriguanos women are excel- 
lent potters. One vessel measured by him was a metre in diameter 
and twelve decimetres in height (Exped. vi, 56, 307). Woman's 
work among the Mojos Indians comprises also the manufacture 
of earthenware (D'Orbigny, ut supra 233). Gibbon speaks of 
one Juana Jua Cayuba, a Mojos woman, who superintended the 
hired women who were engaged in moulding earthen jars (Exp!, 
of the Valley of the Amazonas, p. 246). 

The Guarayos women also made pottery, and D'Orbigny 
speaks of the large vessels in which the dead of the tribe are 
buried (Frag. d'Une Voy. au Centre de l'Am. Meridionale, 193). 

Both the ancient and modern inhabitants of the Andes were 
famous potters, and the vases of the Huacas of Bolivia and Peru 
have long attracted the attention of ethnologists (von Tschudi y 
Rivero, Antiq. de Peru ; Cat. du Musee de Sevres ; D'Orbigny, 
Atlas d'Antiq. Peruv. ; Brogniart, Arts Ceram., i, 525 ; Ewbank, 
Life in Brazil). The majority of Peruvian vessels were un- 
doubtedly formed in two or more pieces, in a mould, and after- 
wards luted together. Some of these molds were made from nat- 
ural objects, but others bear very elaborate raised figures. 

The women of the Indians of Ucayali are represented as being 
the potters. The Tobas of Mbocobi of the Chaco, manufacture 
immense chica pots like those of the Chiriguanos, the work fall- 
ing to the lot of the women, as was the case also among the 
Indians of Itaty, a village of Guaranis, situated at the confluence 



88 Pottery Among Savage Races. [February. 

of the Parana and Paraguay (D'Orbigny L'Homme Am., ii, lOOj 
Voyage, &c, i, 199 ; Brogniart i, 530). 

DobritzhofTer says, " The American women seem to have a 
natural talent for making various articles. They can mold pots 
and jugs of various forms of clay, not with the assistance o : " a 
turning machine like potters, but with their hands alone. These 
clay vessels they bake, not in an oven but out of doors, placing 
sticks around them. 

The pottery of the Payaguas, of Paraguay, was the work of 
women. Among the Guaycurus, pottery appears to have been 
woman's work, for Prado tells us that, in this tribe were found 
men who affect all the manners of women, not only dressing like 
them but occupying themselves in spinning, weaving, making 
pots, etc. (Hist, in Revista Trimensal do Inst. Hist, i, 32). 

Hans Staden, who was a captive among the Tupinambas, 
relates that the women of that tribe were the potters. The ves- 
sels after having been dried in the air and painted with lines of 
different colors, were turned upside down on stones, and burned 
by heaping bark about them and setting it on fire (DeBry, 
Americae, 3d Part, ii, xiv, 3; See also DeBry, Hist. Nav. in 
Brazilian!, p. 133. Hh 142,239). 

The women of the Arraial do Barro. opposite the Island of 
Sao Sebastiao are said to have made excellent ware (Art. de Veri- 
fier les Dates, 13, p. no). 

The women of the Mongoyos prepared the clay on a banana 
leaf held upon the knee. It was then placed upon a " plateau " 
of sifted ashes, and the vessel, after fashioning and polishing, 
was submitted to the action of fire. 

A writer on Brazil (Noticia do Brazil, Lisboa, 1825. iii, 1, 286), 
says, that the old Tupinamba women made pottery by hand, 
some of which were big enough to hold a pipe. They also made 
pots, mugs and pans. Tin's pottery, which was sometimes painted, 
was burned in a pit, a wood fire being made above. They super- 
stitiously believed that if any one but the person who moulded the 

pieces in the fire. 

Spix and Martins (Travels, Lond. 1824, ii, 246) tell us that the 
Coroado women provide the requisite earthenware for the family. 
Pottery is still made by the civilized Indian women in many parts 
of Brazil south of the Amazonas. Old women make earthenware 



1879.] Pottery Among Savage Races. 89 

by hand in S. Paulo. The clay is mixed by being trodden under 
the feet of oxen, the vessels being formed by coiling or by mold- 
ing in several pieces. The clay is sometimes worked into a thin 
sheet, which is applied to the surface of a wooden mold. The 
outside is worked down with the wetted hand and the application 
of a corn cob. After the vessel has dried to the proper con- 
sistency, it is cut in two, the mold is removed, and the two pieces 
tic skilfully luted together. Pottery is made in the same way in 
Hahia. 

Except m the olarias, where earthen vessels are made on a 
large scale, men nowhere in the Amazon region have anything 
to do with this industry. (On the manufacture of pottery by 
women in various parts of S. America, see Baena, Ensaio Coro- 
graphico do Para, sub voce "Monte Alegre;" Candido Mendez 
de Almeida, Pinsonia, 1873, 28; Herndon, Explor., 202 ; Wal- 
lace, Travels, 172; Debret, Voyage Pittoresque, Paris, 1834, 
Catalogue du Musee Ceramique de Sevres; Brogniart, Arts Cer- 
amiques, i, 532; Humboldt, Personal Narrative, i, 196; Gili, 
Storia Americana, ii. 315; Gumilla, Histoire Naturelle, &c, de 
l'Orenoque, i, 268; Schomburgk, Hakluyt Soc, Discov. of 
Guiana by Sir W. Raleigh, 64, note ; id. Journ. Eth. Soc, Lond., 
1848, i, 267 ; Art de Verifier les Dates T. 15, 285 ; Perez, Jeog- 
raphia de los Estados Unidos de Columbia, i, 48; ; Bull. Soc. 
d'Anth. Paris, T.i, Serie i, 18^6,403; Squier, Rare'and Original 
Documents and Relations, p. 46; Bibliotheca de Autores Es- 
panoles, Historiadores primitivos de los Indias, i, 348). 

Dr. Berendt writes from Yucatan that "certain classes of pot- 
tery, manufactured in some towns of the interior, are not only 
carried all over the country, but exported to other parts of Mex- 
ico, and even to Havana; among them are unglazed basins for 
cooling drinking water, also large and small water-jars, some 
preserving the ancient Yucatan forms, others imitating foreign 
models. These are made by men, mestizoes, and mostly by 
hand, on the turning wheel. In some places fir away in the 

trade, as also in Peten, the proceeding is still more primitive, and 
is exclusively in the hands of women. They search for the clay, 
load it on the backs of children, and work it on the nictate before 
fashioning it with the hands. Large jars they generally form from 

two pieces. I have not seen that they mix their clay with ashes; 



go Pottery Among Savage Races. [February, 

but they often mix different kinds of clay together. The class 
■of. pottery used by the poorer classes comprises the coma/, (flat 
plates to bake tortillas on), cajetes, or small plates (saucers) for 
certain dishes, etc. No kind of glazing is used for this kind of 
pottery, but in its place a varnish is sometimes used, made from 
Nun {Coccus Axui Lallavc), and this is occasionally painted. It 

the Gulf Coast north of Campeche, whose varnished and painted 
outer surface imitates admirably the design of ash wood. The 
pottery of the ancient Mayas shows great variety in form and in 
structure. Clay of different colors (dark red, light slate color, 
light and dark red, and brown) is sometimes mixed with mica or 
shell-gravel, and other substances, such as, in other parts, even 
wash gold. The ornamentation consists of figures and arabesques 
sunk or scratched into the surfaces, or elevated into reliefs and 
often painted. The modern pottery of the Indians is generally 
plain. The ancient pottery found in the interior, and particularly 
near the gulf-coast of Yucatan, shows a much higher art than 
that from the east coast, Cozumel island, etc." 

Pottery making fell to the lot of the Carib women, and accord- 
ing to Ligon they manufactured a very handsome light ware (De 
la Borde, " Relations de l'origine, <xc., des Caraibes. &a, Receuil 
de divers Voyages, p. 23 ; McCulloh, Researches concerning the 
Aboriginal History of America, p. 84). 

Mr. Squier describes the pottery of Nicaragua as painted and 
glazed (Nicaragua, i, 287). The ceramic artists among the 
Indians of Fort Yuma, California, are women, and the same is the 
case with the Zuhis, whose beautifully painted pottery closely 
resembles that of the ancient Indians of Pacoval (Michler, Rep. 
U. S. & Mex. Boundary Survey, i, 101 ; Pac. R. R. Rep., iii, 50). 
DuPratz says that the Indian women not only " make the pot- 
tery but they dig up and mix the clay " (Hist, of Louisiana, 
Lond., 1774, 360). 

Adair informs us that the Cherokees glaze their ware, and 
make it very black and firm by placing it in tin smoke of a pitch 
pine fire (Hist, of Am. Indians, Lond. 1775, 4). 

Hariot says of the natives of Virginia: " Their women know 
how to make earthen vessels with special cunninge, and that so 
large and fine that our potters with thoye wheels can make noe 
better" (DeBry, A brief Report, &c, 1590 ; Campbell, Hist, of 



1 879. ~j Pottery Among Savage Races. 91 

Virginia, 28; The True Travels, &c, of John Smith, p. 131; 
Strachey, The Hist, of Trav. into Virginia Britannica, p. 112). 
On the Georgia Indians see Bartram, Travels, Lond., 1792, 511 ; 
On the Iroquois, Schoolcraft, iii, 81, and Notes on the Iroquois 
in Squier & Davis, 223 ; On the Hurons, Parkman's "Jesuits in 



An account of the pottery manufactured among the Indians 
west of the Mississippi river is quoted from Hunter's " Manners 
and Customs of several Indian tribes west of the Mississippi ' 
in Prof. Rau's article on Indian pottery in the Smithsonian 
Report, 1866, p. 35 1. 

Among the Mandans, women were, as elsewhere, the makers 
of earthenware (Catlin, Manners and Customs, Letter 16). 

Among the Micmac Indians of Acadia, the birch-bark vessels 
in which cooking is performed, are made by the women, and we 
have already seen how she prepares, among the Esquimaux, the 
stone lamps and cooking vessels. 

Jewett thinks that the Celtic funerary urns were formed " most 
probably, judging from the delicacy of the touch, and from the 
impress of the fingers which occasionally remain, by the females 
of the tribes " (Grave Mounds and their contents, 83-85). 

At Ordezan, near Bagniere de Bigorre, pottery similar to that 
found in caves is still manufactured by women. Tylor speaks of 
a set of hand-made pottery found in use bv an old woman in the 
Hebrides. 

The Kaffir women not only cook, but they make the pots they 
use, the clay for the purpose being obtained from ant-hills. 
They also make baskets that will hold milk or beer (Wood's 
Unciv. Races, 7J, 143 ; Campbell, Travels in So. Africa, 523). 

Burton says, concerning the manufacture of earthenware in 
Eastern Africa, " The figuline, a grayish brown clay, is procured 
from river beds, or is dug up in the country ; it is subjected to 
the preliminary operation of pounding, rubbing dry on a stone, 
pulverizing and purifying from stones and pebbles. It is then 
worked into a thick mass with water, and the potter fashions it with 
the hand, first shaping the mouth; he adds an inch to it when 
dry, hardens it in the sun, makes another addition, and thus pro- 
ceeds until it is finished. Lines and other ornaments having been 
traced, the pots are baked in piles of seven or eight, by burning 
grass. Usually the color becomes lamp-black. In Usagara, how- 



g2 Pottery Among Savage Races. [February, 

ever, the potters' clay burns red like the soil. A cunning work- 
man will make in a day four of these pots, some of them con- 
taining several gallons, and their perfect regularity of form, and 
often their picturesqueness of shape, surprise the stranger. The 
best are made in Ujiji,Karagwahand Ugunda, those of Unyamwezi 
are inferior, and the clay of Zanzibar is of all the worst." 

Schweinfurth states that " as in the case with the majority of 
the inhabitants of Africa, the manufacture of pottery is practiced 
by the women (Zcitschrift fur Ethn., 1873, i, 8). 

" In Yoruba," says Bowen, " the women make earthern pot- " 
(Central Africa, p. 308) ; and so, also, do those of Garo-a-Bautschi 
and Tesan, and the Guinea coast. We are, therefore, I think, 
justified in coming to the conclusion that the fictile art, in its 
infancy, is confined to the women is as true of Africa as of 

In the East Indian Archipelago, the Papuan women make pot- 
tery (Journ. of Ind. Arch., v, 313; Norris' Ethnogr. Lib., i; Earl's 
Papuans, p. 73). While pottery is unknown in the greater num- 
ber of the South Sea Islands, in Fiji it has reached a high state 
of development (Williams and Calvert. Fiji, N. Y., 1859, 53! 
Wood, Unciv. R„ Amer. Ed., 930). Women have the making of 
pottery entirely in their own hands, and the art, moreover, seems 
to be confined to the women of sailors and fishermen. It is also 
worth noting that the Fiji women are skilled in the manufacture 
of stamped bark cloth, making the patterns themselves (sec also 
Jenkin's U. S. Expl. Exp., 341, 347 ; Lubbock, Preh. Times, 443 ; 
Pickering's Races of Men, 163). 

The facts I have given seem to show that among savage tribes 
generally, the fictile. art is, at first, exclusively practiced by 
women, the reason being that, primarily and essentially, the 
fabrication of earthenware is a branch of culinary work, which 
last, everywhere falls to the lot of the gentler sex. Alan, am< ng 
savages, is the hunter, fisher and warrior, white the woman takes 
care of the house, and of the culture of the field. When, how- 
ever, in the progress of the tribe in culture, the practice of the 
art of pottery comes to be a profession, and to interfere with 
household work, it passes naturally into the hands of man, ami it 
will be found that in every case where men make earthenware- the 
tribe has advanced considerably beyond the savage state. 

But savage woman not only fabricates vessels of clay, she also 



aments them, and if the fictile art has originated with her, and 
grown up under her hands, it seems no less probable that the 
le uses should have originated with her, and the 
probability is increased by the fact that to her falls the work of 
spinning and weaving, of making and decorating personal orna- 
ments and clothes, and of making baskets, mats, etc. She is 
everywhere the primitive decorative artist, and to-day it is the 
exception that man occupies himself with ornamental art, even in 

her hand touches, and the lady in her boudoir industriously 
embroiders, on some article of mere luxury, the same series of 
frets and scroll borders that, on the Amazonas, the savage 
unclothed squaw as diligently and with as firm a hand, traces 
with a spine on the damp surface of the clay vessel she is fashion- 
ing. It is as if they both sang the same simple song. The orna- 
ments in both cases are identical and not only of wholly inde- 
pendent origin, but it may be also of very different age. Those 
of the savage are the mere embryonic beginnings of art-life, while 
those of the boudoir, like the Ungid<B of to-day, are archaic 
forms, persistent through the age-, still nourishing unchanged 
among the varied wealth of derivatives by evolution from the 
ancient primary forms. 



:he violet and other plants as 

PROJECTILES. 



THE capsules of the cleistogenous flowers of Viola aicullata, V. 
canadensis and I '. striata, by a peculiar mechanical movement 
of the valves project tTieir seeds from a few inches to four or five 
feet. As V. cucullata is a very common plant, with numerous 
seed pods in the latter part of the season, it has been most care- 
fully studied, and will be the first described. When the seeds are 
ripe, the pod that before had been folded back on its crooked 
procumbent stem, becomes erect, opens into three valves that 
place themselves at right angles with the straightened and erected 
peduncle, and, as it were, look directly upwards. By straighten- 
ing the peduncle, the seed vessels that heretofore had been con- 
cealed, are brought on a level with or above the leaves. Each 
one of the carinate valves contains from three to four rows of 



94 Seeds of Plants as Projectiles. [February- 

seeds, attached by short funiculi to a common parietal placenta. 
The seeds of the inner rows being attached to the top, while the 
outer ones are attached to the sides of the raised keel, give to the 
boat-shaped valves an appearance of overloading, and are heaped 
up in the middle, and were it not for their slender funiculi would 
be spilled out by the least motion. The shooting process is now- 
begun by the hard smooth edges and sides of the valves pressing 
on the outer rows of seeds below their greatest diameter ; the 
pressure being transmitted to the under side of the seeds of the 
heaped up middle rows, they generally are the first projected. 
Usually but one seed is projected at a time, and the short 
funiculi permitting another one to take the vacant space, the 
inner rows are kept full until but a single row remains. But the 
movement does not stop here; it is continued, and the pressure 
reinforced by the outer, and sometimes the inner end of the valve 
coming into close contact and clasping the seed on three sides, 
until all are forced out, one by one, and the sides of the valve are 
left in contact. During the process of drying, which still con- 
tinues in the now empty and useless valve, the sides are separated 
and it again assumes the former carinate shape. Any one seeing 
the dry and empty pods would scarcely think of their having 
gone through the changes we have described. And as the move- 
ments that project the seeds take place while the valves of the 
capsule are yet in a semi-green state we conclude they form an 
important part in the life history of the plant. The pods of the 
inconspicuous flowers of V. striata, are grown in the axils of the 
leafy stem, on long peduncles, and have the same movements of 
straightening and erection as in V. ciicullata. The pods of Vioio 
canadensis are sessile. 

The projecting movement may be roughly compared to the 
unlading of a boat by slowly crushing the sides together. 

The shooting process may be conveniently watched by gath- 
ering the mature pods after they have opened, and plunging t! 
stem into a cup of sand ; however, treated thus the valves after 
once closing will not again re-open. The lateness in the season 
at which my observations began, prevented my seeing the pods 
following the conspicuous flowers. 

In giving the generic characters of Pil^a in his Manual of 
Botany, Prof. Gray says, " Fertile flowers. Sepals three, oblong, 
more or less unequal ; a rudiment of a stamen before each in the 



1 879.] Seeds of Plants as Projectiles. 95 

form of a hooded scale. Achenium ovate, compressed, straight 
and erect, partly or nearly naked." 

In P. pumila the distal end of the elastic hooded scales are 
held down by the otherwise naked seed. The rudimentary 
stamens may be compared to a V-shaped spring, the ends of 
which are pressed together. When the seed is ripe and its con- 
nection with the receptacle broken, the hooded scales suddenly, 
partially straightens and the seed shot into the air five feet or 
more. The arrow-head shape of the achenium, and the arrange- 
ment of the cymes on long axillary stems shortened from below 
upwards, are favorable to the great range of the flying projectile. 
The mechanism of the movement is sufficiently simple, but the 
special adaptation of an essential organ of a perfect flower to a 
new use is very peculiar. 

Prof. Gray says of Oxalis: " Pod membranaceous, deeply five 
lobed, five celled, each cell opening on the back. Seeds few in 
each cell, pendulous from the axis, their outer coat loose and sep- 
arating.*' The loose outer coat of the seed of OxaHs Strict* 

is suddenly rolled back, breaking the funiculus, and at the same 
time separating the walls of the cell and projecting the seed two 
or three feet. By this movement the loose coat is generally 
turned inside out. The flattened oval seeds are marked on their 
sides by transverse stria; that doubtless give direction to the elas- 
tic coat when it bursts. Before the seeds are fully matured they 
may be removed from the cell and the coating caused to burst by 
touching them with some sharp-pointed instrument. So quick is 
the movement that one is strongly reminded by it of a jumping 
flea. No other species than Oxalis strieta was observed. 

That the movements of the seeds described are important, if 
not essential to the life of the plant, seems evident. The ripening 
capsules of the viojet may be found until late in autumn, we have 
seen them after snowfall, and without some such movement as 
has been mentioned, would go on seeding the same ground 
the season through, and year after year. The same remark is true 

crop of seeds with it. The general resemblance in habit and 
appearance of balsam and richweed would lead us to expect some- 
special provision for scattering their seeds in the one as the other 



g6 Instinct and Rcasen. [February, 

It may be further noticed that while the movements described are 
each different and peculiar to a single genus of plants, they are 
unlike those of the well-known balsam, and those of the witch- 
hazel as given by Mr. Meehan a few years since. 



INSTINCT AND REASON. 



vholly convincing, they at least clearly dem- 
onstrate a somewhat closer connection of man with lower organi- 
zations than has hitherto been acknowledged. Since the inven- 
tion of the microscope and its application to the natural sciences, 
the study of natural phenomena has opened a field of inquiry 
never before dreamed of by the most imaginative theorist. Myr- . 
iads of infinitesimal forms of life, which formerly escaped detec- 
tion, have thus been revealed, and though many a one lacks that 
complexity of organization which usually attracts our notice, yet 
even in their simplicity they present a problem as intricate and 
perplexing as the most highly organized being. These minute 
organisms often seem but mere centers of life (points of attraction), 
around which cluster other existences still more minute and but 
just perceptible to the highest powers of the microscope. Organi- 
zation appears, many times, hardly more than nominal. Even 
to-day their nature defies solution, so as to render it impossible 
to assign them any satisfactory place in the scale of being ; and 
after the new discoveries daily added, the naturalist is at a loss to 
find the dividing line between the various forms of life expressed 
by the old names of " animal" and " vegetable." 

The division of the living world into the " vegetable " and " ani- 
mal " is at best but arbitrary. It is not enough to take well 
characterized types of each division and compare them with each 
other. Such differences would be self evident. But, instead, it 
is needful to give such a definition of each division as will cover 
every variety, however diverse, which is included in that division 
to which the definition has been given. Thus, much confusion 
in classification is avoided ; though, unfortunately for us, the 
problem remains unsolved ; for the new facts daily brought to 
light render necessary continual changes in classification, and 



' 1 879.] Instinct and Reason. 97 

broader definitions. In the present state of natural science the 
best classifications cannot be otherwise than approximate and un- 
settled. But the link between unorganized and organized matter 
has thus far defied discovery. Whether the different expressions 
of existence are due to that inherent change exhibited by all 
matter — that change in which all natural phenomena consists, 
resulting in a spontaneous generation, the necessary elements or 
factors being present ; or whether to a special creation to satisfy 
each individual case, as a species ; these are questions still under 
dispute, whose explanations have their different disciples. 

Passing by that which makes up the organization of all living 
beings — the mineral — it is designed in the following pages to dis- 
cuss the manner in which the different vital forms express their ex- 
istence under their different phenomena, dependent of course upon 
their individual organizations. Hence organization determines 
the character of the individual as well as of a species or family. 
But it should be here stated that it is not intended to discuss the 
province of a species. This is for the specialist. 

Again, we are to observe how each organized being supplies its 
wants and the means or organs for supplying them. In every 
form of life, however high or however low in the scale of being, 
there must necessarily be some way in which each form maintains 
its existence. It is not to be expected that all vital beings, irre- 
spective of their organization, demand the same mode of supply, 
but some means of supply. Each after its own kind must so 
dispose of the elements of nutrition about itself as best suits its 
organization. Each one, therefore, will take from the alimentary 
substances it receives only that best suited for it, or is refused, 
or avoided by other higher or lower forms. In this way that con- 
stant change of elements is effected by which all life is supported ; 
by which the structure of one is fitted for a higher form of life ; 
and the detritus of a higher prepared for a simpler and more 
lowly being. Thus does the vegetable supply the animal with 
food, and in turn the animal adds to the growth and vigor of the 
plant. The luscious fruits of the garden, which form a part of 
the delights of life, contain the same elementary principles found 
in man, but there taken at second hand. The vegetable being a 
builder up of tissue can exist where the animal would become 
extinct, for it is the tendency of all animals to destroy combina- 
tions and to form compound products. 



98 Instinct and Reason. [February-, 

Now, for these various forms of life to effect these important 
and complicated results, there must needs be some power behind 
all capable of directing the phenomena manifested in each indi- 
vidual. The selection of the required food, the choice of a 
habitat, and the end of all — the ultimate propagation of its kind — 
are by no means mechanical phenomena. 

The general opinion has hitherto been, that man was guided 
by intelligence or reason, and the lower animals, without excep- 
tion, by instinct, differing most essentially from reason in that it 
was innate. Gradually, however, many of the actions of the 
lower animals, as well as some of man which were regarded as 
instinctive, were acknowledged to be intelligent. These actions 
were supposed to be the same in kind, but different in degree. A 
step was thus made in advance ; and what could not be longer 
denied forced itself upon the attention of all. 

It is a matter of peculiar difficulty to draw a line of distinction 
between instinct and reason. The best thinkers, among whom 
may be cited Herbert Spencer, consider that no hiatus exists 
between the two, but that the one passes into the other by insen- 
sible degrees. 

Simple reflex action, sometimes called " reflex action of the 
spinal cord," is wholly unconscious action. It is the action of mus- 
cles seen in decapitated frogs, and in acephalous children (monsters) 
who, in their short life, perform simple acts as readily as babes 
with brain intact. Herbert Spencer supposes the simplest acts to 
be unconscious, performed by the animal automatically, in its 
endeavor to get rid of offending matters. And this acquired 
power is inherited and becomes then instinct, or complex reflex 
action of another sort. 1 Instinct is the inheritance of accumu- 
lated experience ; is also a lower grade of intelligence, into the 
highest of which it gradually develops. The dog after having 
been taught the trick of " begging " will transmit that faculty to 
its offspring, which will be used as occasion requires. 2 Mr. Lewes 
and Mr. Spencer appear to agree in regarding instinct as being 
lower than reason. Acts which were once voluntary and intelli- 
gent may become involuntary and habitual, then instinctive. 
And as acts became more complex they become less frequent, and 
more subject to the control of the will. Hence instinct is " lapsed 
intelligence," so to speak. 

* Psychology, Vol. i, p. 432 and foil. 

2 Problems of Life and Mind, Vol. i, p. 208 and foil. 



1 879.] Instinct and Reason. 99 

Some French writers and others do not separate impulse from 
instinct. This, Mr. Lewes opposes, since in instinct we see only- 
one course of action often followed, when other sources as good 
may be at hand. This course of action is the result of accumu- 
lated experience inherited from the parents. But at the same 
time a change in the course is sometimes manifested, which would 
imply a slight degree of intelligence. From this it follows that 
reason differs from instinct but in degree rather than in kind, as 
instinct does from impulse. But as impulse denotes the sudden- 
ness of an act, and as an instinctive act follows so swiftly after 
the impulse or desire has once been formed, it becomes very difficult 
to separate the two. Roughly speaking then, instinct may be 
described as the directing force in simple habitual actions ; while 
reason, in every case implies conscious memory, and may be 
viewed as the guiding vid di ccting force in every act which is not 
habitual, dt is the fatting in order of the proper apparatus to work 
in the best direction ; or the proper selection of the best mode of 
acquiring wants. In instinct then we have no consciousness of 
action, but reflex acts performed automatically. Hence the com- 
mon error of applying intelligence only to the acts of man can- 
not be too much deprecated. Instinctive acts are as common 
among men as among the lower animals ; and even in some 
species of plants, we note phenomena so wonderful as to cause 
some hesitation in classing them .entirely among instinctive acts. 

The theory of evolution aids us greatly in explaining many of 
the phenomena observed in the lower forms of life, perfectly 
inexplicable by any other mode of inquiry. From the simple and 
hardly exertive act of the monad to the complex and manifold 
actions of man, we cannot fail to perceive a constant progressive 
development, undeniable and indisputable. Each separate prin- 
ciple, if separate and distinct it be, overlaps another, there being 
no chasm, no break to evince the beginning of one and the end- 
ing of the other. The simple reflex act becomes compound ; 
phenomena cease to be involuntary, and become conscious and 
intelligent. 1 

First Forms of Life. — In regard to those transitional forms of 
life whose place in nature has not yet been determined, which 
multiply like the individual cells which make up animal and 
vegetable structures — by fissuration — little can be said respecting 

1 Principles of Psychology, Vol. i, p. 432 and foil. 



ioo Instinct and Reason. [February, 

either their instinct or reason. But that one or both these prin- 
ciples must be present, can be best seen from their analogy to 
higher forms. 1 But if, as Herbert Spencer teaches, instinct is but 
compound reflex action, and if in these lowly beings we observe 
simple reflex action to predominate over compound, it is but a 
step to invest even these transitional forms with some degree of 
instinct. And again following the same author, we cannot fail to 
see, from analogy at least, some degree of reason, however 
slight. 

It is seemingly so immaterial to this class of beings as to their 
place of abode, and so easily and rapidly do they reproduce their 
kind, that it is not surprising that the theory of spontaneous 
generation should have received so much attention and gained so 
many partisans. Still, in what light soever they are viewed, they 
must be allowed the requisite elements of growth and function ; 
for without these they must as truly perish as the higher forms 
of life when they, too, are deprived of proper function and 
nutrition. 

Whether regarded as animal or as vegetable, these lowly forms 
must be conceded some skill, however slight, for obtaining wants 
and for protection against enemies. Few, if any, of the higher 
forms of life are unprovided in this respect. Thorns render 
plants less liable to injury. The cuttle-fish stains the water in 
the track of its enemies of an inky blackness, and thus escapes. 
The spider simulates death ; and so does many a crustacean. 
The polyp can be severed into hundreds of fragments, but it 
revenges itself by reproducing as many new individuals; and the 
mollusc is protected from foes by a hard closed shell. 

Our knowledge of the lowest of the protozoans is but scanty, 
yet they all have means for engaging successfully in the struggle 
for existence. Each protozoan, or other, must put forth efforts 
proportioned to its development, to be met and overcome by still 
higher development. Something is displayed in the contest of 
offence and defence which seems like intelligence, but more akin 
to instinct. Their actions observed here are so nearly related to 
reflex action alone, that the problem of separating instinct from 
pure reason is at present utterly impossible. But yet where 
observation fails analogy will perhaps succeed. 

Now if, for example, we touch with the point of a fine needle 

i Vid. Pop. Sci. Monthly, Dec. 1873, P- 180. 



1 879.] Instinct and Reason. 101 

one of those beautiful bell animalcules, named Vorticella, it 
instantly darts backward as though attached to a tense elastic 
thread. If we observe it more carefully we perceive the stem of 
the bell flower to be gathered into several spirals like a helix. 
After a while the animalcule recovers from its fear and extends 
itself, spiral after spiral being shaken out. If the vessel in which 
they are contained be jarred even, they dart quickly backward as 
if touched. After a short time they get accustomed to jars and 
the like, and a considerable shock is required to cause them to 
withdraw into the depths of the vessel. Now here at least, some 
impression, strong enough to affect them greatly, is made upon 
these little bell-flower animalcules. If instinct be advanced to 
explain this phenomenon, then the onus of proof, as to where 
instinct ends and reason begins, belongs to the one who advances 
that idea ; if reason, however small, then we must allow the con- 
sciousness of action to obtain in all the processes of nature. 

Every form of life, then, whether animal or vegetable, does but 
furnish different modes of expressing life. What is lacking in 
one is made good by approximation, so far as it is consistent with 
the needs and demands of that organism. The plant has no 
brain, no blood circulation; but the sap of the plant is pumped up 
by the rootlets throughout every part ; and the circulation here 
is as perfectly established as in the animal, though in a different 
manner. For their purposes in life, then, these transitional beings 
need no complexity of nervous system, roots and sap. They would 
have no call for them in so simple an organization as they 

Plant Life. — A plant, as we understand it, is a cellular organism, 
consisting of a part below ground called the roots, and a part 
above denominated stem, branches and leaves. Parasitic plants 
have properly no roots, but, as their name implies, subsist upon 
higher vegetable forms. Air plants, fungi and lichens also belong 
to our category of plants, although differing so widely from our 
type. 

Plants, being for the most part limited in motion, shoot out 
roots in all directions beneath the ground in search of elements 
of nutrition, rear a stem aloft, push out branches and put forth 
leaves to catch the sunbeams, by means of which they decompose 
the atmosphere to obtain the proper requisites for the life, respi- 
ration, growth and vigor of that form of life. The plant never 



102 Instinct and Reason. [February, 

fails to direct its stem, branches and leaves towards the sun ; and 
in our typal plant, roots never fail to be thrust downward into the 
earth, in what form soever it may be placed in the ground. 
Leaves often change to roots, and roots in favorable circumstances 
become leaves. The greater the spread of foliage the more vig- 
orous and, consequently, the healthier will be the condition of the 
plant. At this point it may be well to note a universal law or 
principle: the more sunshine and air (of course at some time 
reaching a limit) the more abundant the foliage, and the denser 
the foliage the stronger and more flourishing the plant. This 
may be proved by comparing out-door plants with badly managed 
in-door and hot-house vegetation. Plenty of sunshine and air 
soon show a marked change for the better. 

Illustrating the subject by means of our type, we find the organs 
of a plant to be roots, leaves and the modifications of the leaves 
for reproductive purposes. The stem, or trunk, is but a canal, 
altering in size to suit the varying conditions of the plant, and is 
used for purposes of alimentation and the circulation of veg- 
etable products between the roots and the leaves. The growth 
of the stem depends upon the same law which governs the 
growth of the roots and the branches upon which the leaves are 
supported. In a word, the stem seems to act as a support for the 
leaves. Growth itself depends upon the proper assimilation of 
the elements of nutrition derived from the chemical changes 
occurring in the roots and leaves, and to some extent in the 



Marine and fresh water algae, if deprived of roots, have 
in their remaining organs all the functions necessary for their 
peculiar mode of existence. 

The structure of a plant is cellular, showing its origin to be 
from the segmentation and accumulation of cells, one upon the 
other. The microscope shows how beautiful is the plant tissue, 
and how different in different varieties, but in every one this dis- 
tinct cellular formation is apparent. 

The plant is also possessed of the means for assisting its 
growth, as runners, creepers, tendrils and the like. For repro- 
ductive purposes it has nettles, thorns, elastic fibres, as in the 
seed vessels of the squirting cucumber [Momordica elaterinm) ; 
but above all in its essential organs of reproduction — its flowers 
containing the stamens and pollen, ovary and pistil. The first 



1 879.] Instinct and Reason. 103 

class of propagating agents are secondary or non-essential, the 
latter the essential organs. The former passive agents, the latter 

Thorns, briers, nettles, etc., are also passive elements of defence. 
For offence many plants have a singular apparatus, especially 
that curious class of plants termed insectivorous, or carnivorous, 
hereafter to be discussed. 

But the plant demands food. This it obtains in a peculiar way. 
Its anatomy and physiology are adapted to that peculiar way. It 
does nothing contrary to nature with impunity. Mode of growth 
in all plants tend to the same end. Hence the lowest as well as 
the highest can do no more than supply wants ; seek a situation 
best suited to its growth and development; remove or avoid 
obstacles interfering with growth, and reproduce its kind in due 
time. For this purpose certain organs are exercised, and this con- 
stitutes the functions of a plant. 

In plants, as well as in animals, we everywhere perceive the 
operation of the law which secures to them what naturalists term 
" the survival of the fittest." 1'he weaker must succumb to the 
stronger, and disappears, is annihilated, when the struggle for 
existence becomes too great for that form of plant life. 

Plants which need much air (or elements of air) and light, and 
moisture, are found in situations most favorable for obtaining 
them ; if deprived of them the result is obvious. 

In the case of most terrestrial plants, a suitable depth and 
character of soil are required. If the soil be too poor in the 
elements of nutrition required by a peculiar kind of plant, or in 
excess, or the soil too dry or too light, the different elements 
must be duly supplied or apportioned, and sufficient moisture 
furnished by irrigation lest the heat of the sun destroys the roots 
of the plant. The same principles are observed in respect to all 
the classes of the flora spread over the earth. Warmth implies 
light or sunshine, and where it is wanting none but the lowest 
orders, like the lichens and alga;, survive. The different climates 
also possess their own vegetation, and even in different regions of 
the same zone we find plants totally distinct from each other. 
Hence circumstances, as well as conditions, must find a place 
among the demands of a plant. 

For the removal of obstacles the plant has two courses, to dis- 
integrate the object opposed to its progress, absorbing it if it be 



104 Instinct and Reason. [February, 

a suitable nutritive element, as are all animal and vegetable sub- 
stances and some minerals ; or pass around it ; or still again, as in 
extreme cases, to bury it up in its own substance, as are stones, 
bayonets, nails and the like. 

For its protection, defence and reproduction the plant has at 
hand sufficient means. Some of the many devices for these pur- 
poses have already been noticed. The manner of plant repro- 
duction is familiar to all ; the object being in all cases the contact 
between pollen and ovary or seed vessel. In this way the 
propagation of most plants is effected. In regard to the 
flowerless or cryptogamous flora, spores, it will be found, take the 
place of seeds proper. Yet for all that, the principle of repro- 
duction remains the same in both divisions. 

Such, then, are the organs, functions and factors exercised in 
the life of a plant. It now remains for us to consider how these 
are put into action according to the means at hand, pursuing as 
the plant does, many times, a most reasonable course, and acting 
in a manner so peculiar as to excite our wonder and admiration. 
We must first remember, however, that we have to do with a form 
of life whose phenomena have been but little studied, for it was 
not till late in the period of the Renaissance that botany became a 
a separate science, and that plants had a natural classication of 
their own. 1 

Plants are susceptible of improvement, which is well shown by 
cultivation. Thus flowers take upon themselves a great variety 
of forms and colors, and sometimes to so great an extent as 
almost to deserve to be classed as new and distinct species. But 
yet there is sufficient likeness between them, some characteristics 
traceable to the original stock; or some peculiarities due to 
inheritance '; some similitude to the parent to make them belong 
to the same species. Darwin considers all the different species, 
or varieties of pansy to be derived from one parent, as may be said 
in reference to the pigeon and the dog kind. 

Trees often adapt themselves, in a remarkable degree, to the 
surrounding circumstances. Thus the feral oak, growing as it 
does in the midst of other trees, which oftentimes are densely 
crowded together, sends out branches at a more acute angle than 
does the meadow or cultivated oak. Much difficulty is experienced 
in cultivating the feral variety, so as to give it the grace and 

i First Nat. Sys. Bernard a- Jussieu, 1759; Firmer Vegetable World. 



1 879. j Instinct mid Reason. 105 

beauty of the meadow oak. Other trees, like the walnut and 
chestnut, present the same peculiarities. 

Plants appear to possess sensibility, and often to a remarkable 
extent. If the well-known sensitive plant be touched never so 
lightly, if but a breath blow upon it, its flowers and leaves close; 
and some time elapses ere it dares to expand them again, as if it 
knew the danger threatening it. If only a sister leaf be touched 
the rest close as if out of sympathy. 1 

Drugs exert their peculiar influence upon plants as upon the 
higher animals. Spirits of ammonia, if applied too strong, will 
be fatal ; opium puts the plant as effectually to sleep as it does 
man ; prussic acid is also destructive ; electricity exerts here its 
peculiar and wonderful effect. 2 

In plants, as in animals, we sometimes observe what is termed 
" suspended animation." This phenomenon is well instanced in 
the " resurrection plant," generally known as the Rose' of Jericho. 
It is found in Arabia, near the shores of the sea, to all appear- 
ances a mass of dry, dead vegetable fibre. But when sufficient 
moisture is supplied, it revives, its leaves expand, it is clothed in 
new verdure, and as it blossoms unfold, the reanimated plant is 
clothed in all its former beauty. No wonder is it that the Rose 
of Jericho should be almost adored by the simple people among 
whom it is found. 3 

The Sleep of Plants. — When night approaches, flowers close 
their petals, and thus at rest, only wake when the sun once more 
ushers in the day. DeCandolle, as did Linnaeus before him, made 
many experiments with plants in this particular. At night, plants 
were exposed to a bright light, and during the day were placed in 
a darkened room. After some irregularities, the change of con- 
ditions was finally adopted by the plants, and in the lighted room 
they would blossom, arid close their petals and leaves in the dark- 
Some plants, however, only flower at night. The beautiful 
Yuccas, a species of wild lily, only blossom when the moon is 
out. The night blooming cereus only blooms as its name indi- 
cates. Hence the time, as well as the season and the climate, etc., 
seem to be elements of importance in the flowering of plants. 
These conditions may be slightly varied, as seen above. 
1 Vid. " Wonders of Vegetable World." Scherl De Vere. 



io6 Instinct and Reason. [February, 

The Movements of Plants. — Slow motion is obvious in all plants, 
as in their growth, and in their tendrils, creepers, etc. But the 
most rapid and continuous motion probably possessed by plants, 
is exhibited in the Desmodium gyrans, of India. Each leaf of this 
plant consists of three parts, two external and small leaflets, and 
one central and large leaflet. The external leaflets move up and 
down in alternate jerks, at the rate of sixty a minute. The cen- 
tral one moves but little. This motion is continued during all 
the seasons of the year, and during the whole lifetime of the 
plant. Warmth and moisture, however, expedites the motion. 1 

The Offensive Weapons of Plants.— -The first of these offensive 
plants is the familiar Venus's fly-trap {Dioncea muscipula) which 
sets its traps, and woe betide the unwary insect which ventures 
near the the hidden toils, allured by its attractive appearances. 
The springs are all set, the prison prepared and sure destruction 
awaits the victim. 

The Darlin belongs to the pitcher plant family. 

Its appearance has been likened to a cobra in the act of striking. 
The beautiful "red wattles " within the brim of its pitcher offer 
irresistible attractions to insects, especially to flies. These alight 
first upon the " wattles," then flying upward strike the pitcher, and 
owing to the peculiar twist of its walls fall to the bottom of the 
receptacle, where many another thoughtless fly has, too late, 
found its sepulchre. 2 

Dr. Erasmus Darwin, 3 grandfather of the celebrated naturalist 
of the same name, about a century ago, advanced many curious 
theories respecting the consciousness and volition of plants, in a 
work under the title of "The Loves of the Plants." This book 
at the time was much ridiculed. Plants seem to put on their 
most gorgeous dyes for the same purposes as the animals; and the 
idea of the "loves of the plants," though seemingly absurd, needs 
more investigation ere it be wholly discarded and ridiculed. 

Plants not only actually eat and digest animal food, but also 
drop the insects they have destroyed, upon the ground, and thus 
fertilize the soil. 

Dr. Hooker has described several kinds of plants which sub- 
sist upon animal food, and are hence termed carnivorous. The 



1 879.] Instinct and Reason. 107 

present Mr. Darwin has investigated the same subject very care- 
fully, and found that when a fly was caught by one of these 
plants, it would be dissolved in a gastric fluid exactly like that of 
the animal stomach. Pieces of beef and the like, when subjected 
to the same process, were acted upon in like manner. Hard min- 
eral substances, like chalk, would, after a time, be rejected by the 
plant, though seized upon at first like the rest, shall we say as 
soon as it found out its mistake ? l 

In this country a lady has enlightened us greatly upon this 
subject by her interesting labors upon the bladder wort {Utricu- 
laria ncglcctd). Mrs. Treat has studied the habits of this plant 
very carefully, and learned that it allures animalcules by means 
of its bright flowers and leaves glistening with dew. The water 
bear and other microscopic forms of insect and vegetable life 
seem to be its food. 2 

Instinct and Reason. — On analyzing the various opinions formed 
at different times in the world's history, in regard to the reason- 
ing power, or consciousness of action displayed by plants, we 
shall meet with extremists on both sides of the question. Pass- 
ing over the mythological accounts of plant metamorphoses, so 
attractive to the refined Greek and Latin, we only advert to the 
mental faculties with which the ancients were pleased to endow 
many plants. 

Many in more modern times have lavishly bestowed souls upon 
plants, as did Adanson, Bonnet, Hedwig and Edward Smith. 
Martius and Fechner, of Germany, defended these views, and 
were very liberal in their supply of souls to plants, even regard- 
ing them as sentient beings. 

Another class, taking the opposite side of the question, among 
which may be reckoned Huler, regarded plants as only suscepti- 
ble to the material influences of the universe. So Descartes 
made all animals, so far as he could, mere automatons. 

The views of naturalists of our own day are more consistent 
with nature and common sense ; that all plants obey as infallible 
subject to like influences as was 
s great work on " Life and Death," 



io8 " Turtle-Back " Celts in District of Columbia. [February, 

admits that plants show a life as active, and a sensibility as great 
as do most animals. 1 Any disturbance of the conditions under 
which plants thrive are as fatal as the subversion of the relations 
upon which the lower animals and man himself depend for 

In the investigation of this part of our subject, we must remem- 
ber that we cannot see exhibitions as great as in the more com- 
plex forms. Each plant, transitional or not, displays in the strug- 
gle for existence and the survival of its kind, a force, an influence 
almost as great and wonderful as is exhibited by mankind. And 
though standing above all this, as head and chief, man is too often 
forgetful of the relation he bears to the innocent weed that is in 
the pastures bred ; too thoughtless, many times, of the vegetable 
on which he depends for his subsistence and being ; too ignorant 
of the chain which leads from the lowest vegetable form, to the 
beauty and perfection of his manhood. — [To be continued^ 



THE DISCOVERY OF "TURTLE-BACK" CELTS 
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



A LTHOUGH the rude stone implements forming the subject 
F*- of this paper were not found under such circumstances as to 
assign to them the age that some have suggested, yet the term 
" turtle-back " is retained for the purpose of distinguishing them 
from the ordinary modern rude forms, and to illustrate their rela- 
tionship to some extent to the older and typical specimens 
described and figured by Dr. Abbott. 2 Before giving a descrip- 
tion of the implements, the locality of their discovery will be 
necessary. The surface thus far examined, covers an area of less 
than two acres in extent, and is situated on the left or south bank 
of the eastern branch, in Uniontown, D. C, about an eighth of a 
mile above the bridge connecting that town with Washington 
city. From the branch southward, the surface gradually rises in 
elevation, and the region upon which the chief specimens were 
i Loc. cit. 

3 Am. Nat., x, p. 331 ; Tenth Ann. Rep. Peabody Mas. Am. Archaeol. and Ethnol. 
II, pt. 1, 1877. pp. 30-43, figs. 1-3 ; Eleventh Ann. Rep. Mus. Am. Archaeol. and 
Kthnol. If. pt. 2, 1S7S, pp. 223-257, figs. 1-4. 



1 879.] " Turtle-Back " Celts in District of Columbia. 109 

found is about fifteen feet above low water mark. This sloping 
surface consists of fine sand, resting upon a layer of water-worn 
pebbles of stratified drift. The latter is a continuation of the 
formation known as the " cobble-stone " drift, upon which the 
eastern portion of the city of Washington is built. At several 
localities in that portion of the city, street cuts show exposures 
varying from five to forty feet in thickness. The several layers 
of worn and rounded boulders, " cobble-stones," gravel and sand, 
retain a perfect uniformity of stratification, showing their original 
deposition and arrangement through the action of water. Upon 
nearing the Branch we reach the shallow valley worn by that 
current, and the upper .stratum of drift though much lower than 
farther back in the city, is not low enough to reach the level of 
that stream even at high tide. Examinations indicate, however, 
that the upper stratum on the north side of the stream, and the 
stratified gravel at the locality where the implements occur are 
the same, their continuity having been destroyed by the body of 
water just mentioned. 

The rude implements were found about one hundred and fifty 
yards from the edge of the water, associated with quite a variety 
of more modern manufacture, which, by the way, were, with the 
exception of two or three examples, all made either of white, 
vitreous, or nearly transparent quartz. These represent spear- 
heads, arrow-heads and scrapers of great variety of sizes ; some 
of the latter consisting of split pebbles, nicely finished by chip- 
ping, leaving the convex side to retain nearly all of the original 
surface. Many of the arrow-heads have been manufactured in 
this way, by cleaving the pebbles and finishing up a few irregu- 
larities. The smallest specimens are represented by scrapers, 
probably used in smoothing down arrows; these are made of 
tabular pieces of semi-transparent quartz, about the size of a five 
cent nickel, shaped nearly like a horse-shoe, flat at base, and have 
the opposite convexity nicely beveled. 

The next class of implements represent manufacture of a ruder 
character, and undoubtedly points to greater age ; to the earlier 
and lower state of the art of working stone for pointing weapons. 
These consist of quartz, and rarely chert, being rudely chipped 
and flaked, always leaving a greater irregular convexity upon one 
side of the specimen than upon the other, forming an intermediate 
grade between the modern forms and those termed " turtle- 
backs." 



no " Turtle-Back " Celts in District of Columbia. [February, 

The latter is the class to which I desire to call special attention. 
These lie scattered along various small ravines formed by the rain, 
mingling with pebbles and modern relics ad libitum. They are 
all made of characteristic yellowish or grayish-brown quartzite, a 
material used in every instance, which has not been found to 
occur in a single individual of the two preceding varities. In 
form they are true " turtle-backs," if the term is admissible. The 
variety of forms thus far discovered are represented by that unde- 
finable shape usually termed celts, and spear-heads. 

An examination of a celt gives the following measurements, in 
inches: length 4.6, width (greatest) 2.4, thickness 1.85. The 
anterior surface, or that side upon which we find the " turtle- 
back " elevation, rises to 1.38 above fhe average line of the cut- 
ting edge ; while the posterior or opposite side rises to but .47 of 
an inch beyond the same line. The top of the greater elevation 
retains part of the natural worn surface of the cobble-stone from 
which the specimen was wrought, showing the implement to have 
been manufactured near the locality. The cutting edge though 
still sharp, is very undulating, owing to the removal of large 
flakes during manufacture. Secondary clippings, ending in a 
perfectly continuous edge, shows the relic to have been a com- 
plete specimen and not a core, as has been suggested upon the 
discovery of similar forms. Another reason is, that not a single 
arrow-head or other specimen has as yet been found, even upon 
the closest examination, although the flakes would serve to fur- 
nish materials for arrow-heads, which could measure, when 
finished, nearly two inches in length. Considering the nature of 
quartzite, such utilized flakes should be found, as no disintegra- 
tion or decomposition could obliterate their form so long as the 
bodies from which they have been flaked fail to present any 
changes upon their surface. 

The only spear-head found, thus far, presents the same peculiar 
irregularity, but is especially interesting on account of its great 
comparative thickness. The specimen is 2.5 inches in length 
from the projection on the base to the point, 1.8 of an inch broad, 
and 1.2 thick. The cutting edge is sharp, continuous all around, 
and slightly undulating, the latter being the result of flaking. 
Secondary chippings are visible at different points. The anterior 
lateral cutting edges converge at an angle of 90 , terminating in 
an extremely delicate and acute point. The " turtle-back " eleva- 



1 879:] " Turtle-Back " Celts in District of Columbia. 1 1 1 

tion reaches its extreme elevation less than half an inch back oi 
this, forming an angle of 64 ° when viewed from either side. 
Toward the base the descent is more gradual, where there are 
deeper notches than usually occur, the projections on either side 
somewhat worn, showing traces of having been used. From all 
appearance such an implement, as nearly all of this type, appears 
useless in attempting to penetrate the skin of anything more 
resisting than that of fishes. 

It is very probable that these rude implements were not manu- 
factured and employed by the Indians of historic times who 
inhabited this region. The question is asked, Why then do these 
implements occur with more modern ones upon the surface, or in 
washes ? The only reason that can be given is, that the rude 
forms occupying that portion of the stratum of sand resting upon 
the gravel, and those of modern manufacture occupying the sur- 
face of the later deposit of earth and sand, were brought together 
by the removal of the intervening siliceous matter through the 
prolonged and repeated agency of rains. Thus the surface relics 
were gradually let down, as it were, as the sand and earth were 
washed away. This may appear unsatisfactory, but the suggestion 
is based upon the following reasons : first, that the sand being 
fine and easily removed by water (through the agency of rains) 
falling over this locality and over the bluffs, follows the most 
natural course towards the stream, taking with it the light silicious 
particles, and washing them away from the pebbles, stones and 
implements, allowing them to be deposited in an indiscriminate 
mixture in the little water courses and ravines ; second, that this 
has been the case is apparent from the fact of its occurrence in 
several places at this time ; also that small embankments and 
hillocks occur, consisting of gravel thus deposited or brought 
together by the removal of the lighter soil ; and at this day, after 
any continued or hard rains, numerous accumulations of pebbles, 
amongst which we find implements, are formed by the removal 
of earth and sand by the temporary streams. 

In this way the surface remains have not been carried away 
from the localities upon which they had rested, but. were gradu- 
ally dropped to a lower horizon, until after a time they reached 
the stratum containing the rude and more ancient varieties. 

In this connection I shall speak of several localities in Penn- 
sylvania, one of which occupies a position in the eastern portion 



ii2 " Turtle-Back''' Celts in District of Columbia. [February, 

of the city of Reading, and another a short distance below that 
city. The rude implements found at these places have been 
remarked upon by Mr. A. F. Berlin in a recent number of the 
American Antiquarian} The first named locality is the one upon 
which Mr. Berlin first noticed the occurrence of rude implements 
bearing the typical characteristics of so-called " turtle-backs." A 
few days after this discovery I visited the place, and found 
various examples, consisting of "celts," spear-heads, arrow-heads 
and scrapers. These were found over a small area only, occupy- 
ing the top of a small limestone bluff. A small stream known as 
Mineral Spring creek passes near the base of this bluff, the inter- 
vening soil consisting of loam and debris from the more elevated 
regions. Immediately above, and resting upon the stratum of 
limestone, is a stratum of sand and pebbles, which has been 
washed away along the immediate declivity of the embankment, 
exposing the rude relics above referred to as found by Mr. Berlin. 
I found that this stratum of sand was covered by earth and gravel 
from the neighboring hillside, with which it was continuous, 
excepting along the greater declivity where the rain had worn 
away the super-stratum, exposing the sub-stratum of sand and 
rounded and worn pebbles, which occurred in accumulations 
where they had been washed into the ravines. Modern types 
were also found here associated with the rude implements, but 
the latter were not found on the upper stratum, even where the 
ploughing of long continued cultivation and local denudation has 
removed considerable soil ; but farther down the modern forms 
have been washed down and lowered by the removal of sand and 
earth to reach the more ancient stratum containing the " turtle- 

This stratum of sand and gravel, or, more properly speaking, 
pebbles, continues eastward horizontally, as was proven by the 
digging of a well. Nearer the hill, where this excavation was 
made, the workmen reached a layer of stratified sand, pebbles 
and cobble-stones at a depth of about forty feet. Upon examina- 
tion this proved to be the level (if run horizontally towards the 
bluff) of the one containing the implements. Since then this 
stratum has been detected along the valley a short distance, 
proving it to be the same, the great amount of debris and soil 
from the mountain side being accounted for where the well was 

» Vol. i, No. I, 1878, pp. 10-12, pi. facing p. 16. 



1 879.] " Turtle- Back" Celts in District of Columbia. 1 13 

dug, because that lies nearer the slope which rises at an angle of 
about 16 . This fluviatile drift, as it seems to be, formed the bed 
of an ancient body of water ; but whether the implements found 
date to that period or a little later, it is impossible to decide. 
Were it possible to continue the search by digging at various 
places and depths to ascertain if the implements occur elsewhere 
than at the bluff, more might be learned, though it is very im- 
probable, as will be shown farther on. 

Dr. F. M. Endlich informs me of the occurrence of ancient 
shore lines on the eastern declivity of the neighboring hills, which 
may mark the surface of the same stratum occurring on the 
western side, as the continuation may be traced interruptedly 
around the hills, following the course of the Schuylkill river. 
The implements found at the last named locality present no 
appreciable difference from those occurring at Uniontown. Their 
conformation, mineralogical composition, typical workmanship 
and even the color of the materials correspond in all respects. 
Forms from Reading are figured in the American Antiquarian 1 
by Mr. Berlin. Some in my possession are identical in form, but 
several are more typical of that class found in the drift at Trenton 
by Dr. Abbott, and the illustration 2 given by him represents one 
celt perfectly. This striking similarity is certainly remarkable ; 
and considering the persistence with which the New Jersey celts 
are reproduced at Reading and at Uniontown, there appears to be 
greater relationship between the manufactures of the three varie- 
ties than has been accredited, or that we may be able to account 
for. One, and it may be be considered the strongest objection to 
this suggestion, is, the difference in altitude above the tide water 
between the several localities. Another is in regard to the geo- 
logical positions of the implements. 

In another locality, one mile south-west of Reading, on the 
right bank of the Schuylkill river, numerous specimens of these 
similar rude implements have been obtained. They likewise con- 
sist of the same species of quartzite, and are typical " turtle- 
backs." This locality covers about two or three acres in extent, 
sloping very prominently towards the river. The soil is sandy, 
and differs in this respect from that lying immediately around it, 
has been under cultivation for the hist sixty or seventy years, and 



1 14 " Turtle-Back " Celts in District of Columbia. [February, 

through the repeated plowing, harrowing and the effects of rain, 
much of the original super-stratum have been removed, exposing 
the older layer of stratified sand and river gravel. With the lat- 
ter we find more of the rude implements, which consist of celts, 
spear-heads, arrow-heads and scrapers. 

In all of the localities referred to, a peculiar variety of quartzite 
has been employed, which was found to exist in the " cobble- 
stone '"drift in the District of Columbia. At Reading we do not 
find it, nor within forty miles of that city, to my knowledge. In 
each of these regions, the specimens partake of a character of 
workmanship that is rude and primitive in the extreme, and just 
such implements as might reasonably be supposed to be required 
by a rude and primitive people. 

Assuming that such a race preceded the Indians— of which 
there is scarcely any doubt — several important points present 
themselves which are difficult of solution, viz : First, the length 
of time that elapsed between the disappearance of one race and 
the appearance of their successors ; second, at what approximate 
period the manufacturers of the rude implements occupied these 
regions; and third, whether the colony occupying the region 
about the Eastern Branch, was of immediate tribal connection of 
those whose remains survive at Reading ? 

In answer to the first point, nothing can be definitely known, 
though it would appear from slight geological evidence, that con- 
siderable time had elapsed. Various traditions have been handed 
down to us regarding a race corresponding to the Eskimo, which, 
if accepted, would allow scarcely any time for the soil to have 
been without occupants ; for that race was, according to said tra- 
dition, driven northward by the encroachments of the Indians. 

Regarding the second point, the locality in the eastern portion 
of Reading furnishes the greatest antiquity. Here the original 
stratum, in one section of which implements have been found in 
such a condition and under circumstances to lead us to infer that 
they had been buried there by the gradual accumulation of detri- 
tus from the mountains ; but whether any specimens occur in the 
stratum of drift, at any distance under this upper accumulation, is 
not known. The excavation, showing the drift stratum at forty 
feet below the surface, is nearer the mountain, and the mass of 
earth and debris may have required but a short time for deposi- 
tion geologically. Beyond this elevation the valley was, at some 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 1 1 5 

remote time, submerged, but has become narrowed down through 
the same agency from different directions. Being guided by the 
manner in which the implements were found, and other meagre 
evidence, one would suppose them to date back to the lacustrine 
period, but in this we find difficulties which can be explained in 
answer to the third point. 

The difference in elevation between this locality and that on the 
banks of the Schuylkill river (as well as that on the Eastern 
Branch) is too great for them to have been occupied simulta- 
neously, unless we throw out the suggestion of a lacustrine 
period. Acting upon this, the matter becomes more comprehen- 
sible, from which may be deduced the following propositions, viz : 

1 st. That the three localities were occupied by a similar people, 
at or nearly at the same time. 

2d. That these p'eople lived chiefly upon fish, as is inferred from 
the implements which, under ordinary circumstances, would be 
worthless in the chase. 

3d. That these typical forms of rude workmanship, indicate 
greater antiquity than we find represented in the rudest forms of 
Indians who subsequently occupied the same localities. And — 

4th. That the position of some of the implements in the strati- 
fied drift, and their relation in this respect to the location of 
modern relics, indicates an indefinite lapse of time from the dis- 
appearance of this primitive race to the appearance of the Indians 
proper, whose rudest forms of workmanship are found near or 
upon the surface. 

RECENT LITERATURE. 
Brehms's Animal Life. 1 — The volumes that have been pre- 
viously noticed of the series, have related to the vertebrate animals, 
which are naturally in a work of a thorougly popular charactersuch 
as this, treated of at much greater length than the invertebrates. The 
present volume has been written by Prof. Oscar Schmidt, of the 

of the structure and mode of development of the lower animals. 
This volume begins with the Crustacea, and descends through 






1 1 6 Recent Literature. [February, 

the worms to the Mollusca, the Echinoderms and the Coelenter- 
ates to the Protozoa. While we cannot agree with the learned 
author in some of his views 
classification, the reader may be sure ] 
that the volume is a careful and reli- 
able presentation of the more inter- 
esting facts regarding these creatures, 
and which should be the property | 
^^^^»*^^ of every well in- 
/JflP^^^><"^Bb formed person. 
■L ' l W In these days 

^^HHH^r one can nar dly be 
<P considered as lib- 

Fig. i. — Sacculina erally educated, 
coram. Natural size. who j g not con _ 
versant with the physical theories as 
to the origin of the different forms 
of life ; and as there are several ave- 
nues which lead up to the Vertebrates 
from the lower animals, no wonder | 
that a knowledge of the lower ani- fig. 2— Peltogaster cun'atm; be- 

mals, especially the groups described neath is the larva or naupliusof Par- 
and figured in this volume, is quite Aenopea, magnified 200 times. 

requisite. It should be said, however, that the anticipation of 
vertebrate characters discoverable in the Ascidians, the Worms 
and the Molluscs, are recondite, and only appreciable after care- 




ful embryological and anatomical studies. This subject is only 
incidentally referred to by Prof. Schmidt, and perhaps the intro- 
duction of too many anatomical cuts and schematic drawings 
would be considered as out of place in such a work as this. 



i8 79 .] 

As it stands, the vol- 
ume before us is su- 
perbly illustrated, and 
to American students, 
as we have previously- 
remarked, who may read 
German with difficulty, 
the book will be 
house of admirable stu- 
dies from nature of the 
leading types of animal 

Many new wood-cuts 
are added in this second 
edition ; some of these 
were drawn by Prof. 
Schmidt's daughter, Jo- 
hanna, who spent a win- 
ter in Dr. Dohrn's Zoo- 
logical Station at Na- 



Recent Literature 




[February, 



nificent aquarium of that institution, which has proved such a 
benefaction and stimulus to working naturalists in Europe. The 




example of the mode of treatment of his subject we 
r to the account of the Hydroid polyps and coral polyps. 




The Hydractinia, jelly fishes and other forms that lead up to the 
Anthozoa or genuine polyps, are discussed, and the latter are fully 
described, and their mode of development as originally worked 
out by Lacaze-Duthiers and Haeckel, as well as the that of Hal- 
cyonoid polyps and sea-pens. A lengthy chapter is devoted to 
the subject of coral reefs and coral islands, based on the researches 
of Darwin, Dana, Ehrenberg and other naturalists. The accom- 
panying illustrations will convey an idea of the mode of pictorial 
treatment. 

Of the full-page illustrations those of the Octopus or Kraken, 
the paper Nautilus, the group of Holothurians, are especially 
noteworthy. In conclusion we can only praise in the highest 
terms this great work, the preparation of which has been entrusted 



Recent Literature. [February, 

* of the best men in Germany, who combine with a thorough 




>ecial knowledge, the art of 
active way the history of a; 


setting forth ii 
nimallife. 


1 a " ' 


Tenth Annual Report ( 


)F the Unite 
, F. V. Hayd 


:d Si 


i Tenth Annual Report of the Unit 


ed States Geologica 


;'/.'" 7 



878. 8vo, pp. 546, wit. 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 121 

volume is a worthy member of the large series of annual reports 
of this survey, and is quite as important and rather more fully 
illustrated than any of its predecessors. The field work reported 
upon embraced the completion of the explorations known as the 
Survey of Colorado and portions of adjacent Territories, and 
was finished in 1876. 

The first part, relating to geology, contains a report of Dr. C. 
A. White on a portion of North-western Colorado, of F. M. 
Endlich, Geologist of the White River division, of Dr. A. C. 
Peale, Geologist of the Grand River district, and of W. H. 
Holmes on the geology of the Sierra Abajo and West San Miguel 
mountains. These reports are followed by an elaborate essay by 
Mr. Endlich on the volcanic rocks of Colorado. 

The second part, topography, embraces reports by A. D. Wil- 
son on the primary triangulation of Colorado; by Henry Gannett 
on the arable and pasture lands of Colorado ; by G. B. Chitten- 
den on the White River district, and by G. R. Bechler on the 
Yampa River district. 

The third part, archaeology and ethnology, is rich in new facts 
regarding ancient ruins of South-western Colorado, contributed 
by Mr. W. M. Holmes and Mr. W. H. Jackson. This portion is 
illustrated by a large number of plates, and is accompanied by 
essays on the Chaco cranium, and on the Indians of Nevada, 
California and Arizona, by Dr. W. J. Hoffman. 

Fart four, palaeontology and zoology contains an essay by Mr. 
Lesquereux on the fossil plants secured by the Survey in 1877, 
and a report by A. S. Packard, Jr., on the insects affecting the 
cranberry, &c. The maps are in some cases colored, and add 
greatly to the interest and value of the report. 

Fifty of the plates illustrate the remarkable cliff dwellers 
in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. A very inter- 
esting series of chapters treats of the geology of Colorado, 
and there is much besides of great interest to the general 
as well as the scientific reader. Unfortunately, Congress has only 
ordered the printing of 4,500 copies, and the demand far exceeds 
the supply. 

This Survey has done so much, by its publications, to spread 
the knowledge both at home and abroad of the remarkable coun- 
try constituting its field of labor, that every annual report finds 
an increasing number of readers, and it is not surprising, there- 
fore, to meet with expressions of regret at the want of liberality 
on the part of Congress in printing too small editions, expressed 
in our own and foreign scientific journals. 

Moseley's Structure of the Stvlastkrid.k. 1 — It will be 
remembered that Mr. Moseley substantially set at rest all doubts 

1 The Croonian Lecture, On the Structure of the Styhisterune, a family of the 
Hvdroui Stony Corah. Bv II. X. Mo.ki.KV. l-'.R.S. (From ti. 
Transactions .'.f the R0v.1l Societv. Part i. 1S78. 1 London. 4 to, pp. 78, II plates. 



122 Recent Literati/re. [February, 

as to the hydroid nature of Millepora, first suggested by Agassiz 
and endorsed by Verrill. The present admirable and masterly 
study certainly proves, beyond doubt, the hydroid nature of the 
family of beautiful coral-like structures, called from the name of 
the typical genus (Stylaster) StylastcriJce. 

Most of the specimens studied by Mr. Moseley were obtained 
at a single haul of the dredge aboard the Challenger, at a depth of 
600 fathoms, off the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, in 1876. It 
was the examination of this set of specimens which first convinced 
him that the Stylasteridce wore Hydroids and not Anthozoans. 
The hard and soft parts are described and very fully and beau- 
tifullv illustrated, the drawings being large and thoroughly 
intelligible. 

As in most all Hydroids, the sexes are on different stocks which 
have a tendency to grow in a flabellate form with alternate germi- 
nation. The family is placed with the MUleporida in a separate 
sub-order named by Mosely, Hydrocorallince. This sub-order, its 
families and genera, are described in full, and an essay is given on 
the pedigree of the Hydrocorallince. The author suggests the 
former existence of a hypothetical Are/iistrlas/er, and regards 
Spomdopora as " the most ancestral Stylasterid at present known.'' 
The essay closes with a short chapter on the distribution in space 
and time of the Stylasteridce. 



ei minan Report .,f the held work of the U S. Geological and (k-ogi ipliiv; 

' i 



: 
[8. Mobile, 1878. From the author. 

Outline of the (ieoj..-y..f Alabama. By Eugene 

From the author. 









GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

A Tree as a Fratricide and Cannibal. — On the bank of the 

West Xishnabatona river, near Tabor, Iowa, there stands a lar-e 
sycamore, /" About ten feet from it is the 

decayed stump of another of the same species. The diameter of 
each is about three feet. 



1 24 General Notes. [February, 

Last season, during a freshet, the river ran over its bank past 
them, uncovering their roots on one side. In this way six differ- 
- ent places were shown where large roots from the living tree had 
become grafted to those of the dead one. For convenience we 
will designate the dead tree as A, and the living one as B. While 
in one case the roots of B appear to have met the root of A 
squarely and followed it, investing it ; in other cases the roots 
from each had crossed each other and grown to a considerable 
size before uniting. In every case, however, but one root lived 
beyond the union, and that one belonged to A. In most cases, 
also, while both lived above the union, that from B was much the 
larger. In one case that from A had died, leaving the remain- 
ing living root joined to B with a curious acute angle in it. One 
instance was seen of the grafting of two roots from B to each 
other, in a similar way. A young ash was growing between A 
and B. It is needless to say that its roots showed no tendency 
to unite with those around them. Doubtless many similar 
junctions remained unrevealed. The stump of A was so rotten 
that it could be easily crumbled with the fingers. Its roots, as 
before stated, were living some distance above their union with 
those of B, and doubtless have traitorously carried the nourish- 
ment which they helped store in A in its prosperous days, into 
the root sent out from B, by reversing their action. We may 
say, therefore, that B has first starved A to death, then by using 
its own roots as feeders has been devouring it. 

This glimpse into the hidden life of trees suggests several 
interesting inferences : 

1. All trees of the same species, in a grove together, may 
become organically connected. Perhaps this may be turned to 
their mutual advantage when contending with other kinds. 

2. Weaker members of a grove may be killed, not simply by 
lack of sunshine, air, etc., but they may be literally bled to death 
by their more powerful neighbors. 

3. It is seen how the growth formed by a failure or unsuccess- 
ful individual is utilized directly in the economy of nature, just as 
when in the animal world the large fish live on the little ones. — 
7. £ Todd. 

Ox Tin: Nectar of Flowers— Mr. Wilson read a paper 
on this subject before the British Association, which may interest 
American botanists. He discussed the extent to which the vis- 
iting of plants by insects in search of sugar occurs in nature, since 
this action is believed by some biologists to have been the cause 
that determined the existence, forms, colors, and odors of flowers. 
The number of flowers required to yield a pound of honey — viz: 
two and a half millions — was mentioned as showing what an 
enormous number of visits an insect collecting honey must make 
in order to obtain an appreciable quantity, and as proving that the 
industry of the bee is in reality necessary to its very existence. 



1879] Zoology. 125 

Botanical News. — Botanists will be interested in the portion 
of Sir J. D. Hooker's recent anniversary address as president of 
the Royal Society of London, which appears in Nature for Dec. 
5th. He reviews Comte Gaston de Saporta's essay entitled 
L'Ancienne Vegetation Polaire, in which the author takes the 
ground that life first appeared in the northern circumpolar area of 
the globe, and that this was the birthplace of the first and of all 
subsequent floras ; the initial conditions of terrestrial life follow- 
ing upon the emergence of the earlier stratified rocks from the 
Polar ocean. 

Among recent botanical works are Heer's History of Vegeta- 
tion in Switzerland, and Christ's Das Pflanzenleben in der 
Schweiz. 

The forthcoming eleventh report of the U. S. Geological and 
Geographical Survey of the Territories, in charge of Prof. Hay- 
den, will contain the reports of Sir J. D. Hooker and Prof. Asp 
Gray on the results of their botanical explorations in the western 
Territories in connection with this survey. 

Trimen's Journal oj Botany for December contains an article 
on the pro-embryo of Chara, an essay in morphology, by S. H. 

In the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club for November, 
Dr. Asa Gray records two remarkable forms of Trillium. Mr. 
C. G. Pringle notices some north-eastern plants ; and the discov- 
ery of a truffle new to the North American flora, by Mr. W. R. 
Gerard, is recorded. 

A Catalogue of North American Ferns (north of Mexico) in 
the Davenport Herbarium of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society is to be issued by Mr. George E. Davenport, 8 Hamilton 
Place, Boston, Mass., provided that he can obtain a sufficient 
number of subscribers to meet the expense. The price will not 
exceed fifty cents. 

In the Botanical Gazette for December, Dr. George Vasey adds 
to and corrects the catalogue of the forest trees of the United 
States. Mr. Thomas Meehan writes concerning Cassia iruiicans. 
J. R. Lowrie gives a list of the trees and plants inhabiting a 
plantation which has been protected, for a series of years, both 
from the inroads of cattle and the labor of farmers. 
ZOOLOGY.' 

The Breeding Habits of the Eel— a correction.— Farther 
examinations of additional specimens of the eel, convince me that 
an error as to the sex of the eel was made in my article in the 
January Naturalist. The motile bodies whose active move- 
ments misled me were not spermatozoa, but yolk particles, with 
an unusually marked Brownian motion. The male sex has yet 

■The department* of < )niiilio!o^y and Mammalo^\ art conducted by Dr. Ei.i.ro'i I 



1 26 General Notes. [February, 

to be discovered. It should be said that the subject is one pre- 
senting great difficulties, as formerly stated by Burnett. The 
spermatic particles of the perch and smelt, are exceedingly mi- 
nute, about tttWtt inch in diameter, and in these we have thus far 
found it impossible to detect the "tails" with a T V inch objective. 

I have been informed by John Sears, of Danvers, Mass., that 
he found young eels, somewhat less than an inch in length, with 
the yolk-sac still attached, at the mouth of a shallow brook run- 
ning into salt water at Danvers. This was during the month of 
March ; the season was earlier than usual, the ice having broken 
up in February. This would indicate that the parent eel must 
have spawned in December. As Mr. Sears is an observing field 
naturalist, and has noticed the breeding habits of other fish, we 
suppose him to be correct in the identification of the young eel. 
We would inquire whether any one else has ever observed eels 
so young and small as these, and with the yolk-sac still attached. 

Mr. Sears informs us, that at Danvers the trout begins to spawn 
in January, beginning then to make tin shallow holes in gravelly 
places. He has noticed perch spawning in midwinter, in ponds 
in shallow water, their movements being observed through the 
ice ; at this time the fins become red on the edges. On the other 
hand, the bream spawns in spring and summer. The horned 
pout, he says, breeds in holes in the gravel in midsummer. — A. 
S. Packard, Jr. 

A Gall-Inhabiting Ant.— The empty dwellings of many ani- 
mals furnish suitable abodes for others. The abandoned shell 
upon the beach finds an eager house-hunter in the hermit-crab; 
shells of Helices are sought by various European mason-bees 
and wasps as a fitting place in which to build their cells; two 
species have been found in New England to choose the concave 
vault of the oak-apple for the same purpose. 

I can now record two instances in which galls have been chosen 
by an ant, Stenamm 1 gaUarum n. sp., as the home of the colony. 
The first colony observed was in a gall oiGelechia galld'-solidagiuis 
Riley, upon a dead but unbroken stalk of golden-rod. From 
pupae found in this gall on the 31st of May, and placed in a vial 
under the care of a few workers, there matured three females, one 
upon each of the following days : June 20th and 23d, and July 
7th. The second colony was found while upon an excursion with 
Mr. K. Mitsikuri. on the 22(1 of May, 1878, in a fallen gal! of 
Cynips spongifica O. S. It was more populous than the other 
colony, and occupied the central cell, as well as the space between 
the kernel and the shell of the gall. Except the queen, who was 
without wings, the community consisted of workers and larvae 
only. 1 — W. H. Patton. 

7-andlum and petiole above, and incisures of thorax 
with dark-brown : : broad. Length, 3 nun. 



1 879.] Zoology. 1 27 

A Hummer's Meal.— Mr. A. R. Wallace, in a recent number 
of the Fortnightly Review, says, concerning the tongues of hum- 
mers : "This tubular and retractile tongue enables the bird to 
suck up honey from the nectaries of flowers, and also to capture 
small insects ; but whether the latter pass down the tubes, or arc- 
entangled in the fibrous tips and thus drawn back into the gullet, 

Mr. Wallace's remark led to some investigatii >ns during the past 
summer, the results of which do not entirely agree with his state- 
ment. Two hummers were attracted to the house by a saucer of 
syrup placed on the window-sill. Each day they would come and 
satisfy their hunger. In each instance they would alight on the 
edge of the saucer, and lap up the syrup as a dog would lap 
water. The question as to whether insects " pass down the tubes or 
are entangled in the fibrous tips and are thus drawn back into the 
gullet," was also solved. Insects too large to pass through these 
tubes being placed in their way, the birds were observed to take 
them as readily as smaller ones. The insects weie evidently- 
secured by adhesion to the saliva of the tongue-tips, and thence 
drawn into the gullet. In my opinion, these tubes of the tongue 
connect with the lungs rather than with the abdomen. These ex- 
periments were abruptly terminated, one day, by the approach of 
a third hummer, a male, who drove the others from the window, 
nnd in a fit of rage darted at one of the pair, thrust its bill well 
through its body, and both fell dead on the ground.— If. If. AC- 
loit, livanston, IlL 

Recent Papers ox Crustacea.— From Mr. \V. N. Lockington 
we have t\v< > pa; kts , .n Crust acea— " Remarks on the Thalassinidea 
and Astacidea of the Pacific Coast of North America" {Annals 
and Magazine of Xat. Hist., Oct., 1878), and "On the Porcellan- 
idea of the West Coast of North America" {ibid., Nov., 1878). 
In the first paper eight Thalassinidea and nine Astacidea are 
enumerated. One new species {Gebia nigosd) is described; 
Callianidca tvpa is added to our fauna (it was described by Milne 



1 28 General Notes. [February, 

Edwards from New Ireland). In regard to the Genus Pamtlirns, 
we would say that three of the four species mentioned {guttatus, 
gracilis and americanus) are East Coast species, and that there is 
no authority whatever for reporting them from the West Coast. 
The second paper gives an analytical key and notes upon 16 
species of Porcellanidea from the West Coast, nine of which are 
believed to be new. Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes) Stm. is also 
credited to the West Coast. 

In " Notes on Cladocera," by E. A. Birge (Nov., 1878), we have 
almost the first systematic contribution to a knowledge of the 
American forms of this group of Crustacea. Thirty-six species 
are enumerated, of which twenty, and one variety, are new. A 
new genus {Crepidocerus) of the family Lynceidce is also pro- 
posed. — J. S. Kingsley. 

The Nebaliad Crustacea as Types of a New Order. — The 
Nebaliada, represented by the existing genus Nebalia, have gener- 
ally been considered to form a family of Phyllopod Crustacea. 
Metschnikoff, who studied the embryology of Nebalia, considered 
it to be a " Phyllopodiform Decapod." Besides the resemblance 
to the Decapods, there is also a combination of Copepod and 
Phyllopod characteristics. The type is an instance of a general- 
ized one, and is of high antiquity, having been ushered in during 
the earliest Silurian Period, when there were, when we regard the 
relative size of most Crustacea, and especially of living Nebalice, 
gigantic forms. Such was Dithyrocaris, which must have been 
over a foot long, the carapace being seven inches long. The 
modern Nebalia is small, about half an inch in length, with the 
body compressed, the carapace bivalved as in Limnadia, one 
of the genuine Phyllopods. There is a large rostrum overhang- 
ing the head ; stalked eyes ; and, besides two pairs of antennae 
and mouth-parts, eight pairs of leaf-like, short, respiratory feet, 
which are succeeded by swimming feet. There is no metamor- 
phosis, development being direct. 

Of the fossil forms, Hymenocaris was regarded by Salter as 
" the more generalized type." The genera Peltocaris and Discino- 
caris characterize the Lower Silurian Period, Ceratiocaris the 
Upper, Dictyocaris the Upper Silurian and the lowest Devonian 
strata, Dithyrocaris and Argus the Carboniferous Period. Our 
existing north-eastern species is Xcbalia bipes (Fabricius), which 
occurs from Maine to Greenland. 

The Nebaliads were the forerunners of the Decapoda, and form, 
we believe, the type of a distinct order of Crustacea, for which 
the name Phyllocarida is proposed. — A. S. Packard, Jr. 

Camptol.emus labradorius. — The first specimen of Camptohe- 
mus labradorius (pied duck) known to occur in this locality was 
taken Dec. 12, 1878. It is interesting, as it adds one more species 
to the list of birds of Chemung county, N. Y., and assists in clear- 



ing up the geographical distribution of species. C. labradorius is 
rare everywhere, and its occurrence so far south in the interior 
gives special interest to the subject. — W. H. Gregg, M. /)., Iilmira, 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 

Anthropological News. — Mr. W. H. Pratt sends us a bro- 
chure from the forthcoming part of the Proceedings of the Daven- 
port (Iowa) Academy of Natural Sciences, pp. 156-162, upon the 
shell-beds in the vicinity of Davenport. They are not regarded 
as artificial, but were pushed up the bank of the river by moving 
ice at its breaking up in the spring. 

In the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, 
Dr. Charles L. Metz describes the pre-historic monuments of the 
Little Miami valley, embracing all of Columbia and portions of 
Anderson and Spencer townships. The paper is illustrated by a 
map in which the remains are indicated by means of the symbols 
in the Smithsonian circular. As this is the first attempt to use 
these signs in print in our country, Dr. Metz is to be congratu- 
lated on his success, and it is hoped that he will not let bis labors 
cease at this point. 

Stephen Barton, of Vidalia, Cal., commences, in the Iron Age 
of that place, a series of letters on the "Early History of 
Tulare." While it is well to help the local press, it is also a great 
pity that some of the best aboriginal material ever collected in 
our country has been lost by publication only in the daily papers; 
notably the letters of Mr. Tavlor, of Mr. Barton's own State. 

In the Princeton Review of November, Prof. John LeConte dis- 
cusses man's place in nature. We have seen a notice of a work 
of 304 pages, by John H. Blake, printed at the Salem press, 
describing a collection from the Ancient Cemetery at the bay of 
Chacota, Peru. As we have not seen the work, it is impossible to 
speak of its merits. The same is true of other anthropological 
publications ; it is hoped that those who wish their works on 
anthropology noticed in these columns will send a copy to the 
editor of this department. 

In the Contemporary Review for November, Mr. F. Lenormant, 
the distinguished Assyriologist has an article on "Books and 

Die Vorgcschichte des nordens narh ideichzciti^en Denkma- 
lern. is the title of a paper in No 43 oUhis Jus/on,/. In No. 41 
of the same journal, is a discussion of the moral relationship 



1 30 General Notes. [February, 

are devoted to anthropology. The work is reviewed in the 
. Xthciucum for November. 

In Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 
Dr. Moriz Benedikt makes some communications on craniometry. 
This subject is becoming of great importance, inasmuch as a 
great deal of the work done is vitiated by the multiplicity of 
methods employed. 

The most important communication which has come to us in 
the last month, is the paper of Prof. Paul Mantegazza, in No. 2 of 
Archivio, Florence, upon the third molar. The conclusions stated 
below are based upon the examination of 277 crania, and their 
description occupies 175 pages: 

1. In the lower races the third molar is lacking less frequently 
than in the higher races, in the proportion of 19.86 per cent, of 
the former to 42.42 per cent, in the second. 

2. The atrophy of the third molar is indeed less frequent in 
the higher than in the lower, the proportion being 10.90 per cent, 
of the former to 20.58 of the latter. 

3. Ectopia is also a fact observable in all skulls of whatever 
race, 2.01 per cent, for the higher and 1.80 per cent, for the 

4. The same may be said of premature disappearance, 7.22 for 
the lower races, 7.58 for the higher. 

5. Summing up all the cases of abnormality, including those 
in which there is an absence of the tooth, we find that in the 
lower races there is about an equal number of abnormal and nor- 
mal, 50.54 normal, 49.46 abnormal ; while in the higher races the 
abnormality is the rule and the normality the exception, 37°9 
normal, 62.91 abnormal. 

6. The ancient skulls, as regards the deficiency of the third 
molar, stand between the lower and higher of modern races. The 
absence amounts to 27.34 in the hundred, and atrophy to 16.41. 
On the other hand the premature disappearance is less frequent 
than in the modern skulls. 

7. As to the number of roots in the third molar, there is no 
relation to the theory of evolution, the teeth examined belonging 
to lower as well as higher races. It is not true that in individuals 
of the highest race the number of roots is limited to one or two, 
while in the lower races the wisdom teeth always have three 
roots. Indeed the more common fact is this, that in ancient 
races as well as in the modern, higher or lower, we find the third 
molar with three roots to be 51.35 per cent, in modern higher 
races, 45.20 in modern lower races, and 46.43 in the ancient 

8. Teeth with four roots are more frequent in the skulls of 
modern higher races (5.24), after them the modern lower (3.20), 
and lastly the ancient (2.68). The occurrence of two roots is 
more frequent in the modern high (23.14), the next in the ancient 



£ 879-] Geology and Paleontology. 1 3 1 

(20.53), an d in nearly the same proportion is the modern low 



modern (31.51), then ii 
em high (20.10). 

10. I have been able to find in one of the modern higher sku 
a rare case — a tooth with five roots. 

1 1. In the lower jaw 
has two roots — 91.84' 
high, and 81.84 in the ancient. 

12. I have not found in the modern low, nor in the ancient, a 
case of a lower third molar with four roots, whilst in the higher 
it stands 0.597. 

13. The occurrence of only one root in the lower third molar 
is by no means rare, and is found more frequently in the ancient 
skulls (12.35), l ess frequently in the modern high (9.38), and most 
rarely in the modern low (6.12). 

14. Cases of the lower third molar having three roots are not 
lacking, and are more frequently met with in the modern high 
'8.50), then in the ancient (6.17), and least in the modern low 
(2.54). 

15. That there is witnessed in some cases a lack of one or 
more of the ^hird molars is an ethnic fact. 

16. The dogmatical assertions of Owen upon the number of 
roots in the negro races and the whites are therefore false, and the 
morphology of the roots of the third molar has no appreciable 
connection with evolution. 

A remarkable addition to ethnological literature is a revision 
of Sir Gardiner Wilkinson's "Manners and Customs of the An- 
cient Egyptians," by Dr. Samuel Birch, and published by Mur- 
ray, London. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

Extinct Mammalia of Oregon.— A list of Mammalia from the 
Miocene of Oregon was published in the December number of the 
Naturalist, p. 833. Since that time, Prof. Cope has determined 
the characters of a number of additional species, some of which 
are new to science. Two of them belong to a new genus of 
Camivora, whose cranial form is that of Pntorins or Lutra, and 
which unites the premolar formula \ with the two superior tuber- 
culars of Cam's. It is called Enhydrmyon, with two species, E. 
sttnoiTpliams and /:'. basilattis. A remarkable primitive type of 
Artiodcntyla combining characters of Ruminants and Suillines 
with only two metacarpal bones in each foot, is named Bdbcktxrus. 
The only species, B. humerosus\ is as large as the Indian rhinoc- 
eros. A new ruminant is Potbrothcrium sternbagii. From the 
Loup Fork beds are Lntrictis / lycopotamicns, and a new species 
of Protolabis, which is named P. transmontanus. The article ap- 
pears in the current number of the Bulletin of the Hayden Survey. 



i 3 2 General Notes. [February. 

The Necks of the Sauropterygia. — It is known that the 
length of the neck in the Plesiosauroid reptiles of North Amer- 
ica diminished in length as the group approached the period of 
extinction. Thus the longest necks in the order, those of the 
species of E/asmosaurus, are seen in the Niobrara (No. 3) division 
of the cretaceous. In the Pierre formation (No. 4), we find the 
shorter-necked Elasmosanri, and the Cimclias > 1 w ith still shorter 
necks. In the latest cretaceous (Fox Hills or No. 5), the neck is 
reduced to its most abbreviated proportions, in the genus Uro- 
nmitcs. This shortening of the neck is thus associated with the 
shallowing of the water, which, as we know, gradually succeeded 
the deep-sea period of the Niobrara. In Europe the history of 
the order during the Jurassic period was the same. During the 
deep-sea epoch of the Lias we have the typical Plesiosauri repre- 
sented by the long-necked P. dolichodirus ; the shallower Oxford 
and Kimmeridge seas were the range of the shorter-necked Mn- 
rcznosaurus ; while Pliosaurus, with the shortest neck, was co- 
temporary with these, and remained as late as the Portland. It 
is true, that long-necked forms continued as late as the Kimmer- 
idge in England | I olymbosaurus). It has yet to be ascertained 
whether the European cretaceous Sauropterygia present the suc- 
cession seen in those of North America. — E. D. Cope. 

The Scales of Liodon. — Professor Snow, of LaHvrence, Kan- 
sas, has recently observed the scales of the abdominal surface of 
Liodon dyspelor. 1 fe states them to be smaller than those of the 
rattlesnake. Prof. Snow has also obtained a complete fore-limb 
. figure of it in the Kansas City Review 

The Fossil Insects of the Green River Shales.— Mr. S. H. 
Scudder gives a series of descriptions of the insects obtained 
from the shales near Green River City, Wyoming, in the 4th vol- 
ume of the Bulletin of the Hayden Survey. They represent the 
orders as follows : Hymenoptera, 4 sp. ; Diptera, 14 ; Coleoptera, 37 ; 
Hemiptera, 12; Orthoptera, 2; Nei/roptera, 2; total, 71. Then 
there are a few species of Myriapoda and Arachnida. Two new 
generic types of Diptera and' one of Hemiptera are described. 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. » 
The Swedish Arctic Expedition.— In the year 1556 Burrough 
discovered the strait leading into the Kara Sea. between Novaya 
Zemlya and the island of Waigatz ; and in 1 ^o I'ett sailed through 
the channel which separates Waigatz from the mainland, into the 
sea, where his further progress was barred by the ice. In 1595 
the famous Dutch explorer, Willem Barentz, also reached the en- 
trance to the sea. During the last century the Russians made 
several attempts to cross the sea, and in 1738 expeditions reached 
1 Edited by Ejus II. Yarnai.i., Philadelphia. 



i 879. J Geography and Travels. 133 

the mouths of the Obi, Yenisei, and Pyasina rivers. In 1869 the 
Norwegian Captains Carlsen and Palliser sailed through the sea 
of Kara, and since that year the Norwegian fishermen have annu- 
ally visited it in their pursuit of the seal and the walrus. In 1874 
Captain Wiggins sailed from Dundee, and passing through the 
Waigatz straits, cruised along the Yalmal peninsula, and was able 
to advance as far as the gulf of Obi. On another voyage, in 
1876, reaching the mouth of the Yenisei, he sailed up that stream 
as far as Kureika, where he left his vessel for the winter and 
returned overland. His observations demonstrated that the Gulf 
Stream flows into this sea. While, in July and August, in the 
same latitudes in Davis' straits and east Greenland, the surface- 
water is never above 33 to 34 , in the straits of W'aigatz the 
temperature was as high as 50°, and from 48 to 49 in the sea 
of Kara. 1 

The knowledge thus obtained of the navigability, at certain 
seasons, of these waters, induced some wealthy Norwegians and 
Russian merchants to endeavor to open up a route to the mouths 
of the great rivers Obi and Yenisei, which penetrate some 2,500 
miles into the heart of Siberia, and thus provide a new outlet for 
the mineral wealth of the Ural mountains, the fur and fish of 
the northern and the produce of the immense forests and agricul- 
tural districts of central and southern Siberia. 

Mr. Oscar Dickson, of Gothenburg, a munificent and intelligent 
promoter of Arctic discovery, accordingly fitted out an expedition 
which sailed from Tromso in June, 1S7;, under the command of 
Prof. Nortlenskiold. This gentleman was already a veteran ex- 
plorer, having been engaged in six Arctic expeditions (five to 
Spitsbergen and one to Greenland), made two important spring 
sledging journeys, and experienced the rigors of a winter north 
of the 80th parallel, while his scientific attainments were of the 
highest order. Passing through the Yugor strait and crossing 
the sea of Kara, he reached a point on the eastern side of the 
mouth of the Yenisei, which was named Dickson Harbor, from 
whence he returned homewards. 

In 1876 Mr. Dickson, aided by M. Alexander Sibeirakoff, a 
wealthy Russian, again dispatched Xordenskiold, who, leaving 
Tromso on the 25th of July, after some delays by the ice, again 
reached the mouth of the Yenisei, and ascended it to Mesenkin, 
from whence he returned, arriving at Tromso on the 22d of Sep- 

The success of these two voyages induced Prof. Nordenskiold 
to plan his present expedition round Cape Chelvuskin, along the 
Siberian coast to the straits of Behring. I le believed that during 
September he would find open water all along the coast to Cape 
Chelyuskin. The rivers Obi, Irtish, and Yenisei send a vast vol- 

iSee Gecgrafk , ■' J/,\ izine, March, 1S77. 



134 General Notes. [February, 

ume of warm water into the ocean in the month of August, 
which would, from the effect of the rotation of the earth exercised 
on streams running north or south in high latitudes, be driven to 
the eastward, and open a channel along the coast. 

Heretofore no vessel has succeeded in doubling Cape Chelyus- 
kin. Between the years 1735 and 1740, the expeditions sent out 
by the Russian government surveyed portions of the coast, and 
their vessels reached the mouths of the Pyasina on the west, and 
of the Khatanga on the east side of Cape Chelyuskin ; but it was 
not until 1742 that Mate Chelyuskin discovered the northernmost 
point of Asia when on a sledge journey. From the Lena to 
Behring's straits more is known of the coast, but the expeditions 
were made in small sailing vessels, and passed over, in most cases, 
but small portions of the coast line. In 1728 Behring visited the 
straits now called after him; in 1770 the New Siberian islands 
were discovered; and in 1778 Captain Cook reached the [80th 
degree of longitude. Our best accounts of this region are de- 
rived from the explorations of the Russian Admirals Wrangell 
and Anjou, in 1820, '21, '22, and '23. Kellett Land and Herald 
island were discovered by the British in 1849, and in 1855 the 
United States expedition under Captain, now Admiral, Rodgers, 
reached the 176th degree of longitude. In 1867 Captain Long, 
in an American whaling vessel, got as far as 170 E. 

At present, says the Gcogntpltii-iu Magazine, August, 1878, we 
have no knowledge of the vegetable and animal life (consisting of 
survivals from the glacial period) in the sea which washes the 
north coast of Siberia, yet a complete and certain knowledge 
of what animal types are of glacial and what of Atlantic origin, 
is of the greatest importance, not only for zoology and for a 
knowledge of the geographical distribution of animals, but also as 
regards the geology of Scandinavia. Our knowledge of the ani- 
mal and vegetable types which lived at the same time with the 
mammoth is exceedingly incomplete. 1 

Influenced by all these considerations, the Swedish government 
and the King and M. Sibeirakoff together contributed £8,000, to 
which Mr. Dickson added ^12,000, to fit out the present expedi- 
tion. The Vega, a very strong steamer of 300 tons, was pur- 
chased, and supplied with from two to three years' provisions, 
coal sufficient to steam 8,000 nautical miles, and a steam launch. 
The names of the officers of the Vega are : Prof. Nordenskiold ; 
Captain Pallander, commander (who has had much experience in 
Arctic voyages); Doctors Kjellmann, Stuxberg, and Almgvist, 
Scientific staff; Lieut. Hovgaard, Danish Navy ; Lieut. Brusevitz, 
Swedish Navy ; Lieut. Bove, Italian Navy ; and Lieut. Nordgvist, 
a Finnish officer and geologist. The crew consists of eighteen 
seamen and three hunters. 

The Vega departed from Tromso July 21, 1878, and arrived at 

' S.e aNo F'e:eni;nnn\ Mit:hii!»wsen, 1S7S. Part 2, p. 67. 



l8 79-J Geography 135 

Habarowa, a Russian hunting-place in the Yugor straits, on the 
30th. She was accompanied by a small steamer, the Lena, and 
also by the steamer Fraser, having a sailing vessel, the Express, 
all employed by M. Sibeirakoff, to open maritime commerce with 
Siberia. During their short stay here collections were made of 
the fauna of the sea and the flora of the land. Many specimens 
of fish were obtained, and special attention devoted to the morph- 
ology and development of the phaenogamous plants. Habarowa 
is inhabited in the summer by nine Russians, who live in wooden, 
turf-covered cabins, while the native Samoeides have tents of rein- 
deer skin. Dr. Nordenskiold purchased some of the native cos- 
tumes, and, after some difficulty, specimens of their "gods." 
These objects of veneration resemble the rude rag dolls of chil- 
dren, and are of stone or wood, dressed in fur and fine rags, with 
pearl ornaments. Sacnfices of bears, reindeers, etc., are made. 

The island of Waigatz is a plateau about 90 kilometres long by 
40 broad. The Silurian and limestone beds contain many fossils. 
Leaving Habarowa on the first of August, the Vega sailed slowly 
(to allow time for dredging) across the Karian sea, while the Lena 
was sent to examine the Beli strait, which separates White island 
from the Yalmal peninsula. Some fields of rotten ice were en- 
countered but fog proved the only hindrance, and they reached 
Dickson Harbor on the 6th of August. Prof. Nordenskiold 
speaks of this harbor as safe and commodious, and as promising 
to become the chief port for the export of Siberian products. In 
geological formation, the land resembles Spitzbergen. In conse- 
quence of the inferior saltness of the water, there is little animal 
life. Three white bears were shot. 1 

After a careful survey of Dickson Harbor, and adding to her 
supplies the coal and provisions brought so far by the Express. the 
Vega, still accompanied by the Lena, continued her voyage on the 
ioth. Further information of the expedition is given in a letter 
of Prof. Nordenskiold's in the Xezv York Herald, and in accounts 
in various European journals. On the nth of August they 
passed Cape Sterlegoff, the furthest point ever reached by a vessel. 
They soon perceived the charts to be entirely wrong, the coast 
being far more to the west than supposed, and numerous islands 
not given were met. The fog caused much embarrassment, but 
the ice did not often give them much trouble. The saltness of 
the water increased and the temperature fell, while the organic 
life at the sea-bottom became richer, and fine Specimens of the 
remarkable crinoid Aleeto eschrieluii, starfish, and large ocean 
Algae were obtained. On shore the higher fauna and flora were 
very poor. Snow sparrows, several species of wading birds, and 
some varieties of geese were found. Occasionally scenes of great 
beauty were presented when the sea was smooth and clear ; the 

iSee Prof. Nordenskinld's letter from Dickson's Harbor in IVtermann's MUtkeil- 



1 36 General Notes. [February, 

midnight sun hung low over the horizon, and to the south the 
Taimyr land glittered fiery red in its rays, while the cliffs and 
castles of ice stood colored blue, purple, crimson, and silver-white. 
Over this scene lay a stillness which sent a man's voice miles and 
miles away, and the scratch of the bears walking over the ice- 
blocks was heard afar off. Waiting for clear weather, they lay at 
anchor, from the 14th to the 18th, in a small bay in the sound 
between the island of Taimyr and the continent. This haven was 
named Actinia Port, and would be a favorable position for one of 
Weyprecht's proposed meteorological stations. The land here 
was free from snow, and covered with a gray-green carpet of 
grass, mosses, and lichens. On the 1 8th, the fog still continuing, 
they set sail, and in spite of fog and some large masses of ice, 
passed Cape Chelyuskin on the 19th, with flags waving and guns 
firing a salute. Cape Chelyuskin is a low promontory, divided 
into two parts by the bay in which the vessels anchored. The 
west cape is in 77° 36' 37" N. lat. and 103 25' 5" E. long., and 
the east cape is in N. lat. 77 41' and E. long. 104 i'. Inland 
the coast gradually rises to about 1,000 feet. This hill, as well 
as the lowland, was almost free from ice. The ground appeared to 
be mainly clay, curiously cracked, arid covered with moss, lichens, 
etc. The formation here were perpendicular strata of slate, with 
no fossils, but rich in crystals of sulphide of iron, and at one point 
traversed by large veins of quartz. Both animal and vegetable life 
were exceedingly poor and the former very tame. In the sea also 
the higher forms of life were scarce, but large Algae and a large 
number of lower animals were obtained. On the 20th they 
weighed anchor, when drift ice was soon met with. After being 
obliged to sail in a northern and north-western direction they 
escaped, and the north-eastern extremity of the Taimyr peninsula 
(76 30' N. lat. and about 1 13 E. long.) was sighted. The coast 
is about fifty miles more to the west than noted on the charts. 
Here they found almost open water. It was observed that the 
bergs encountered were of fresh-water formation, indicating the 
existence of hilly islands to the north. Mountains of 2,000 to 
3,000 feet in height were seen some distance away from the coast. 
There was now a great increase in marine animal life, all of pure 
arctic types. The island of Preobashenskoi was reached on the 
24th, and found to have been laid down sixty miles too far west. 
From here eastward to the Lena an ice-free and comparatively 

Arriving at the mouth of the Lena the 
pany, and the Vega continued on 1 
ascended the river to Yakutsk, arriving 

As no further account of the former 
no doubt passing the winter in the 
cape, where Captain Campbell, of tli 



; there on the 


le the Lena 
2 1 st of Sep- 


has been received, ; 
ice, perhaps near the 
e steamer Norman, 


she is 
East 
from 



1879] Microscopy. 137 

St. Lawrence bay, October 20, 1878, reports that the natives have 
seen a vessel. 

So far this has been one of the most successful and important 
of modern exploring voyages. The chart of the voyage is pub- 
lished in the Mittheilungen for January, and is of great interest to 
geographers, as so many corrections have been made in the 
coast-line of the northern shores of Asia. 

The discovery by the Norwegian Captain E. Johannsen, of a 
small island in long. 8i° E. and lat. 7?° 55' N., was made on the 
3d of September last. He named it "Ensomkaden" (Loneliness). 
The sea 'was open in every direction round it except to the south- 
east, where drift-ice was to be seen. 

Already commerce has sprung up on the new route, and during 
the last season vessels were sent out from English, German, and 
Norwegian ports, and made more or less successful voyages to 



f Human Blood.— Many of the 
readers of the American Naturalist are familiar with the little 
instrument generally known as Beck's Vertical Illuminator, it is 
in fact a modification of a device invented by Prof. H. L. Smith, 
of Geneva, N. Y. 

This illuminator was originally intended to be used in conjunc- 
tion with medium power, dry objectives, of moderate angles, such 
as were formerly so much in vogue. Mr. Morehouse, a well 
known microscopist of Wayland, New York, fortunately discov- 
ered that by the conjoint us C <»f tin- illuminator with immersion 
objectives of high balsam apertures, astonishing results might be 
secured, as for instance the resolution of the markings of podura 
and other insect scales, the striation of valves of Friistulia saxonica, 
SuritrHa gemma and similar "difficult" diatoms, under amplifica- 
tions of 3000 and 4000 diameters, and as a matter of course, by 
reflected light. 

Mr. Morehouse promptly informed me of his results, and I 
immediately repeated his experiments, and with perfect success ; 
I also devised a modification, consisting of an adjustable shutter, 
regulating the admission of light, thus greatly improving the 
brilliancy of the objects, accompanied with marked increase of 
resolving power, and with the instrument thus modified I had no 
difficulty in obtaining beautiful displays of the Nobert 19th band, 
the simultaneous exhibition of the long and transverse strise of 
l-rnsmha saxonica, etc., under powers of three and four thousand 
diameters. 

Desiring to test the vertical illuminator over histological prep- 
arations, I thus examined a slide of human blood, improvised for 
the occasion, and was astonished to find about three-fourths of 
1 This department is edited by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. Y. 



1 3 8 Scientific News. [February, 

the red corpuscles nucleated, the amplification employed in these 
observations was about 3700 diameters. 

My observations with the vertical illuminator as above related, 
were presented to the Dunkirk Microscopical Society in a paper 
which I had the honor to read before that society some two years 
ago, on which occasion many of the observations were publicly 
repeated, since which date similar results, as to the nucleus of the 
red corpuscles, have been arrived at by others, but as far as I can 
learn, these later observers subject the blood to treatment by 
means qf re-agents, etc., the direct observations, therefore, as 
obtained with the vertical illuminator are to be preferred! 

A point which should not be lost sight of is this, the vertical 
illuminator can only be successfully used in conjunction with an 
objective of high balsam angle; and may it not be further sug- 
gested that the use of wide angled glasses is not to be confined 
to the work of the diatomist ? — J. Edwards Smith, M.J)., Cleveland, 
Ohio, Dec, 1878. 

The Wenham Compressorium. — Mr. Geo. O. Mitchell, of 
Hanover, N. H., is making this useful little accessory of a some- 
what smaller size than usual, and at a less price. His instruments 
have been furnished to several colleges and to experienced work- 
ers with the microscope. They are well made, and are sent by 
mail for £1.50, or nickel-plated for #1.75. 

Exchanges. — Frank S. Collins, 26 Tremont street, Boston, 
Mass , would like to exchange New England for California, 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

— Dr. Albert Giinther, director of the zoological department 
of the British Museum, has received the gold medal of the Royal 
Society for his important researches on the zoology and anatomy 
of the fishes and reptiles. 

— The Polytechnic Review of Dec. 21, states that " Prof. J. Gib- 
bons Hunt, of New York, one of the most accomplished micro* 
scopists in the country, says that it is affectation or stupidity for 
Americans to send to Europe for microscopes when they can now 
purchase better ones at home." It will surprise Dr. Hunt's 
friends to learn that he is " of New York," especially since the 
editor of the " Review " is, like Dr. Hunt, a citizen of Phila- 
delphia. 

— We learn that the Princeton Geological and Paheonto- 

They visited the region of the Mammoth Buttes, east of the 
Green river, in southern Wyoming, which was explored by Prof. 
Cope in 1872, and obtained fine series of Loxolophodon cornutus, 
Palceosyops vallidcns and other species. They will be able to fur- 



1879] Scientific News. 139 

animals. They also examined the region of the upper Ham's 
Fork, and visited the fish-bearing shales of the tributaries of 
Bear river, obtaining a good repressntation of the fossils of that 

— Longmans & Co. have just published a translation of Heer's 
The Primaeval World of Switzerland. Edited by James Hey- 
wood. An excellent book for boys with a love of insects is 
Candeze's The Curious Adventures of a Field Cricket. The 
illustrations and style are most inviting. Dr. Ernest Candeze has 
long been known as a Belgian coleopterist of high reputation. 
Petermann's Mittheilungen, will hereafter be edited by Dr. E. 
Behm, assisted by Dr. Lindeman. 

— Etna : a history of the mountain and of its eruptions, by 
G. F. Rodnell ; with maps and illustrations, London (C. Kegan 
Paul & Co.), is said to be an excellent and most interesting 
monograph, comparing favorably with Prof. Phillips' work on 
Vesuvius. 

— The death of George Henry Lewes was quite as much a 
loss to biology as it was to literature and philosophy. His Sea- 
side Studies is one of the most readable of such books, and in 
literary merit far out-weighs any similar works; besides it is criti- 
cal from the point of view of comparative anatomy and physiol- 
ogy. What a hold the biological methods of inquiry have gained 
among philosophic thinkers is evinced by the reception accorded 
to Lewes' last and greatest work, the Problems of Life and Mind, 
however much one may refuse to endorse all the conclusions of 

— A new edition of Prof. Ramsay's Physical Geology and 
Geography of Great Britain is occupying the attention of reviewers 
in British journals. His American friends will be pained to know 
that late in the autumn Prof. Ramsay suffered the extirpation of 

— Prof. Tyndall has just communicated to the Royal Society 
the results of some further observations on infusions boiled in 
flasks afterwards hermetically sealed. He took with him to the 
Alps, last summer, one hundred tubes of infusions— fifty contain- 
ing turnip and fifty containing cucumber infusions. They were 
prepared at the laboratory of the Royal Institution, and boiled 
for five minutes. Twenty flasks were broken in transit. The 
eighty remained pellucid, and the twenty were turbid with organ- 
isms. A number of the eighty flasks had their ends opened in 
air in which saw-dust had been shaken up, and all were soon tur- 
bid. Another set were infected by water of a cascade derived 
from melting snow, and in three days were thickly charged with 
organisms. Another set were opened in pure air and remained 
transparent. 

— The curious discovery, says the English Mechanic, of para- 



HO Scientific News. [February, 1879. 

Frenchman, who observed small brown pomts on the surface of 
the diatom, which have extraordinary agility, and by means of 
their long flexible appendices explore all parts of the frustule. 

— Herr Naumann, a German geologist in Japan, has lately 
published a work on the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions of 
Japan. Mr. V. Ball publishes, in the Geological Magazine for 
January, an illustrated article on the volcanoes of the bay of 
Bengal, correcting some current errors in regard to them. 

— We have had an opportunity of examining some excellent 
photographs by Mr. Franklin C. Hill, of Princeton, New Jersey, 
illustrating the external anatomy of Harpalas caliginosus and 
■Lncanus cervus; they are about six inches long. Each appendage 
and joint, as well as the veins of the wings and the different parts 
of the body are labeled, so that they are excellent diagrams for the 
beginner in entomology. The upper and under side of the body 
is represented, there being four photographs in all, at fifty cents 
each. 

— A writer in Scribner's Monthly refers to the protective color- 
ation of the Caribou, stating that the quiet gray color is well 
adapted to conceal its presence from the hunter, and that it 
requires an educated eye to pick out its form on the heathy bar- 
ren where everything assimilates to it in color. " The Indians 
are so well aware of this, that they always approach a barren with 
extreme caution, always traveling down wind, and never discon- 
certed if game is not sighted at once. Nor is the case improved 
when one comes to hunt for them in the forest ; there, the gray 
tree-trunks and tangled undergrowth make it extremely difficult 
to see them." 

— M. Charles Barrois.^f Lille, France, the author of the elaborate 
treatise on sponges, which appeared two years since, is now in this 
country studying the geology of the United States east of the 
plains. Hereafter M. Barrois will devote himself to palaeon- 
tology and geology, while his brother, M. J. Barrois, the author 
of the exquisite works on the embryology of nemertean worms 
and Polyzoa, will continue his zoological studies. 

— We regret to notice the suspension of Field and Forest, 
edited by Charles R. Dodge.. It was the bulletin of the Potomac- 
side Naturalists' Club. The number for April, May and June, 
only lately received, closes volume third, and contains an index. 

— Mr. Xenos Clark, of San Francisco, writes us that he is 
endeavoring to establish a Biological Laboratory at or near that 
city. Such an institution would be most desirable, and it is to be 
hoped will meet with liberal support. 

— The museum of Brown University has secured through the 
generosity of the Senior Class of 1878, the skin of a Baffin's 
Bay walrus, which has been admirably mounted by Professor 
Jenks, and is now on exhibition. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xih. — MARCH, 1879. — No. 3. 



A LUMP of earth from the Colorado Desert which it is here 
proposed to investigate, is not without interest. It is part of 
a much larger piece recently brought from Walter's station, a 
point on the Southern Pacific railroad, in California, where it was 
selected by Prof. Geo. Davidson, who has furnished the special 
facts as to locality. 

It is composed of clayey sediment, and was brought to the 
surface, from near the bottom of a well recently sunk by the rail- 
road company at the above named place, during the process of 
digging through the dry deposit in a forty-inch tubing (an old 
smokestack). At forty-five to forty-seven feet the water-bearing 
stratum was struck, when the water burst up and filled the tube 
to within twelve feet of the surface. The continuous pumping 
out of a two and a-half inch stream does not lower the water 
line in the well. The lump, it will be noticed, contains many 
small shells. The larger portion of the original piece readily dis- 
solved in hot water, in which it at once separated. Thinking it 
might contain diatoms or other minute microscopic forms, some 
of it was examined by Dr. A. M. Edwards, without, however, 
any being detected. The shells, though small, are easily seen 
without a lens, are all fresh-water forms and are also found 

1 Read before the California Academy of Sciences. 



i great numbers (sometimes 
le surface of the desert. 



i the Colorado Desert. [Ma 

n windrows) at various places 



Physa humerosa Gould. Natural size. 

One of the species from the well is Physa humerosa Gould, of 
which there is a single specimen ; the others, of which there are 
numerous examples, are Tryonia clathrata Stimpson, and Tryonia 
protea of Gould. These latter belong to the family of Rissoida, 
and were described several years ago from specimens collected 
by Prof. Wm. P. Blake. They have also been collected by several 
other parties. From the late lamented Col. Albert S. Evans, 1 I 
received, several years ago, half a pint of these desert shells, and 
from others I have received a great number ; probably altogether 
as many as 40,000 specimens have passed under my inspection, 
including the above and a single species of Amnicola (longinqita 
Gould), as well as fragments of a Planorbis and of Anodonta cah- 
forniensis Lea. It is not unlikely that if we had a sufficient quan- 




tity of sediment from the well, we should find that it contained 
all of these forms. All of the great number of specimens which 
passed under my observation, are in a fossilized or semi-fossilized 
condition, either of a clear opaque white (in this respect resem- 
bling the fossils of the Paris basin), or more or less translucent, 
though more or less silicified, while the delicate sculpture is as 
perfect as ever. 

The surface of the desert at the point where the well is situated 
is 195.54 feet below the level of the ocean, as indicated by the 



-niiKj of the s 



New York to Brazil,' 



I S79.] Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. 143 

barometer. Shall we indulge in a guess as to the depth of the 
water when these shells were alive ; shall we add the depth of the 
well to the above figures, and again add the elevation of bench- 
marks, the ancient levels 1 which form terrace lines in some places 
along the distant hills, once a part of the shores of a now extinct 
lake, the walls of the basin which once enclosed and held a fresh- 
It may have been, however, that the lake was never as deep as 
the figures thus added would indicate, and that instead of a lake 
or series of lakes, there existed only a lagoon or chain of 
lagoons, connected or disconnected, according to the volume of 
water, which probably varied one season compared with another; 
a system of shallow reservoirs, receiving the catchment or sur- 
plus surface water in periods or seasons of unusual rainfall; some- 
times after a prolonged and widespread storm of great severity, 
uniting and formingan extensive expanse a few feet only in depth, as 
was seen in the valleys of California during the notable winter 
of 1861-2. 

The rate of depression may have been such as to continue to 
keep the lagoons supplied during ordinary seasons with catch- 
ment or surface water from the immediate neighborhood, and 
have been so proportioned (involving the mean of supply) to the 
rate of evaporation, that only within a very recent period has this 
depressed portion of the Colorado basin become bare and dry. 

Are the phenomena which this vast and remarkable region 
exhibits — of which that portion usually called the desert, is but a 
part — the result of catastrophic action, sudden, violent and wide- 
spread, or the result of gradual changes moving slowly through 
countless centuries? 

The physiognomy of the wider and more general region in 
some of its aspects indicates action which, in geologic time is 
unmistakably recent, and the varied phenomena here exhibited, 
are more likely the result of periods of slow movement as well 



144 Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. [March, 

as periods of convulsive action, recurring cycles of sudden and 
of gradual changes, operating through different but succeeding 
geologic ages or periods of geologic time. Prof. Whitney has 
pointed out the coincidence of mountain peaks of extraordinary 
elevation and areas of extraordinary depression (below the sea 
level), which are a part of the peculiar characteristics and striking 
topographical features of the same general area. 1 

During the pliocene epoch the site of the present desert was 
occupied by the sea or was, perhaps, a part of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. 

" Beds of * * * Miocene and possibly Pliocene 
fossils are found at the mouth of Kern River canon, showing that 
the sea then washed freely against the foot of the Sierra ; there is 
even reason for believing that it extended far up the Colorado River 
basin ; and certainly it deposited a thick bed of the enormous 
Miocene oyster (0. titan), with other remains along the west shore 

1 For most interesting information as to the height of mountains, the depression of 
Death and othei valley- dine plain Ik ne lakes, mud volcanoes and other phe- 
nomena which mark the physiognomy and relate to the general aspect of this won- 
derful region, attention is directed to Vol. i, Geol. Survey of Cal. (by Prof. Whit- 
ney), also Whitney in Proc. Cal. Acad., Vols, ii, iii and iv ; Veitch in Vol. i, id.; 
Col. Williamson in Vol. iii, id.; Cooper in Vol. v, id., and Lieut. Wheeler's Annual 
Report for 1876. Another author. Dr. J. P. Widney, from whose interesting article 
in the Overland Monthly (January, 1873) l h:ue previously quoted, writes as fol- 
lows of the Colorado Desert. 

Crossing by the San Gorgonio Pass, the continuation of the Sierra Nevada range 

of some ancient world. As he came through the * * pass, upon his right 
towered San Gorgonio Peak, * * 10,500 feet in height. Upon the left 
forming the other wall of the pass, pine-clad San Bernardino * * reaches 
an altitude of 11,500 feet. But leaving no* I he descends into 

what seems the scorched, blasted bed of some old Cyclopean furnace * * * 
San Gorgonio and San Heriiardiuo mi this Mde h.i ve l.»t their pines, and brown, barren 
and desolate, frown down upon yet greater desolation. Upon the west * * * 
stretch the Sierra in an unending line — a forbidding rugged wall. At the north, a 
spur from this main chain turns off eastward, and then cuiving around bears to the 
south, parallel to the Sierra, making another abrupt wall, which at last drops down 

south, where 200 miles away it faces out upon the waters of the Gulf of California, 
is the Colorado Desert. 

portion of the old gulf which then extended 200 miles above its present limit. The 
cause of the separation of the upper end of that gulf, making what is now the Colo- 



Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. 



I elevation of probably 



The sedimentary deposits super-imposed upon the more ancient 
sea or gulf bed, the top of which now constitutes the floor of the 
desert are geologically of very recent origin. 

The perpendicular section of nearly fifty feet cut by this well, 
as shown by the character of the stratum cut through in connec- 
tion with the shells contained therein, indicates a gradual deposit, 
a slow settling of sediment; the fragility of the shells and their 
present unfractured condition, prove that they were never subjected 
to abrasive action ; that they were not swept violently from dis- 
tant places to this, and here buried pell-mell beneath and among 
the varied detritus of great freshets. 

Here probably was the home of some of these species, the me- 
tropolis of Tryoiiia, if not its specific center, which has only been 



found sparingly els< 
Ninety per cent., if r 
this genus. 



vhere, and was supposed to be extinc 
>t more, of the shells found here belong I 



sea level. (Dr. Widne 
1 Cooper in Proc. Ca! 



*;.;•, Vol. x. Sec also various paper, o 
:ad. Sci., Vol. v, p. 403. 



146 Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. [March, 

Mr. Tryon reporting on certain shells collected by Lieut. 
Wheeler's expedition in Utah Territory, says, 

"Included- in the collection are two specimens of the genus 
Tryonia Stimpson. This curious little genus was heretofore con- 
sidered to be restricted to the Colorado Desert of southern Cali- 
fornia. * * Two species have been described, viz: the type T. 
(Melania) exigua Conrad, of which Melania protect Gould is a 
synonym, and Tryoma claihrata Stimpson. The two Utah speci- 
mens are probably T. exigua" l 

The lump of earth from which the specimens mentioned were 
obtained was about the size of one's fist, yet this comparatively 
small matrix contained as many as three hundred. What an in- 
conceivable number must have been propagated and buried here, 
what numberless generations have been born and died, since the 
lowest foot in this perpendicular well-section was deposited, to 
the last and most recent deposit, when the present surface was 
reached and completed ! If the mind is unable to comprehend 
what is equally imperceptible to the eye, the numbers buried be- 
neath the surface, the mind also fails to comprehend what is visi- 
ble to the eye, the vast number which are seen on the surface of 
the desert in crossing it, the external skeletons of the vast multi- 
tude left on the top of the last deposit, when the last inch of water 
evaporated and left a sterile and windswept waste, upon which 
to-day are scattered untold millions of these tiny forms. 

If we may assume that the species to which these forms belong 
no longer exist, within the more special area under consideration, 
they must have become extinct within geologically a very re- 
cent time. An examination shows the sculpture to be wonder- 
fully sharp and well defined, yet probably the life of these 
minute organisms, that is to say, the specific life, had an ear- 
lier genesis than that of the human race, and the particular 
specimens before us were living, at a time, prior to the appear- 
ance of man on the planet. 

We have here also an illustration of the relation of life and 
species to environment, as shown in the extinction of the former, 
through a radical change in the latter. 

In connection with the total evaporation of the former lake or 
lagoons as above, it should not be inferred therefrom that the 
particular portion of the desert incidentally under consideration, 

i Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sciences, May I, 1873. 



1 879.] Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. 147 

has been permanently and continuously dry ever since the extinc- 
tion of Tryonia, but that through evaporation, it ceased to be per- 
manently covered with water, and though since at various times, a 
greater or less area has been so covered— the extinction of Tryonia 
proves that there must have been a period of drouth, a maximum 
both as regards degree and duration which destroyed the limited 
fauna, the few species which once existed here— though some of 
the species which I have named belonging to the genera, Ano- 
donta, Physa, and Planorbis, having an earlier genesis, are known 
to have a wider distribution, and migrated hither, as they are still 
found living in regions more or less distant, as will be shown 
farther on; and it is barely possible that a living colony, a rem- 
nant of Tryonia may yet be discovered somewhere within the 
desert area. 

It has been implied herein that the metropolis of the form 
called Tryonia was here in the former lake or lagoon region of 
the Colorado desert or basin, for the reason of the great multitude 
of individuals; its specific center may have been far to the north, 
nearer to the point from which the Wheeler specimens, referred 
to by Mr. Tryon, were obtained; it has not been found and is not 
known to be living elsewhere, at the present time. As to the 
other molluscan forms which once lived here and 2 
dead either at or below the surface, an inquiry 
calities where they are still found living, 1 and the ] 
of distribution which brought them together as 





neighbors of Tryonia, incidentally furnishes further informatidn 
pertaining to the specific region formerly occupied by these 



148 Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. [March, 

An examination of Lieut. Wheeler's Drainage Map 1 of the ter- 
ritory west of the one 'hundredth meridian, shows the position of 
the Colorado as related to the other basins, to be diagonal, its 
general trend being north-easterly and south-westerly. 

"The region of country drained by the Colorado and its tribu- 
taries is about 800 miles in length and varies from 300 to 500 
miles in width, containing about 300,000 square miles, an area 
larger than all the New England and Middle States, with Mary- 
land and Virginia added, or as large as Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Ioua,' Illinois and Missouri." 2 

While it may be presumed that these forms so intimately re- 
lated have gradually through a great period of time spread from 
the higher altitudes to the lower, from the older formations to the 
more recent' extending the area of their distribution as fast as the 
emergence of the land above the sea and the emerged sur- 
face had undergone those modifications necessary to fit it for their 
occupancy, and are still spreading to new localities; so perhaps in 
other portions of the area of their domain they are decreasing or 
dying out, or have already died out, through modifications in the 
environment as in the now dried up lake or lagoons of the 
Colorado desert. 

It is highly probable that at numerous places within the great 
interior basin, after the emergence of the land, fresh water lakes, 
ponds and streams occurred and existed for a time, and be- 
came peopled, in part by fluviatile species, such as we are now 
considering, including varieties of the mussels, intermediate and 
connecting links between the desert specimens and those from the 
Wahsatch stations referred to. 

It is to be expected that in course of time when this great in- 
terior wilderness is thoroughly explored, that living specimens 
will also be found in those streams and lakes whose waters are 
still sweet; and with a sufficient number of specimens living and 
fossil from these two classes of stations, we may be able to trace 
the lines of distribution, which followed not alone the direct 
course of streams, for instance like the Colorado, but descended 
also to the great basin from the now lofty altitudes of the Sierra Ne- 
vada, and the parallel ranges on its eastern flank on one side, as 
from the corresponding regions in the Wahsatch range and sub- 
Report, 1876. 



1 879-] Fossi l Shells from the Colorado Desert. 149 

sidiary ranges upon its western flank on the other, spreading lat- 
erally as well as in the direction of what may be regarded as the 
great highways furnished by the main stream and its principal 

That we may have a better idea of the Colorado river and its 
tributaries, and of the regions traversed by the latter, I will quote 
the eloquent description of Prof. Powell. 

"There are two distinct portions of the basin of the Colorado. 
The lower third is but a little above the level of the sea, though 
here and there ranges of mountains rise to an altitude of from 
two to six thousand feet. This part of the valley is bounded on 
the north by a line of cliffs, which present a bold often vertical 
step, hundreds or thousands of feet to the table lands above. 

The upper portion of the basin rises from four to eight thou- 
sand feet above the level of the sea. This high region on the 
east, north and west, is set with ranges of snow-clad mountains 
attaining an elevation above the sea varying from eight to fourteen 
thousand feet. All winter long on its mountain crested rim, snow 
falls, filling the gorges, half burying the forests, and covering the 
crags and peaks with a mantle woven by the winds from the waves 
of the sea — a mantle of snow. When the summer sun comes, 
this snow melts, and tumbles down "the mountain sides in millions 
of cascades. Ten million cascade brooks unite to form ten thou- 
sand torrent creeks ; ten thousand torrent creeks unite to form a 
hundred rivers beset with cataracts; a hundred roaring rivers 
unite to form the Colorado, which rolls, a mad, turbid stream, 
into the Gulf of California." 




While the specimens from Washoe lake are in every feature so 
close to those from Bear river in the distant Wahsatch range, the 
mussels inhabiting Owen's river at an elevation of 4000 feet on 



150 FossU Sheli do Desert. [March, 

the easterly flank of the Sierra Nevada, exhibit a consider- 
able variation when compared with those from the preced- 
ing places. 1 

The Owen's river specimens, though inhabiting so elevated a 
station, closely resemble those found at, and in the neighborhood 
of Los Angeles at an elevation of only 280 feet, and the speci- 
mens from both of these places as well as specimens from other 
stations with similar elevations within the southern portion of the 
limits of the coast drainage area of California as shown in Lieut. 
Wheeler's map, and which stations more closely approximate to 
the level of the desert region, are exceedingly close in their gen- 
eral aspect and minuter characters to the dead shells of the ex- 
tinct lagoons, and to Lea's type 2 from the Colorado, presumably 
in the neighborhood of Fort Yuma. At many points within the 
drainage area described in the foregoing reports the Anodontce 
have been detected. 

I am under obligations to Dr. Edward Palmer for specimens 
from Utah lake, and to Mr. Henry Hemphill for specimens 
from Bear river, also in Utah Territory. These localities are in 
the Wahsatch range, at an elevation of over 4,500 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

The differences between the specimens from these two locali- 

1 The Owen's lake has no outlet and is fed by the Owen's river, a stream about 
thirty feet wide, two feet deep and having a velocity of about five imles per hour. 

the amount of evaporation and the incoming water. The lake having one hundred 



to swallow up the annual volume of Ow 




Those who cannot appreciate the am 


ount of evaporation, have invented the hy- 


pothesis of a subterranean outlet, as in t 


he case of the Great Salt Lake in Utah.— 


WheeleA Annual Report, 1876, p. 189. 




2 Explanatory of my allusions to var 


iation, herein, as shown by a comparison of 


the Anodons from one place with those 




should state, that I do not regard variatii 


an as exhibited in the West American forms 


under diM'u-,-.i-»n. ;is of specific value, a c 






to environment. While forms or colonies 


of a form belonging unquestionably to tl 


te same species, and inhabiting stations only 






pear phenomenal, the cause thereof not 1 


>ting immediately obvious, a careful investi- 


gation of the environment frequently rev 


rards us, if not with a full explanation, with 



1 879] 



Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desa 
:r shells present a somew 



I5i 



ties are these : 

outline, are rather more elongated transversely, and are darker 
colored than the lake specimens. These Bear river mussels are 
so exactly like those collected by Mr. C. D. Voy in Washoe lake, 




Anodonta. Bear River, Utah Territory. 
which has an elevation of 4,000 feet in the Sierra Nevada, that 
though the two regions are separated by between seven and eight 
degrees of longitude, if numbers of individuals of the same sizes 
from these two localities were mixed without previous marking, 
they could not be segregated, with any degree of certainty, so 
closely are they alike in form, color, incremental lines and zones, 
which warrants the assumption that the factors of the environ- 
ment are the same at both stations. 

The fragments of Anodonta, met with in the desert, are por- 
tions of shells (valves) having the same outline as that figured 
and described by Dr. Lea, in 1852, 1 from specimens collected by 
Dr. J. L. LeConte of Philadelphia, in the " Rio Colorado, Cali- 
fornia," and which Lea remarks as closely allied to " An. nuttal- 
liana " from the " Wahlamet river, Oregon," previously described 
by that author. 2 



Eight species c 









it. Seven of the eight 



152 Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. [March, 

The remarkable season of 1861-2, when the great California 
basin was flooded and the larger portion of the valleys included 
between the coast range and the Sierra Nevada was for weeks 
covered with water, and connected at times, so as to form an ex- 
tensive lake, this winter also embraced within the area of its se- 
verity the more interior basin east of the Sierra. While, doubt- 
less, the volume of the Colorado was greatly increased through 
the contributions of its tributaries in its upper portion, it also 
must have received an extraordinary supply from the drainage 
slopes farther to the south. The record of unusually high water 
or floods in the Colorado includes the winter of 186 1-2 as well 
as several seasons not remarkably wet in California. In the 
preliminary report of Lieut. Bergland, 1 on the feasibility of 
diverting the Colorado for the purposes of irrigation, he esti- 
mates the area of depression below the sea level within the lim- 
its of California at approximately " 1,600 square miles," yet dur- 
ing the severe winter especially referred to, an area estimated to be 
sixty miles long by thirty miles wide was covered with water. 2 A 
portion of this was without question the surplus surface drainage 
from the adjacent country as well as the overflow of the Colorado, 
though the New River channel, and the main stream may have 
poured a portion of its water, in times gone by, over the desert, 
through other channels. 

The sedimentary deposit under consideration and the lake whose 
waters once held it in suspension, and covered the present desert, 
may be accounted for in this way, and its permanence, over the 
area covered and the depth of water on which its area depended, 
only required a more constant volume in the Colorado, a less 
rapid rate of evaporation, even if the topographical features are 
the same now as then. 

With the data accumulated by various intelligent and trust- 
worthy observers, and accessible to all who are disposed to inves- 
tigate, we are justified in the conclusion that without spasmodic 



1 Wheeler's Report, 1876, p. 109. 




* Mr. Js 


teger, owner of the Ferry 


at Fort Yun 






a military post, 




and 1S67. 






; in channel 


found it fr 


ish water. 


. A Mr. Jones ( 


now .lead) 




great basi 




way from S: 




n a great 




miles long 


overflow ii 


n 1862." 


Id. 118. 





1 8/9.] Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. 1 5 3 

or catastrophic action, the present condition of the desert is the 
result of gradual and slowly working causes, and that within 
comparatively recent times, there has been a decreasing moan 
average rain and snowfall to the north, in the higher regions 
which are drained in this direction, and also an increasing but 
gradual elevation combined with increased evaporation. 

While Tryonia as before stated is apparently local, the other 
species are widely distributed. The . I /tod, /tUc .mussels) not only 
inhabited the area from the Wahsatch mountains on the east, to 
the Pacific ocean on the west, but from the Colorado on the south 
to and north of the Columbia river in the north, their migration 
in the latter direction having been from the Wahsatch region also, 
as appears probable when we consider the statement of Dr. James 
Blake, 1 " that the divide between the waters of the Great Basin 
and of the Columbia is the ridge * * * in latitude 
41 33' N., longitude 113 29' E., * * * 600 feet 
(in height) above the level of the Salt Lake basin." And further 
he remarks " the height of the divide above the level of Queen's 
River valley is about six hundred feet, but I am of the opinion 
that other outlets must exist, which allowed the waters of the 
basin to attain a still lower level, before their disappearance solely 
by evaporation began. There must have been a large body of 
water left to disappear by evaporation, as the concretionary depos- 
its * * * are found at an elevation of two hundred 
feet above the level of the valley and they could only have been 
deposited as the water became concentrated by evaporation. * 
* * Large numbers of Anodonta shells are found on the 

surface of the ground, entirely encased in this concretionary sub- 
stance, to the thickness of two or three inches." 

Of the two forms of Planorbis [P. p icilentus Gould, found 
dead in the desert, and P. amnion Gould, found living in the Colo- 
rado river) one is closely similar to other widely distributed 



l the other to the 

1 was actually made several y 
zson.— /farmer's Weekly, Mar 



154 Fossil Shells from the Colorado Desert. [March, 

forms, to which authors have given many specific names, but 
which I regard as varieties only of one and the same species. 
The Physa (P. humcrosa), also though a well marked form in cer- 
tain respects, I am inclined to place as simply a southern or warm 
climate variety of the widespread P. heterostropha Say r which in- 
habits an area extending from the Atlantic seaboard, to the Great 
Slave lake in the north, to the Pacific coast on the west, and is 
found also in Utah Lake. 

And here I would remark that I do not assert that the distri- 
bution of these several molluscan forms may not have been 
through other channels and by other lines ; from the Sierra per- 
haps, down its eastern flank or from some point or points in the 
coast range further to the east. 

There are other agencies and methods of distribution, which I 
will refer to briefly, before closing. The Anodontce, for instance, 
when young, sometimes attach themselves, by their valves, to 
the fins of fishes, and are carried to new localities in this 
way, as well as by being swept along by streams. Physa 
and Planorbis in their embryonic stage are contained in a soft 
and sticky mass of jelly ; this gelatinous mass adheres to the 
legs and feathers of birds, especially aquatic species, and is car- 
ried often to great distances from the original habitat ; again tor- 
nadoes and water spouts act as distributing agents, taking up the 
waters of lakes and streams, and the chips and twigs which fre- 
quently abound therein, and transporting the same to places many 
miles away, where they are deposited, sometimes, in other streams 
or ponds. It is quite common to find the sticky egg-mass as well 
as adult individuals of the fresh water snails, adhering to such 
objects. 

And now after a somewhat prolonged and perhaps tiresome 
journey over a rather wide region, pursuing such suggestions as 
have been evolved from time to time during the progress of our 
inquiry, let us return to the place of beginning, where I will con- 
clude by repeating the noteworthy facts, perhaps without parallel 
elsewhere, namely the level of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 
the Colorado desert, as compared with that of the ocean. Here 
we have several miles of railway upon a plane nearly 200 feet be- 
low the sea level, and locomotives supplied with fresh water from 
a well 240 feet below the level of the ocean ; the latter, if not the 
deepest, being certainly one of the remarkable wells of the world. 



1 879.] Distribution of the North Amen 



W 



BY SIR JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER. 1 

HATEVER countries beyond the seas we may 1 



temperate regions of the globe, we find that their vegetation 
has been invaded, and in many cases profoundly modified by 
immigrant plants from other countries, and these are in almost 
all cases natives of North-western Europe. Nearly forty years 
ago I arrived at night at the Falkland islands, when a boat was 
sent ashore to communicate the ship's arrival to the Governor; 
and, being eager to know something of the vegetation of the 
islands, I asked the officer in charge of the boat to pluck for me 
any plants he could feel for, as it was too dark to see anything, 
and the armful he brought to me consisted of nothing but the 
English shepherd's purse. On another occasion, landing on a 
small uninhabited island, 2 nearly at the Antipodes, the first evi- 
dence I met with of its having been previously visited by man, 
was the English chickweed ; and this I traced to a mound that 
marked the grave of a British sailor, and that was covered with 
the plant, doubtless the offspring of seed that had adhered to the 
spade or mattock with which the grave had been dug. 

It was hence no surprise to me to find myself, on landing at 
Boston last summer, greeted by Western European plants that 
had established themselves as colonists in New England. Of 
these the first was the wild chicory, growing far more luxuriantly 
than I ever saw it do elsewhere, forming a tangled mass of stems 
and branches, studded with turquoise-blue blossoms, and covering 
acres of ground ; the very next plants that attracted my attention 
were the oxeye-daisy and Mayweed, which together whitened the 
banks in some places, and which I subsequently tracked more 
than half way across the continent. 

These, and more than two hundred and fifty other Old England 
plants, which are now peopling New England, were for the most 
part fellow-emigrants and fellow-colonists with the Anglo-Saxon, 
having (as seeds) accompanied him across the Atlantic, and hav- 
ing, like him, asserted their supremacy over and displaced a cer- 
tain number of natives of the soil. 

1 A lecture by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I., Pres. R. S., delivered on 
April 12, 1878, before the members of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. [Re- 
printed from the Gardeners' Chronicle, August, 1878.] 

2 Lord Aukland's island, south of New Zealand. 



1 56 Distribution of the North American Flora. [March, 

Turning to the hotter parts of North America, the same pro- 
cess of invasion by natives of the Old World is going on : a 
British-Indian plant 1 has established itself in the streets of Savan- 
nah, and so entirely simulated the habit of a native weed, that 
American botanists gave it a new name, regarding it as indigenous ; 
and one of the most curious cases of plant invasion known to me 
is that of the mango tree in Jamaica, which reminds one of the 
accounts of captured tribes, which, after being carried into their 
conqueror's country, have so increased and multiplied, as event- 
ually to dispossess and supplant their captors. In 1782, Admiral 
Rodney took a French ship, bound for St. Domingo from Bour- 
bon, with living plants of the cinnamon, jack-fruit and mango, 
sent to the botanical gardens of the former island by that of the 
latter. These undistinguished prizes the Admiral presented to 
the Jamaica Botanical Gardens. 

There the cinnamon was carefully fostered, but proved to be 
(as it is to this day) difficult of culture in the island ; whilst the 
mango, which was neglected, became in eleven years as common 
as the orange, spreading over lowlands and mountains from the 
sea-level to five thousand feet above it. On the abolition of 
slavery immense tracts of land, especially coffee estates, relapsed 
to a state of nature, and the mango being a favorite fruit with the 
blacks, its stones were flung about everywhere, giving rise to 
groves along the roadsides and settlements; and the fruit of these 
again, rolling down hill, gave rise to forests in the valleys and on 
their slopes. The effect of this spread of the mango has been to 
cover hundreds of thousands of acres, and to ameliorate the 
climate of what were dry and barren districts, by producing 
moisture and shade, and by retaining the rainfalls that had pre- 
viously evaporated, besides affording food for several months of 
the year to both negroes and horses. It may well be, that by 
future generations in Jamaica, Admiral Rodney will be known 
less for his victory over Count Grasse, and being the first to 
" break the enemy's line " than as the capturer of the mango tree 
in the Spanish Main. 

And it is the same in all countries colonized by the Anglo- 
Saxon ; so firmly have the plants he has brought with him estab- 
lished their foot, or rather, roothold in the soil, that were he and 
all other evidence of his occupation to disappear from North 

l Fnrgari<i indica Andr. i. /V w. '//<<? Jurandii'Yoxx. and Gr.). 



1 879.] Distribution of the North American Flora. 157 

America, these, his fellow-emigrants, would remain as witnesses 
of his former presence, not only on the shores and in the forests 
of the older States, but in the interior prairie and the newly set- 
tled valleys of the Rocky mountains themselves. 

Time does not permit me to dwell longer upon this subject of 
immigration during the historic period. I must now hasten to 
consider the flora of North America as it was for an indefinite 
period before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxon, embracing pre- 
historic and geological epochs ; we have to regard this flora as a 
whole, and as subdivisible into local floras, characterized by the 
prevalence of certain assemblages of plants ; to connect these 
local floras with the geographical features of the areas they 
occupy; to account for their position and composition by a refer- 
ence to the countries from which their components may have been 
derived, and to the means of communication which exist, or may 
in former times have existed with these countries. 

Before proceeding with this inquiry I will indicate, with the 
aid of the map, those prominent features of North American 
geography, which have regulated the distribution of its plants. 

Physical Conformation of America.— In the Arctic regions the 
three northern continents approach, and the hydrography and 
geography of these regions favor the assumption that in former 
times they may have been connected. Next we observe that in 
the American continent (unlike the European and Asiatic), the 
great obstacles to the intermingling of floras, the mountain chains, 
are longitudinal ; as are the principal valleys, which are the great 
aids to their diffusion. If we now run a section across the conti- 
nent along its principal parallel (that near 40 ), which approxi- 
mately coincides with the isotherm of 55 , we find that it (see p. 
5), represents tolerably well any other parallel to it in those 
meridians in which there is the greatest development of a tem- 
perate vegetation. Commencing on the east, there is first the 
Atlantic seaboard, bounded to the westward by mountain ranges of 
moderate elevation (rarely attaining 6000 feet), which under various 
names extend from New Brunswick, in lat. 48 , to Alabama and 
Georgia, in lat. 34 (and which have been collectively called the 
Appalachian chain). Westward of this chain are the broad, low 
well-watered valleys of the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri, the 
latter in its intersection with our principal parallel being nearly 
midway across the continent and 1300 miles from the Atlantic. 



158 Distribution of the Xorth American Flora. [March, 

From the Missouri the ascent is very gradual to the elevated 
region of the Rocky mountains, which consist of a complicated 
series of rocky ridges rarely exceeding 14,000 feet elevation, 
occupying a belt 300 miles broad from east to west. These 
ridges inclose very large, well-watered, open grassy valleys, called 
Parks, the rivers from which usually discharge from the range 
through narrow gorges, called canons. 

The parks and valleys to the east of the mountainous belt 
present the gray-green (grassy) vegetation of the prairie, those on 
the west, the hoary sage-bush (Artemisia) vegetation of the dry 
country to the westward ; and these often intersect, so that a 
transverse ridge may separate a green and well-watered park from 
a hoary and dry one. 

The descent from the Rocky mountains on the west is on to a 
tract elevated upwards of 4000 feet above the sea, extending for 
400 miles to the foot of the Sierra Nevada. This tract is inter- 
sected by several short ranges 8000 feet high and upwards ; its 
climate is dry, its soil saline, and many of its rivers lose them- 
selves in salt lakes and marshes, whence the local names of Great 
basin, and of the Sink, Salt-lake and Desert regions. The Sierra 
Nevada succeeds, rising steeply to an elevation of 12,000 and 
sometimes of 15,000 feet. Under vaiious names it traverses 
America, with little interruption, from Alaska to Southern Cali- 
fornia, at a distance of one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
miles from the Pacific; but its breadth is nowhere so great as 
that of the Rocky mountains. The descent from it to the west- 
ward is into the great valley of California, whose floor is raised 
but little above the sea-level, and between which and the Pacific 
are the low and narrow coast ranges, of which the southernmost, 
in Southern California unites with the Sierra Nevada. 

Turning now to the flora of North America north of the tropic, 
we find that the distribution of its plants is in remarkable con- 
formity with its geographical and climatal features, being in mer- 
idional belts from the Arctic ocean to the gulf of Mexico ; the 
botanical components of these belts differing more and more in 
advancing south, till in the principal parallel that we have traced, 
the diversity between the eastern and western belts is greater 
than between any two similarly situated regions on the globe. 

Polar Area.— Commencing in the Polar area, the Arctic Ameri- 
can flora, though on the whole a uniform one, is distinctly divisi- 



1 879.] Distribution of the North American Flora. 159 

ble into three ; the first extends from Bchring's straits to the 
mouth of the McKenzie river, and is marked by the presence of 
certain Asiatic genera and species that advance no farther east- 
ward ; the second extends thence onwards to Baffin's bay, and 
presents various American genera and species not found either 
eastward or westward of it ; and the third is that of Greenland, 
which is almost exclusively European, and presents several 
anomalies which I shall hereafter discuss. Besides this eastern 
and western distribution of the Arctic flora, it streams southward 
along the three meridional mountain chains of the continent. 

British North American Flora.— South of the Arctic flora is 
that of the British possessions, that is, of temperate America 
north of the 47th parallel ; it consists of a mixture of North 
European, North Asiatic and American genera, in very different 
proportions, disposed in five meridional belts. 1, to the eastward, 
the Canadian forest region ; 2, the woodless region, a continua- 
tion of the prairie region farther south; 3, the Rocky mountain 
region, where Mexican genera appear; 4, a dry region, a contin- 
uation of the Desert or Sink regions to the south of it; and 5, 
the Pacific region, which assimilates very closely in its vegetation 
to that of Kamtschatka. 

United States Flora.— -It is on entering the United States that 
the flora of temperate North America attains its great develop- 
ment of genera and species in all the meridians, and that the 
boundaries of the meridional belts of vegetation are most strictly 
defined. 

I. The great eastern forest region, extending over half the 
continent, and consisting of mixed deciduous and evergreen 
trees, reaches from the Atlantic to beyond the Mississippi, dwind- 
ling away as it ascends the western feeders of that river on the 
prairie. It is noteworthy for the number of kinds especially of 
deciduous trees and shrubs that are to be found in it, even on a 
very limited area. Of this I shall select two examples from my 
journal. One was a patch of native forest a few miles from St. 
Louis, on the Missouri, where in a little more than half an hour, 
and less than a mile's walk, I saw forty kinds of timber trees. 1 
including eleven of oak, two of maple, two of elm, three of ash. 
two of walnut, six of hickory, three of willow and one each of 

iFor the indication and names of them I am indebted to Dr. Engelmann, of St. 



160 Distribution of the North American Flora. [March, 

plane, lime, hornbeam, hop-hornbeam, laurus, drospyros, poplar, 
birch, mulberry and horse-chestnut; together with about half 
that number of shrubs. 

The other example was afforded me by Goat island, which 
divides the great cataract of Niagara, and covers less ground 
than Kew Gardens. Here the vegetation was more boreal and 
less varied than in Missouri ; but with Dr. Gray's aid I counted 
thirty kinds of trees, of which three were oaks and three poplars, 
together with nearly twenty different shrubs. 

I know of no temperate region of the globe in which any 
approach to this aggregation of different trees and shrubs could 
be seen in such limited areas, and perhaps no tropical one could 
afford a parallel. 

No less remarkable is the composition of the flora of the East- 
ern States. Prof. Gray has shown that most of its genera are 
common to Europe and Asia, but that very many are all but con- 
fined to North-eastern Asia and Western America. This generic 
identity, however, gives but a faint idea of the close relationship 
between the East American and East Asiatic, especially the Jap- 
anese, floras, for there is further specific identity in about two 
hundred and thirty cases, and very close representation in upwards 
of three hundred and fifty ; and what is most curious is, that there 
are not a few very singular genera, of which only two species are 
known, one in East Asia, the other in East America; and in some 
of these instances the Asiatic species is a wide-spread plant in 
East Asia, whilst the American is an extremely scarce and local 
plant in its country, which with other considerations render it con- 
ceivable that the Asiatic element in East America is a dying-out 

Leaving out of consideration the purely American genera of 
this flora, there remain the genera common to Europe, Asia and 
America; the genera confined to America and Asia; and the 
genera confined to America and Europe. I shall give an illus- 
tration of the proportions in which these occur by a reference to 
the principal trees and large shrubs only, their names being 
familiar to you, though the smaller shrubs and herbs afford 
infinitely more numerous and striking examples ; thus, of those 
common to the three northern continents, I find in America 
thirty-eight genera with about one hundred and fifty species ; these 
include maples, ashes, hollies, elms, planes, oaks, chestnuts, nut, 



1 879.] Distribution of the North American Flora. 161 

hornbeam, birches, alders, willows, beech, poplars, &c. Of those 
confined to America and East Asia I find in America thirty-three 
genera and fifty-five species, including magnolias, tulip tree, 
negundo, wistaria, Virginia creeper, gleditschia, hydrangea, liquid- 
amber, nyassa, tecoma, catalpa, diospyros, sassafras, benzoin, mul- 
berry, walnut and others which, not being European, are unfamil- 
iar to you. Lastly, of those confined to Europe and America I 
find only one genus, namely, the hop-hornbeam, of which there 
is but a single representative in each country. 

Here, then, is" conclusive evidence of the close botanical rela- 
tionship of North-eastern Asia and Eastern North America ; a 
relationship of which there is but little evidence in the vegetation 
of the prairies and Rocky mountains, and still less, perhaps, in the 
regions farther west. 

II. The prairie region succeeds a grassy land with many pecu- 
liar herbaceous American genera, including Mexican types, of 

ter increase in number as the Rocky mountains are approached, 
where they form a noticeable feature in the landscape. 

In the parks and lower valleys of the Rocky mountains, decid- 
uous trees are few and scattered, and the forest is an open one of 
conifers, amongst which a pine, allied to the American nut-pines, 
P. cdulis, first appears. Higher on the mountains the coniferous 
forests are dense, and almost the only deciduous tree is an aspen, 
which forms impenetrable brakes on the slopes and in the gullies. 
Above the forest region are the sub-alpine and alpine regions, 
presenting a mixture of European, Asiatic and American types. 

III. Descending to the Sink region the cacti and yucca almost 
disappear, though they increase to a maximum farther south in 
tin's meridian. Deciduous trees are very few, and confined to the 
gullies of the mountains, and Mexican genera increase in num- 
bers. The hoary sage-bush (Artemisia) covers immense tracts of 
dry soil, and saline plants occupy the more humid districts. 

Another nut-pine of Mexican affinity {P. mmophylla) traverses 
the center of this region in a narrow meridional strip, and the 
proportion of endemic plants, herbaceous especially, is very 
large. 

IV. The Sierra Nevada is clothed with the most gigantic conif- 
erous forest to be found on the globe, amongst which a very few- 
species of deciduous trees are scattered ; but none of these are 



162 Distribution of the North America)! hlora. [March, 

identical with trees of the eastern forests, though several are rep- 
resentative of them. New Mexican genera occur at all elevations 
from the crest of the range to its base, and thence extend across 
the Californian valley and the coast-ranges to the Pacific, mixed 
with northern West American genera and species. 

In this slight outline of the botanical features of temperate and 
Arctic North America, I have alluded to three as most note- 
worthy, namely: the vegetation of Greenland, the Asiatic char- 
acter of the vegetation of the eastern half of the continent, and 
the more southern and even Mexican character of the vegetation 
of the western half. How are these features to be accounted for ? 

It so happened that Dr. Gray, Prof, of Botany in Harvard Col- 
lege (Cambridge), and I were contemporaneously, but without con- 
cert, engaged in botanical investigations which have resulted in 
explanations of the two first features. He was at work on the 
flora of Japan, 1 1 on that of the Polar zone, 2 and we were both 
bringing to bear upon our subjects considerations regarding the 
variation of species which Mr. Darwin 3 almost simultaneously 
laid before the public, and which, I need not say, powerfully 
directed our studies. 

The Greenland hlora. — I shall take the vegetation of Greenland 
first, as being first in order, though second in date of appearance 
and least in importance. Its chief peculiarities are : i, that its 
plants are almost all of them Scandinavian (that is, North-west 
European), hardly any of the peculiar plants of the American 
arctic sea-coast and polar islands crossing Baffin's bay and Davis 
straits ; 2, that of its three hundred flowering plants hardly any 
present even a variation from their Scandinavian prototypes ; 3, 
that it is poorer in species than is any other division of the arctic 
flora, and wants many Scandinavian plants that are found in most 
other arctic countries; 4, that though Greenland extends four 
hundred miles south of the Arctic circle, its extra-arctic continu- 
ation adds only about one hundred species to the flora, and these 



f Species to forraVmi.iics" 
,1 July i, 1858. J0urn.1l of' 




I the Arctic circle in other longitudes ; 5, some Greenlanc 
are confined to it and to the mountains on the Atlantic 



side of America, being found nowhere else in Arctic or Sub- 

My explanation of these anomalies was, that at a period pre- 
vious to the glacial, a flora common to Scandinavia and Greenland 
was spread over the American polar area, and that on the acces- 
sion of the cold of that period this flora was driven southwards, 
and was affected differently in different longitudes. In Greenland 
many species were exterminated, being as it were driven into the 
sea at the southern extremity of the peninsula, where only the 
hardiest survived. On the return of warmth the Greenland sur- 
vivors migrated northward, peopling the peninsula with the 
hardiest of the species of its former flora, unmixed with American 
species ; and unchanged in aspect from never having been 
brought into competition with those of any other flora. On the 
other hand, the same Scandinavian plants when driven south on 
the plains of the continent multiplied there in individuals, and 
being brought into competition with American species descend- 
ing from the continental mountains on' to the plains, assumed 
varietal forms. On the return of warmth, therefore, many Scan- 
dinavian species that had been exterminated in Greenland would, 
having survived on the continent, travel northwards on it, some 
unchanged, others under varietal forms, accompanied with the 
American species that had descended from the mountains during 
the cooling of the continent. Lastly, as some of the Scandina- 
vian species were no doubt local, and confined to near the merid- 
ian of Greenland, it is not surprising to find that a few such 
should survive only in Greenland and on the eastern alps of 
North America. 

Thus only could I satisfactorily account for the almost complete 
identity of the Greenland flora with the Scandinavian after such 
changed conditions of climate; for the paucity of its species; 
for the absence in it of varieties; for the rarity in it of peculiarly 
American species; for the (ew species which extra-arctic Green- 
land adds to its arctic flora; and for certain of its plants being 
limited in range to Greenland and the eastern American alps. 

North Asiatic and North American Floras.— The relationship 
between the flora of North-east Asia and Eastern North America 
has been fully explained by Dr. Asa Gray in an essay on the 
flora of Japan, which is the first entirely satisfactory contribution 
of its kind to the science of botanical geography known to me. 



1 879.] Distribution of the North American Flora. 165 

After a detailed comparison of the botany of Japan and North 
America, and proving their affinity, Prof. Gray refers to the fact 
that many of the existing genera and even species of both floras 
coexisted in the high latitudes of America during Miocene times, 
as shown by Heer and other palaeontologists; during which 
period he further assumes that the three northern continents were 
conjoined, or so nearly contiguous as to allow of a commingling 
of their floras. 

The glacial period followed, carrying an arctic climate south to 
the latitude of the Ohio, but so gradually, that these plants were 
not exterminated, but wholly or in part driven southward, fol- 
lowed in the rear by the arctic vegetation. As the temperature 
rose with the retreating ice, this flora returned northward, Leaving 
the arctic and sub-arctic plants on the mountains of both East 
and West America. 

He next shows that the retreat northward was to a somewhat 
higher latitude than the same plants now attain; and this he 
accounts for by a reference to the fluvial epoch of Dana, 1 when 
the region of the great lakes was submerged five hundred feet 
below their present level. This diminished area and lowered 
elevation of the land, by inducing a milder climate than now 
obtains in the lake region, favored the extension of the flora to a 
higher latitude than it now attains, and hence effected a second 
commingling of American and Asiatic plants. Lastly, Dana's 
Terrace epoch supervened, when the previously depressed northern 
region was again raised, cooling the climate, finally dissociating 
the Asiatic and American floras, and giving to the arctic and sub- 
arctic plants of the continent their present limits. 

It remains now to account for the great rarity of East Asiatic 
types in America west of the prairies, and the presence in those 
meridians of Mexican and still more southern ones. Hitherto 
there have been no other attempts at a solution of this problem 
than such unsupported speculations as that the western half of 
the continent, though so much the loftier, was submerged during 

the climate of the West was unsuited to the habits of these, which 



1 66 Distribution of the Noith American Flora. [March, 

appears to me to be at variance with the fact that when imported 
into it they thrive luxuriantly. 

The explanation which I have to offer will be best understood 
by a reference to the section (p. 163), which shows the western half 
of the continent to be enormously elevated as compared with the 
eastern, and to have been singularly adapted for the retention 
of vast bodies of ice for long after the Glacial period. We find 
. there a valley (the desert region), upwards of four hundred miles 
broad, and upwards of four thousand feet elevation, with many 
ranges of over eight thousand feet in it, bounded by broad and 
lofty mountains, together occupying at least two-thirds of the 
breadth of the western half of the continent. We further know 
that these mountains were clothed with ice during the Glacial 
epoch, and that the valley was then occupied by a vast lake ; for 
on the uppermost of the many shelves which the retiring waters 
of this lake cut on the flanks of the Rocky mountains and Sierra 
Nevada, the skull of the musk-ox, the most arctic of land quad- 
rupeds, has been found. 

It is obvious that this whole western region must have retained 
its glacial mantle for an incalculable period after Eastern America 
had been sufficiently warmed to admit of the northward return of 
the plants that had been driven southward in it ; and that this 
glaciated condition must have effectually barred a similar return 
of the same plants in those western meridians, these must have 
perished, in short, on reaching Southern California. Long ages 
after, when the western ice disappeared, and the climate of the 
valleys warmed, the Mexican and more southern plants would, as 
a matter of course, take possession of the unoccupied soil, and 
advance northward till they encountered the boreal vegetation of 
North-western America, with which they now commingle. 

I have said that the extinction of East Asiatic types in Western 
America was not total ; a few escapes are found in the valleys of 
the Rocky mountains and Sierra Nevada, 1 and also along the 
coast of the Pacific, the warming influence of which favored their 
preservation during the northern migration. 

The Sequoias. — Two instances of these escapes are of such inter- 
est that I shall, in concluding this lecture, bring them under your 

which have not migrated farther north or south in America, Such arc the eminently 



1879.] Distribution of the -North American Flora. 167 

notice; they are those giants of the vegetable kingdom, the 
Sequoias, the red-wood (S. sempervirens), and the " big-tree " or 
" Wellingtonia " (5. gigantea). 

The fossil remains of these trees, or species most closely allied to 
them, are found in Miocene beds in high latitudes all round the 
globe; in Vancouver's island, Sitka, on the arctic American sea- 
coast, in Greenland, Spitzbergen and in arctic Asia, &c. The 
genus, therefore, which first appeared in the Cretaceous times; 
was undoubtedly a member of that mixed Americano-Asiatic 
flora that was driven southward during the Glacial period. The 
genus is now confined to Western North America, and to the two 
above-named species, but it is represented in Eastern America by 
the very closely allied genus Taxodium, and in Eastern Asia by 
Glyptostrobus. 

The distribution of the two Sequoias is most instructive. The 
red-wood forms a dense narrow forest tract for about five hundred 
miles, skirting the ocean, along whose warmer shore it crept 
northward after the Glacial epoch. It rivals in height its sister of 
the Sierra, and attains an enormous girth and age, though I can 
find no account of any attempt having been made to estimate its 
age. 

The 5. gigantea, or "big-tree" (the Wellingtonia of British 
gardens), again, is a plant of a cooler climate ; and hence, having 
survived the glacial cold, was enabled to establish itself in the 
Sierra Nevada under certain very restricted conditions. It extends 
at intervals along the western slope of the Sierra to a little north 
and south of the parallels of 36 and 38 N., that is, for nearly 
two hundred miles in a north-west and south-east direction, at 
elevations of five thousand to eight thousand feet above the sea. 
Towards the north the trees occur as very small, isolated, remote 
groves of a few hundreds each, most of them old and interspersed 
amongst gigantic pines, spruces and firs, which appear as if 
encroaching upon them ; such are the groves visited by tourists 
(Calaveras, Mariposa, &c). To the south, on the contrary, the 
big-trees form a colossal forest, forty miles long and three to 
ten broad, whose continuity is broken only by the deep sheer- 
walled canons that intersect the mountains ; here they displace all 
other trees, and are described as rearing to the sky their massive 
crowns ; whilst seen from a distance the forest presents the appear- 
ance of green waves of vegetation, gracefully following the com- 



1 68 Distribution of the North American Flora. [March, 

plicated topography of the ridges and river basins which it 
clothes. 

But by far the most remarkable fact hitherto reported regarding 
the disposition of the groves is, that they occupy only those 
spots in the Sierra which were first laid bare when its icy mantle 

the north, the gap of forty miles between the Calaveras and 
Tuolomne groves was occupied by the great glacier of the Tuo- 
lomne and Stanislaus rivers ; that between the Merced and Mari- 
posa groves by the glacier of the Merced river, which sculptured 
the famous Yosemite valley ; and so on— each' successive group 
of trees occupying a lofty spur between the sites of ancient 
glaciers, and the greatest continuous extension of the forest (of 
forty miles) occurring exactly where, owing to the topographical 
peculiarities of the region, the ground was most perfectly pro- 
tected from great fields of ice. 

Mr. Muir, a very intelligent and accurate observer, who has 
studied the groves throughout their length and breadth most 
diligently, 1 and to whom I am indebted for the above and much 
other information regarding the southern forest of Big-trees, con- 
siders that these have never since the Glacial epoch been more 
widely distributed or in greater vigor than now, and doubts, 
indeed, if the forests have reached their prime, founding his 
opinion on the high state of health of the mass of the trees, the 
multitude of seedlings and saplings in the southern groves, and 
the absence of any trace of trees having existed outside the 
present limits of the groves (as of dead trees, stumps, or the great 
holes left by fallen trees). 

Size of the Big Trees.— So little that is trustworthy has hitherto 
been published regarding the age, size and durability of the Big- 
tree trunks when fallen, that I shall offer you some accurate data 
which I obtained on these points chiefly from Mr. Muir. A tree 
felled in 1875 had no appearance of age, it was 69 feet in girth inside 
the bark, and the number of annual rings counted by three persons 
varied between 2125 and 2139. Another was 107 feet in girth 
inside the bark at four feet from the ground ; its wood was very 
compact, and showed, throughout a considerable portion of the 

1 ' On the Post-Glacial History of Srqnola gigantear by John Muir, of San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Proceedings of the Amer. Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, Buf- 
falo meeting, Aug., 1876. 



1 879.] Distribution of the North American Flora. 169 

trunk thirty annular rings to the inch. This, if the rings were of uni- 
form diameter in the rest of the trunk, would give the incredible 
age of 6400 years; but as the interior rings of such trees are 
much broader than the outer, half that number to the inch is a 
more conceivable estimate, which would give an age of 3200 
years. The only other instance of careful counting of rings 
which I can find is that of the felled tree in the Calaveras grove, 
which measured seventy feet girth inside the bark at six feet 
above the ground, and which at forty feet above the ground had 
1255 rings. In this case the rings next the bark were thirty- three 
to the inch, a number which at five feet inward had diminished 
one-half. The result of many measurements, chiefly by Prof. 
Whitney, 1 gives, as the average height of full-grown trees, 275 
feet, and a maximum a little over 320; a girth outside the bark, 
at six feet above the ground, of seventy, with a maximum of 
120; whilst the maximum age possibly attained may be 4000 
years, though this is very improbable. 

The duration of the dead wood in the forest is very great. I 
rarely observed signs of rot in the fallen trees I examined, whilst 
in similar forests in North California I saw gigantic trunks of 
silver firs forming mounds of rotten debris without an atom of 
sound wood, and this in two years after their fall, as I was 
assured. I had no data for ascertaining the length of time during 
which any of the prostrate Sequoia trunks which I saw may have 
lain on the ground, but Mr. Muir has supplied me with a very 
crucial case. It is that of a prostrate trunk with no signs of 
decay in any part of it, which had been burnt in two by a forest 
fire, and in the trench between the severed portions of which a 
silver fir grew. This fir was felled, and had 380 annual rings ; 
therefore, to estimate the time during which the Sequoia trunk 
had lain uninjured, we must add to the 380 years, first the time it 
lay before the forest fire burnt it in two, and then the unknown 
interval between that time and the arrival of the silver fir seed. 

The millenia during which these Sequoia trees must have 
remained in statuo quo, proving the long duration of existing con- 
ditions of climate, are but as minutes compared with the time 
occupied by the migration of this very species, or its ancestors, 



170 Distribution of the North American flora. [March, 

north and south in the continent of America. Whatever might 
otherwise be the extent of the Sequoia's travels, they are now at 
an end. Man has pronounced the sentence, " Thus far shalt thou 
go, and no farther!" The doom of these noble groves is sealed. 
No less than five saw- mills have recently been established in the 
most luxuriant of them, and one of these mills alone cut in 1875 
two millions feet of Big-tree lumber; and a company has lately 
been formed to cut another grove. In the operations of the 
California wood-cutters the waste is prodigious. The young, 
manageable trees are first felled ; after which the forest is fired to 
clear the ground and get others out, and thus the saplings are 
destroyed. More destructive still are the operations of the sheep- 
farmers, who fire the herbage to improve the grazing, and whose 
flocks of tens of thousands of sheep devour every green thing, 
and more effectually than the locust. The devastation of the 
California forest is proceeding at a rate which is utterly incredible, 
except to an eye witness. It is true that a few of the most insig- 
nificant groves of the Big-trees at the northern extreme of its 
range are protected by the State Legislature, and that a law has 
been enacted forbidding the felling of trees over fifteen feet in 
diameter, but there is no law tj prevent the cutting or burning of 
the saplings, on which the perpetuation of the grove depends, or 
to prevent the burning of the old trees, which, if they do escape 
the fire, will succumb to the drought which the sweeping away of 
the environing forest will occasion. 

During the last quarter of a century the Anglo-Saxon has 
been ruthlessly carrying fire and the saw into the forests of Cali- 
fornia, destroying what he could not use, and sparing neither 
young nor old, and before a century is out the two Sequoias may 
be known only as herbarium specimens and garden ornaments ; 
indeed, with regard to the Big-tree, the noblest of the noble con- 
iferous race, the present generation, which has actually witnessed 
its discovery, may live to say of it, that " The place which know 
it shall know it no more." 



i8/9-] Origi I Teeth of tin Carnivora. 171 

THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIALIZED TEETH OF THE 
CARNIVORA. 



'T'HE specially developed teeth of the Carnivora are the canines 
-*- and sectorials. The former are large in many orders of Mam- 
malia, and their origin is probably to be sought among the Thero- 
morphous reptilia, 1 as Clepsy drops and Deuterosaunts, if not in 
still lower types. The successive modifications of form which 
have resulted in the existing specialized single sectorial tooth of 
the Felidce have been already pointed out. 2 They were shown to 
consist in the gradual obliteration of the internal and posterior 
tubercles and the enlargement of the external anterior tubercle in 
connection with an additional anterior tubercle. The modifica- 
tion in the character of the dentition taken as a whole, was shown 
to consist in the reduction in the number of teeth, including the 
sectorials, until in Felts, etc., we have almost the entire function 
of the molar series confined to a single large sectorial in each jaw. 
Observation on the movements of the jaws of Carnivora shows 
that they produce a shearing motion of the inferior on the su- 
perior teeth. This is quite distinct from the sub-horizontal move- 
ment of Ruminants, or the vertical motion of hogs and mon- 
keys. Examination of the crowns of the sectorials shows that 
the inner side of the superior, and the external side of the in- 
ferior, are worn in the process of mastication. The attempt to 
cut the tough and stringy substances found in animal bodies, 
is best accomplished by the shearing of the outer edge of the 
lower molar on the inner edge of the external tubercles of the 
superior molar in an animal with simple tubercular teeth. The 
width of the mandible is too great to allow the inferior teeth to 
shear on the inner edge of the inner tubercles of the superior 
series. The cusps of both superior and inferior teeth engaged in 
this process, have developed in elevation, at the expense of those 
not engaged in it, viz : the internal cusps of the same teeth. The 
atrophy of the latter cannot have been due to friction, since the in- 
ternal cusps of the inferior series which have not been subjected to 
it, are reduced like those of the superior sectorial, which have. In- 
deed, it is possible that some of the Crcodonta, the carnivores of 

2 Cope, Proceedings Academy Fhilada., 1865, p. 22. 



172 Origin of the Specialized Teeth of the Carnivora. [March, 

the lower Eocene, may have been derived from ancestors without 
or with rudimental inner cusps. In any case the effect of use in 
lengthening the cusps appears to have operated in the Carnivora, 
as it has done to a greater degree in the Ungulate; and the lat- 
eral vertical wear would appear to have resulted in the blade-form, 
as transverse wear in the Ungulates has resulted in the plane 
grinding surface. 

The specialization of one tooth to the exclusion of others as a 
sectorial, appears to be due to the following causes. It is to be ob- 
served in the first place that when a carnivore devours a carcass, it 
cuts off masses with its sectorials, using them as shears. In so doing 
it brings the part to be divided to the angle or canthus of the soft 
walls of the mouth , which is at the front of the masseter m uscle. At 
this point, the greatest amount of force is gained, since the weight 
is thus brought immediately to the power, which would not be 
the case were the sectorial situated much in front of the masse- 
ter. On the other hand the sectorial could not be situated far- 
ther back, since it would then be inaccessible to a carcass or mass 
too large to be taken into the mouth. 

The position of the sectorial tooth being thus shown to be depen- 
dent on that of the masseter muscle, it remains to ascertain a 
probable cause for the relation of the latter to the dental scries 
in modern Carnivora. Why, for instance, were not the last mo- 
lars modified into sectorial teeth in these animals, as in the ex- 
tinct Ilyaenodon, and various Creodonta. The answer obviously is 
to be found in the development of the prehensile character of the 
canine teeth. It is probable that the gape of the mouth in the 
Hyaenodons, was very wide, since the masseter was situated rel- 
atively far posteriorly. In such an animal the anterior parts of 
the jaws with the canines had little prehensile power, as their 
form and anterior direction also indicates. They doubtless 
snapped rather than lacerated their enemies. The same habit is 
seen in the existing dogs, whose long jaws do not permit the lac- 
erating power of the canines of the Fclidce, though more effec- 
tive in this respect than those of the Hyaenodons. The useful- 
ness of a lever of the third kind, depends on the approximation 
of the power to the weight ; that is, in the present case, the more 
anterior the position of the masseter muscle, the more effective 
the canine teeth. Hence it appears that the relation of this mus- 
cle to the inferior dental series depended originally on the use of 



1879.] Grief in the Chimpanzee. 1/3 

the canines as prehensile and lacerating organs, and that its 
insertion has advanced from behind forwards in the history of 
carnivorous types. Thus it is that the only accessible molars, 
the fourth above and the fifth below, have become specialized as 
sectorials, while the fifth, sixth, and seventh have, firstly, remained 
tubercular as in the dogs, or, secondly, have been lost, as in hy- 



GRIEF IN THE CHIMPANZEE. 



OOME months ago I called attention in the "Notes" of the 
& Naturalist to several evidences of a high degree of mental 
power on the part of the chimpanzee. One of the pair which, at 
that time, was in the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, has ,since 
died, and the behavior of the surviving one on that occasion ap- 
pears to me to bear somewhat on the acquired nature of the physi- 
cal means by which our strongly excited emotions find relief, as 
well as on the origin of those emotions themselves. 

Among the lower animals, with the exception of some domes- 
ticated varieties, any striking display of grief at the death or 
separation from an animal to the companionship of which they 
had been accustomed, has rarely been observed, and although a 
few statements of such occurences have been made by different 
authorities, it is probable that the feeling of individual association, 
or friendship — if the term may be so used — partakes too much 
of an abstract nature to be sufficiently developed in them to re- 
tain much of a place in memory when the immediate association 
be once past. This would seem to be the case even in one of the 
strongest of animal attachments— the maternal instinct— in which 
the direct presence of the offspring, acting as a stimulus, calls forth 
the emotion of the mother, which, strongly rooted as it appears 
to be, contains much of a reflex nature and ceases on the disap- 
pearance of its cause. And here let it be said, that although the 
instinct of maternity and the sentiment of friendship perhaps 
differ widely in their origin, yet in their manifestations they are 
so nearly alike that the reverse feelings excited by any violence 
done to them, need not and probably do not differ much in kind. 

With the chimpanzee, the evidences of a certain degree of genu- 
ine grief were well marked. The two animals had lived together 



174 Grief in the Chimpanzee. [March, 

for many months, and were much attached to each other; they 
were seldom apart and generally had their arms about each 
other's neck; they never quarreled, even over a pretended display 
of partiality by their keeper in feeding them, and if occasion re- 
quired one to be handled with any degree of force, the other was 
always prepared to do battle in its behalf on the first cry of fright. 
After the death of the female, which took place early in the morn- 
ing, the remaining one made many attempts to rouse her, and 
when he found this to be impossible his rage and grief were pain- 
ful to witness. Tearing the hair, or rather snatching at the short 
hair on his head, was always one of his common expressions of 
extreme anger, and was now largely indulged in, but the ordinary 
yell of rage which he set up at first, finally changed to a cry which 
the keeper of the animals assures me he had never heard before, 
and which would be most nearly represented by hah^ah-ah-ah- 
ah, uttered somewhat under the breath, and with a plaintive sound 
like a moan. With this he made repeated efforts to arouse her, 
lifting up her head and hands, pushing her violently and rolling 
her over. After her body was removed from the cage — a pro- 
ceeding which he violently opposed — he became more quiet, and 
remained so as long as his keeper was with him, but catching 
sight of the body once when the door was opened and again 
when it was carried past the front of the cage, he became violent, 
and cried for the rest of the day. The day following, he sat still 
most of the time and moaned continuously — this gradually passed 
away, however, and from that time he has only manifested a sense 
of a change in his surroundings by a more devoted attachment to 
his keeper, and a longer fit of anger when he leaves him. On 
these occasions it is curious to observe that the plaintive cry first 
heard when the female died, is frequently, though not always 
made use of, and when present, is heard towards the close of the 
fit of anger. It may well be that this sound having been special- 
ized as a note of grief, and in this case never having previously 
been called into use by the occurrence of its proper emotion, now 
finds expression on the return of even the lesser degree of the 
same feeling given rise to by the absence of his keeper, and fol- 
lows the first outbreak of rage in the same manner as the sobbing 
of a child is the natural sequence of a passionate fit of crying. 
It may be noted too, that as his attachment to his keeper is evi- 
dently stronger than when there was another to divide with him 



1879] Grief in the Chimpanzee. 175 

the attention which they received, the grief now caused by the 
man's absence would naturally be much stronger and a more ex- 
act representation of the gestures of grief would be made. 

Notwithstanding the intensity of his sorrow at first, it seems 
sufficiently evident that now a vivid recollection of the nature of 
the past association is not present. To test this a mirror was 
placed before him, with the expectation that on seeing a figure so 
exactly like his lost mate, some of the customary signs of recog- 
nition would take place, but even by caressing and pretending to 
feed the figure in the glass, not a trace of the expected feeling 
could be excited. In fact, the only visible indication of a change 
of circumstances is that while the two of them were accustomed 
to sleep at night in each other's arms on a blanket on the floor, 
which they moved from place to place to suit their conveni- 
ence, since the death of the one, the other has invariably slept on 
a cross-beam at the top of the cage, returning to inherited habit 
and showing, probably, that the apprehension of unseen dangers 
has been heightened by his sense of loneliness. 

On looking over the field of animal emotion it seems evident 
that any high degree of permanence in grief of this nature be- 
longs only to man ; slight indications of its persistence in mem- 
ory are visible in some of the higher animals ar d domesticated 
races, but in most of them the feeling appears to be excited only 
by the failure of the inanimate body, while present to the sight, 
to perform the accustomed actions. 

The foundation of the sentiment of grief is probably in a percep- 
tion of loss sustained in being deprived of services which had been 
of use. An unrestrained indulgence in an emotion so powerful as 
this has become in its higher forms, would undoubtedly prevent due 
attention to the bodily necessities of the animal subjected to it; 
in man, its prostrating effects are mainly counteracted by an intel- 
ligent recognition of the desirability of repairing the injury suf- 
fered, and in him, therefore, the feeling may exist without serious 
detriment to his welfare, but among the lower animals it would 
seem probable that any tendency to its development would be 
checked by its own destructive effects—the feeling, for instance, 
would most frequently occur on the death of a mate — a deep and 
lasting grief would then tend to prevent a new association of like 
nature and would thus impede the performance of the first func- 
tion of an animal in its relation to its kind — that of reproduction. 



[March, 



BY W. L. CARPENTER, U.S.A. 

IN the August number of the American Naturalist appeared 
an article on the carpet-beetle, by J. A. Lintner, in which the 
statement was made, as nearly as I can now remember, that 
" although he had never used Pyrethrum roseum as an insect 
exterminator, he had no doubt that it would prove unavailing if 
applied to the destruction of the Anthrenus? As it seemed 
unfair to condemn without a trial what is generally regarded as a 
useful insect poison, I resolved to test it experimentally; and now 
present the result of several trials with different orders of 

The insects were placed under a tumbler, which was slightly 
raised to admit fresh air, and a small quantity of the Pyrethreum 
roseum, or Persian Insect Powder of commerce, introduced on the 
point of a pen-knife. The movements of the insects brought 
them in contact with the powder, which readily adhered to the 
body ; in attempting to remove it from their appendages a few 
particles would be carried to the mouth and thus incorporated in 
the juices of the stomach with fatal effect. 

A honey-bee became perfectly helpless in fifteen minutes, a 
mud- wasp in eight minutes, a small species of ant in five minutes; 
a small species of Pyralidce became helpless in twenty minutes ; 
the large Papilio asterias resisted the effects of the drug for over 
one hour, and upon being released seemed to recover, but died 
next day. A larva of one of the NoctucelitcB did not seem sus- 
ceptible, its jaws were repeatedly filled with the powder, which it 
invariably ejected by throwing out its juices; at the end of two 
hours it was still able to crawl feebly. A house-fly became help- 
less in ten minutes, a mosquito in fifteen minutes, a flea in three 

In experimenting upon the Colcoptcm, an insect as nearly the 
size of the carpet-beetle as could be found was secured in Dia- 
brotica duodecitn- punctata, an abundant species here. It was easily 
affected and became helpless in twelve minutes. A small pinch 
placed in the jaws of a large Carabus stopped locomotion in 
thirty minutes. The Hemiptera, owing to their peculiarly shaped 
mouths, were enabled to vigorously resist the baleful influence. 



1 879.] Valentine. 177 

A species of Coreus was active at the end of two hours, but was 
ultimately overcome. A large sized katydid was deprived of 
motion at the end of ten minutes ; Caloptenus sprctus likewise in 
eighteen minutes. A dragon-fly {Libcllitlida) died in one hour. 
Spiders succumbed in one hour and fifteen minutes. The scent 
from the powder did not produce any bad effect upon insects sub- 
jected to its odor where actual contact was not possible. But 
when caried to the maxillae or mandibles, the effect is to produce 
complete paralysis of the motor nerves. The legs are paralyzed 
in regular order, commencing with the first pair ; insects will 
sometimes live for days in this condition, but death ultimately 
results from the introduction into the mouth of the smallest 
quantity. These experiments prove that all insects having open 
mouth parts are peculiarly susceptible to this powerful drug. 
And as a result, the writer does not hesitate to recommend the 
powder to housekeepers as an infallible agent in destroying the 
carpet-beetle and preventing its ravages. Twenty-five cents' worth 
of powder liberally sprinkled upon the floor before putting down 
a carpet, and afterward freely placed around the edges and never 
swept away, will suffice to preserve a large sized carpet. No ill 
effects from its use need be feared by the household, since if ap- 
plied in this way it will be only poisonous to all kinds of insects. 



APPLE buds and blossoms bourgeon 
All the hill-side over; 
Rare and sweet the pledge and presage 
Nature gives her lover. 

Buds will blossom, blossoms wither 

In the summer's sun ; 
Trees will blush with rosy fruitage 

When the summer's done. 

Harvest-time will come and gather 

Fruits and yellow sheaves ; 
Bud and flower and fruit will vanish ; 

Left to us, the leaves ! 



Recent Literature. 

Leaves or blossoms — what doth mz 

Phases of one thought ; 
Leaf in spring is fruit in autumn, 

Bud-and-blossom bought. 
Earth has tree and fruit within it; 

Life and thought, the clod ; 
Stones spring up to love and duty 

From the sun-kissed sod. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Comstock's Outline of General Geology. 1 — This neat little 
volume of 80 duodecimo pages, is peculiar and interesting, as it 
occupies a novel position among the many aids now furnished to 
the student of this most comprehensive branch of physical sci- 
ence. In his brief preface, the author explains its character, as 
an amplified syllabus of his elementary lectures to a mixed class 
in the University, who are required to gain a general familiarity 
with the facts and principles of geology, before they can enter 
either of the more extended courses, on Palaeontology and on 
Economic Geology, £iven at Cornell. It is designed as a handbook 
of classified statements and references, to be used in connection 
with lectures on the one hand and with collateral reading on the 
other; and a blank leaf is bound in between every two pages of 
text, for diagrams, memoranda, etc. The general arrangement of 
topics is similar to that of Dana's Manual, save that Dynamical 
Geology precedes Historical. Under each minor division, is given 
an exceedingly concise statement of the facts and laws of that 
part of the subject, as recognized by the best authorities, and gen- 
erally also a brief notice of other or older views. This is followed 
by a series of references, made by numeral figures, to the Refer- 
ence List at the close of the book, in which about one hundred 
and fifty works, both general and special, including articles in 
scientific periodicals, monographs, etc., of particular value, are 
arranged, frequently with a few words of estimate, guidance, or 
caution, for the student. 

It will readily appear, from the mere statement thus given, that 
the hand-book of Prof. Comstock's has great value, if only for its 
references, apart from its condensed and carefully classified sum- 
maries of fact. As stated in the preface, some parts of the sub- 
ject are treated more fully than others. We may instance the 



the Cornell University. Ithaca, N. Y.: Vn 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 1 79 

section on Heat as a geological agent, Prof. Comstock's classifica- 
tion of Igneous and Metamorphic rocks, that on Tertiary mam- 
mals, and the closing section, upon Prehistoric Archaeology. But 
the general scope and adaptation of the work are excellent, if its 
purpose be borne in mind ; viz., to aid the student in holding to- 
gether the knowledge gained from books and lectures, until in 
the course of time and practice, it can grow up into a connected 
system in his own mind, and become a permanent possession. 
It would be easy to point out things that might be added ; but 
were the work enlarged much, it would lose the character which 
it now has, of an " Outline," and become what it is not designed 
for, a text-book. Prof. Comstock deserves great credit in our 
judgment, for so good and careful a presentation of the 
principal facts and laws of his department, prepared under great 
stress of professional labors at the University, in the sadly vacant 
place of the lamented Hartt. In his preface, he speaks of his 
hesitation, from conscious imperfections, in seeking for the work 
a wider field than his own lecture room; but he hopes 
still, that it may prove of service to some other teachers and 
students. He has done well in giving it the possibility of this 
wider circulation; and we cannot but think that many will thank 
him for having done so. We would advise any student who 
means to be systematic and comprehensive, and any teacher or 
young professor who would do justice to his work, to procure 
this little book without delay.— D. S. M. 

Gegenbaur's Elements of Comparative Anatomy. 1 — This 

book marks an epoch in comparative anatomy, since the .-.abject 
is not treated in the manner of the older works, such as those of 
Cuvier, Owen, and even Huxley, inasmuch as the facts concern- 
ing the comparative structure of the different organs of animals 
are not presented in a simply comparative manner ascending from 
the mere simple to the complex, but the author goes a step be- 
yond his predecessors, and uses his array of facts as a foundation 
for a theory that may explain why the more complex structures 
have such a constant relation to the simpler. The facts recorded 
in this work are vitalized and interpenetrated by the principles of 
the theory of decent. To some this will be the main fault of 
Gegenbaur's work, to others, the introduction of a speculative and 
hypothetical thread, weaving all the facts into a connected, logi- 
cal system, will enhance the value of the treatise. At all events 
it is time an effort should be made to combine the facts of com- 
parative anatomy into a harmonious system, and if the hypothe- 



180 Recent Literature. [March, 

sis used to connect the facts is true to and explains them, then the 
honor is due to the eminent author. At any rate until the theory 
of descent is cast aside as useless and erroneous, the science of 
Comparative Anatomy, hitherto so unwieldly and overgrown 
with isolated data, must be thus simplified and vivified. 

The student will not find the book easy reading, and he should 
not take it up until he has mastered books like Siebold's admira- 
ble Comparative Anatomy of the Invertebrates, Rolleston's F'orms 
of Animal Life, Huxley's Anatomy of the Invertebrates and Verte- 
brates, and some good work on human anatomy. He will then be 
able to appreciate the theory of the origin of vertebrate limbs 
from the fins of fishes, and to understand Gegenbaur's theory of 
the skull, which will supplant, and indeed has already, Oken's, 
Goethe's and Owen's views based on the consideration of the skulls 
of the highly specialized bony fishes and mammals. The origin 
and specialization of the vertebrate column is also discussed in a 
clear and simple way, most valuable to the student, and so the 
formation of the different organs of special sense, the ear, eye 
and nose, as well as the rise and development of the brain. 

We would especially recommend teachers of zoology, com- 
parative anatomy and human anatomy to earnestly study this 
book, as it will aid in the difficult work of presenting the leading- 
principles of animal morphology in a simple, condensed, logical 

This English translation, which is on the whole well done, for 
the German of the original is difficult to translate, has appeared 
nearly contemporaneously with the improved second German 
edition. Gegenbaur has in this edition, removed the Brachiopoda 
from the Mollusca, and treated them as an independent " Phylum," 
equivalent to the Mollusca or Vertebrata, thus paying a silent 
compliment to our countryman, Morse. The Tunicates also stand 
as an independent Phylum or Branch. The sponges are still 
united with the Ccelenterates.a place which they may not hold in 
subsequent editions. The illustrations are choice, the typogra- 
phy excellent, and we would recommend the work as the most 
stimulating, suggestive and philosophical treastise the advanced 
student can find. 

Schmarda's Zoolocy. 1 — This is on the whole an excellent com- 
pendium of zoology, valuable for the lengthy introductory mat- 
ter, relating to the following subjects in general zoology; inor- 
ganic and organic substances, statics and dynamics of formed ma- 
terial, histology, physiology, development, psychology, the geo- 
graphical distribution of animals, methods of study, and the prin- 
ciples of zoological classification. The systematic portion begins 
with the lowest Branches and ascends to the highest, the author 

F',;u..1. luit j2 4 Hol/.dmiiten, 1S77. II 1 . 1N7S. "\Yieii. 



adopting seven "Divis 

tcrata, I .. 

lusca, and Vertebrata. 

and most of them seem original and expressly designed tor this 
work. The bibliography is full enough for the purposes of the 
work, and there is a voluminous index. The presswork, and 
paper, and wood cutting is above the average of work done in 

Congressional Record, Feb. 12.— Gen. Garfield on Govern- 
ment Sir via. s. — The remarks of Gen. Garfield before the House 
of Representatives in committee on Tuesday last, on the subject 
of the United States Geological surveys, deserve notice. This is 
especially due, because Gen. Garfield has always been friendly to 
the scientific enterprises of our government. But on this occasion 
he presents himself in a different light, for while not desiring to 
be thought to be attacking the surveys, he really places himself 
in opposition to the essential basis of their work, viz., pure 
science. He seems to entertain the idea that pure science is one 
thing, and economic science another; and that while the govern- 
ment may encourage the latter by pecuniary aid, it should not 
assist the former. Now it cannot be too strongly insisted that 
the two things here distinguished, are one and 'inseparable, and 

and that without pure science, it could not exist. For instance, 
a most important aid to mining prosperity is geology ; but geol- 
ogy cannot exist without paleontology; yet paleontology must 
be regarded as in itself inapplicable to human economy. But on 
this science rests the determination and identification of rock 
strata everywhere. Now paleontology is itself impossible without 
zoology, a science of all others generally esteemed the most use- 
less. Gen. Garfield's distinction 1- Impossible. It is true that the 
General may derive some aid and comfort from Maj. Powell's re- 
port to the Secretary of the Interior, on the subject of the surveys, 
but the sentiments of that document are condemned by the scien- 
tific men of the country. 

Gen. Garfield then says that science like religion should be left 
to be developed by " the people," and that government support 
works the same kind of injury to scientific progress that it does 
to religion. He then goes on to employ the following remarka- 
ble expressions : " Generally the desire of our scientific men is 
to be let alone * * and not to have the government enter the 
lists as the rival of private enterprise." " * I believe we have 
spent a large sum of that money upon an unwise system, and 
in a way which has tended to discourage the private pursuit ot 
science by our people. We have made the government a 
formidable and crushing competitor of private students of science 
**•" We suspect that such views will astonish the scientific men 



1 82 Recent Literature. [March, 

of the country. They are certainly beyond precedent extraordi- 
nary. The difference between state support for religion and 
science is world-wide. Theology is matter of opinion, and as such 
governments cannot interfere with it; science is matter of fact, 
and in so far as it is fact of vital importance, it is the business of 
governments to develop it as they are bound to see that ignorance 
and illiteracy do not prevail among their people. And it is not 
always appreciated, in view of the amount of knowledge that has 
been developed in the world, how little of it touches as yet, the 
deepest problems of human life, and how much therefore remains 
to be done. It should also be remembered that our educational 
system depends for its supply of fact on the labors of scientific 
men ; and that therefore government aid cannot be more judi- 
ciously expended than in enabling scientific men to bring forth 
their results. 

We deny squarely that there is any such rivalry as Gen. Gar- 
field imagines to exist between the government and the private 
student. Rivalry there may be between individuals, but as these 
pursuits do not yield pecuniary rewards, but are for the public 
good, such rivalry is beneficial, and should be encouraged. As 
to the supposition implied by Gen. Garfield's remarks, that gov- 
ernment aid gives a presumption in favor of the views of scientists 
employed by government, it is quite out of the question, and in- 
dicates a wrong apprehension of the spirit of science. In this 
field every man's work stands on its own merits, no matter who 
or where he be. The idea that any scientific man deprecates 
government aid to science, is as false as it new. The idea of 
government being a " formidable and crushing competitor " of 
science, is very curious. Who could have originated such a 
thought we cannot conceive, unless it be some pseudoscientist 
whose estimate of scientific reputation is determined by the offi- 
cial position a man holds, rather than by the quality of the work 
he does. Most preposterous of all is the remark that aid from 
government has tended to discourage private pursuit of science 
by our people ! We venture to say that our government surveys 
have done more to encourage the pursuit of science by our people 
than all other causes combined. It has not only encouraged it 
in this country, but in Europe, so effectively have the surveys 
been conducted. The desire of the people for their publications 
is such that the editions are never large enough to supply the 
demand. The students of science everywhere regard them as one 
of the grandest features of our country and time. 

But Gen. Garfield has not escaped self-contradiction. Me is in 
favor of government aid to " inquiries which in consequence of 
their great magnitude and cost cannot be successfully made by 
private individuals." Here 'the honorable member readies the 
kernel of the matter. It is precisely enterprises of the kind to 
which he refers which engage the attention of the United States 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 183 

Surveys. The explorations cannot be sustained by private in- 
dividuals, and no private person can defray the expenses of the 
necessary publication. Labor is secured here at a cheaper rate 
by the government than in any other field, for salaries are small, 
and much work is done gratuitously. Students as a rule are 
poor, and the number of rich men engaged in its pursuit is small 
indeed. To withdraw government aid is to destroy a most useful 
competition, and to leave many departments at least in the hands 
of those few rich men. 

But in further self-contradiction, Gen. Garfield gives qualified 
support to the proposed new organization of the government 
surveys by which all those at present in existence are to be abol- 
ished, and a single organization placed in its stead. Now the 
wholesome "competition between mind and mind," which he 
desires to encourage, could not be more effectually suppressed 
than by this method. As the surveys are now organized, they 
stimulate each other, offer a wider field for the development of 
science, and furnish a supply of intellectual food from which the 
text-books of the next half century will be drawn. And Gen. 
Garfield desires this work practically suspended, and the United 
States to retire from the position which she now holds in the 
commonwealth of nations, as a patron and producer of knowledge 
for her people. — Philadelphia Bulletin. 

Recent Books and Pami'Hi.kts.— Notes on the Aphidce of the United States, 
With descriptions,,! .)<> ios uccui rin- uc-t of the Mi>.i,sippi. |; V C. V. Riley and 
J. Monell. Evti i,' 1 I'nmi tl, I, ! ,,, , h ( ><■<.'_, ! Survey, F. V. Hay- 
den, U. S. Geolo»isl ina'har-e. \Y ;l sliin»ton, Jan.. 1N79. Svo, pp. 32, 2 plates. 



Die Orthopt 

8vo, pp. 9 o, 6 plates. 

The Quarterly Journal of < 






79- 8vo.pp.520. £6.50. 



1 84 General Notes. [March, 

Notes on the Life and Character of Joseph Henry. Read before the Philosophical 
Society of Washington. IV lames C. Welling, Oct. 26th, 1878, (Extracted from 
the Bulletin of the Society.) 8vo, pp. 28. 

. 
pherMcCook. Author's edition. Academy of Natural S lencc jf Philadelphia, 
1879. 8vo, pp. 306, 24 plates. 

Zoology. Seals and ( icean IU Will mllcmv'l v. . , , I R.S." 4 to, pp. 
? date. From the author. 

Preliminary Report of the Field Work of the U. S. Geological and Geographical 
Survey of the Territories for the season of 1878. By F. V. Hayden. 8vo. pp. 29. 
Government Printing < mice, Washington. From the author. 



Smithsonian In 
Lawrence. (Ej 
9, 1878. From 



• Species of Cypselidae o 



, State Entomologist. 8vo. pp. 290. Springiield 111.. D. W. 
t. From the author. 

stus R. Grote, Vice-President Section B, before the Ameri- 
Ldvancement of Science, at the St. Louis Meeting, 1878. 



1878. From the author. 

On the Classification and Distributio 
R. S„ V.P.Z.S. (Ext. from Proc. Zool 
7S8. From the author. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



Ox Nomenclature. — " I think it is about time that the notion 
that a species must necessarily be named after some peculiarity 
that it possesses, should pass into the limbo of exploded ideas." 
This passage, in the article " Walks Round San Francisco," in 
the Naturalist, December, 1878, page 791, induces me to 



express my opinion on the use of personal names in scientific 
nomenclature. 

Linnaeus in his Philosophia Botanic 
generica ad botanici optime meriti 

structa sanite servanda sunt. Hoc unicum et summum premium 
laboris sanite servandum et caste dispensandani!' I agree with 
this proposition. Generical names established for the memory of 
the most deserving botanists should be kept sacred and imparted 
abstemiously. 

Like the preacher, who warned his congregation to act accord- 
ing to his saying not according to his doing, Linnaeus did not 
always strictly follow his own maxim, but the rule he proposes is 
a good one. Though I would prefer even for genera characteristic 
names, I would not blame an author who likes to honor the most 
deserving 1 botanists by baptizing genera after their names. 

In regard to specific names, Linnaeus advises against the use of 
names of persons or countries. He says : " Inventoris vel alius 
cujusquinque nomen in differentia non ad hi beat ur. Locus 
natalis species distinctas non tradit. Differentia specifica continct 
differentiae notas csscntiales." Indeed a species that has not one 
character by which it can be distinguished from its congeners is 
not worth being called a species. In contradiction to this rule 

national Congress at Paris 1S67, allowed the use'of personal 
names. It is true what De Candolle savs in the preface to those 
rules, that the Linnrean rules of nomenclature are obsolete, but 



just in this case I think Linnaeus was right, at 


id if that c 


ommis- 


sion had considered how much personal name 




.edand 


are misused in our time more than ever, then 




33 and 


36 would not have passed in their present forr 


n. Of said 


misuse 


I could name many cases, but I take only 


ne : Schee 




lished in Linncea 1 14 new Texan plants, amc 






twenty-one Rivmerinnn, fourteen Lmdkeimcria 


fur, one Gn 




and twenty Texana. When we deduct from t 


lie rest thos 


e which 



had already been described, 
got names which mean nothing mot than a cheap con 
worthless to a true scientist. The owners of the three abc 
tioned personal names are botanists indeed (whether most 1 
I am not competent to decide), but how often has a s 
bear the name of a man who finds a new species as a b 
finds a grain, or the name of the military commander of 
dition the collecting botanist was a member of, or the n, 
friend of the species maker, whose connection with the 
looser yet. The most awkward thing is that, when a 
mistakes a really new species for a known one, his m 
rewarded by giving his name to the same new species \ 



1 86 General Notes. [March, 

There is another point in which I do not agree with the estab- 
lished rules : that is the right of priority, which the author of the 
" Walks " wishes to be extended even to wrongly spelled or 
ungrammatical names. This right of priority is the real source 
of premature publications and of the accumulation of synonyms. 
For example : Bertoloni, a respectable Italian botanist, professor 
in Bologna, receives a number of Alabama plants ; he describes 
and names many new species which are known and named before. 
The trouble is, he is not enough acquainted with the North 
American flora and too hasty to leave the publication of new 
American species to an American author, who has at his disposi- 
tion a greater quantity of specimens, which are necessary for a 
correct description. Now amongst those plants was perhaps a 
single poor specimen of Petalostamou (-oiymbusui/i. Instead of 
laying it aside he describes it as the type of a new genus {Gave- 
sia) in the order of Compositae. How often in the same way we 
see a man who is not master of the synopsis, who does not know 
what is known, push his name before the scientific public, not 
.from zeal for science, but from desire to see his " mihi" behind a 
new created species. Then true scientists have the trouble to 
clear the stable. 

To meet the case at once there should be appointed an inter- 
national committee, an Areopagus, in which the most prominent 
botanists should decide on the value of each specific name. Free 
competition would be left open, but the author of a name would 
have the risk of refusal. Better yet — we, the humble mortar 
carriers, should give over to the masters of systems all the peb- 
bles and diamonds we find, and leave to them the task of assort- 
ing. The arena of science is wide, and there is chance enough to 
search for laurels outside of systematic botany. 

And now one word about wrongly spelled or ungrammatical 
names. The Parisian congress has acknowledged the right to 
correct such bad names, and that is right. The best scholar may 
inadvertently make a mistake, and he will not be offended by 
being corrected. It is right to read Astragalus aboriginum 
instead of aborigenorum, and Scyi tcad of sim- 

plice. — Fred. Brendel. 

Aspidium boottii Tuckerman.— As the following note, pre- 
pared for my Catalogue of the " Davenport Herbarium " of North 
American Ferns, is supplementary to my paper on "Aspidium 
spinulosum Su ■/.., and its varieties," published in the Naturalist for 
November, 1878, I offer it here in advance of publication. 

In my paper on "Aspidium ^piiiu/asniii Swz., and its varieties" 
(Amer. Nat., I. c.) I was led to consider A. boottii Tuck- 
erman and A. remotnm Braun as identical, by an examination of 
a specimen of the latter, at Cambridge, from Braun's herbarium, 
and to credit Braun's name with being the oldest, on the authority 
of remarks in Hooker's " British Ferns," t, 22, but since the pub- 



1879] Botany. 187 

lication of my paper I have endeavored to learn the exact date of 
the publication of. Braun's name, with the following result : 

The record, so far as it appears from all accessible authorities, 
is, that in 1834 Braun first discovered in a mountain valley near 
Baden specimens of a fern, growing with Aspidium filix-mas and 
A s/ n, os!(in{ 'in ) that In at fi t'st referred to . Ispi, , m rigi- 
ditm as a variety of that species (var. remotum), but which he 
afterward designated as a species, under the name of . Isfidium 
remotum. Later he appears to have regarded it as a hybrid form 
between A filix-mas and . /. <:-:>: 1,'sum, but finally, according to 
Milde (Fil. Eur. et Atl., 1867), considered it a form of Aspidium 

Braun, however, does not appear to have published any descrip- 
tion, and unless, as Mr. Watson suggests, he may have given the 
name previously in some catalogue of the Lipsic Garden, the 
name Aspidium remotum does not appear until about 1850, when 
it occurs for the first time in " Yeriungung," Freiburg, 1849-50. 

On the other hand, Tuckerman's name and description was 
published in Hoveys Magazine for 1843, which entitles it to the 
right of priority, and justifies my retaining it on stronger grounds 
than those given in my paper on A. spinulosum. 

The question of identity, however, still remains in doubt. The 
two ferns have generally been regarded as identical, by English 
authors, but Milde held the opinion (Nova Acta, 1858) that A. 
remotum had nothing whatever in common with A. boottii, and as 
his opinion was based on a careful study of the anatomy of the 
two plants, it is entitled to the very highest consideration. 

In the face of the opinion of so careful and thorough an in- 
vestigator as Milde, it is extremely unsafe for any one to hazard 
an opposite opinion, without a most careful and searching investi- 
gation, conducted on the same principles as those made by that 
eminent cryptogamic botanist; but 1 cannot forbear expressing 
the opinion that some of the external characters pointed out by 
Milde as separating the two ferns, are not altogether reliable, as, 
for example, the comparative length of the stipe, the chafifiness, 
or stoutness of the rachis, and the degree of pinnation in the 
frond, all of which characters certainly vary greatly in different 
specimens of A. boottii. 

The difference, however, pointed out in the number of fibre- 
bundles in the stipe of A. remotum (7) as compared with the simi- 
lar structure of the stipes in A. spinulosum and its forms (5 fibre- 
bundles) is a most important one, and one not to be lightly over- 
looked. 

According to Milde, also, the indusium in A. remotum is with- 
out glands, whereas in A. booltii the indusium is finely glandular 
But as these glands frcqwentlv disappear early, and are not always 
present after the indusium contracts, we cannot tell how much 
importance to attach to Milde's statement, without knowing ex- 



1 88 General Notes. [March, 

actly in what state his specimens were when examined. Milde, 
himself, in another part of the same work, when speaking of A. 
spiniilositm and dilatatum, apparently regarded the presence or 
absence of glands on the ir.dusium as unimportant. 

I shall discuss this question more fully hereafter; for the pres- 
ent I can only say that the specimen of A. remotum at Cambridge, 
from Braun's herbarium — the ticket is apparently in Braun's 
handwriting and bears date "Aulich, Sep. 1859 " — appears to me 
identical with our A. boottii ! If detached from the sheet and 
sent out for that fern, it would be generally received without 

But in whichever way the question of identity is finally decided, 
its determination either way cannot affect the position of Tucker- 
man's name, which dates with Braun's earliest name {Aspidium 
rigidum, van nmotum, A. Br. in Doell's Rheinische Flora, 1843) 
and is the oldest specific name on record. The name Aspidium 
boottii Tuckerman, therefore, must remain undisturbed. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Sereno Watson, of Cambridge, 
and to Prof. Eaton, for their kindness in aiding me to look up 
authorities. (Geo. E. Davenport in Catalogue of the " Davenport 
Herbarium " of North American Ferns, Mass. Hor. Soc. ined. 
Medford, Mass., Jan., 1879.) 

Remarks — In my paper on Asj. I was inad- 

vertently led into two errors of authority that I wish to correct 
here. Aspidium spinulosum var. dilatatum and A. spimtlosum var. 
boottii should both be followed by Gray as authority, in place of 
" D. C. Eaton in Gray's Manual." 

Botanical News. — Sir J. Hooker, in his recent address to the 
Royal Society, refers to the remarkable theory of Schwendener, 
now ten years old, affirming that the lichens consist of ascomy- 
cetal fungi united in a commensal existence with algae. Indeed 
Stahl has manufactured such lichens, as Endocarpi u and Tin 'idiu v 
by juxtaposition of the appropriate algae and fungi. That minute 
plants (Bacillus) may occasion disease is apparently shown by the 
fact that the dried blood of horses that had died of the " Loodi- 
ana fever," in India, on being sent to England, there afforded seed 
from which a crop of Ihuiilus aulhracis has been grown, which 
justified its distant pathological origin by reproducing the disease 
in other animals. 

That gigantic undertaking, the Flora of Brazil, begun by Von 
Martius, is now being carried on by Eichler of Berlin, under the 
liberal auspices of the Emperor of Brazil. A little over a year 
ago Bentham's Flora of Australia was completed. It describes 
eight thousand species of plants. 

Mr. A. W. Bennett contributes to Nature an account of the ex- 
periments of Rev. G. Henslow on the absorption of water by the 
leaves of plants, forming a sequel to and confirming those of 
Boussingault. That plants absorb water by their leaves, and that 



1879] Zoology. 189 

gardeners should therefore continue to water plants by sprinkling 
their leaves, seem well established facts. 

The Bulletin of Hayden's U. S. Geological Survey, Vol. IV, No. 
4, contains a catalogue, by Prof. J. W. dickering, of Phasnogam- 
ous and vascular Cryptogamous plants collected during the 
summers of 1873 and 1874, in Dakota and Montana, along the 
forty-ninth parallel, by Dr. Elliott Coues, U.S.A. ; with which are 
incorporated those collected in the same region at the same time, 
by Mr. George M. Dawson. 

Trimen's Journal of Botany contains articles on a monandrou; 
Cypripedium, by S. L. M. Moore, and a further note on the struc- 
ture of Composites, by M. T. Masters. Braun's article on the 
vegetable remains in the Egyptian museum .it Berlin, is translated 
from the Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic, the first part appearing in the 
January number. 

1 he Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club contains an account 
among other notes, by Prof. Gray, of a sporting Trillium <rrandi- 
Horinn, and of an Agaricus with the odor of chlorine, by C. F. 

In the Botanical Gazette G. Vasey describes a new Panicinn, 
P. littoralc from Mobile. J. M. Coulter contributes an article on 
the flora of Northern Indiana. 



Note on the Hairy-tailed Mole, Scalops breweri of 
authors. — The earliest description of a mole, referable to the 
genus Scapauus and to the species subsequently named "Scalops 
brewcrii by Bachman, is that given by Harlan, Fauna Americana, 
1825, P- 43, under the name of Talpa enropca — he wrongly sup- 
state whether he described an American or a European specimen; 
and the general drift of his remarks indicates that he compiled, 
at least in part, from some staple description of Talpa europea. 
But it is evident that he really had in view an American mole, 
which he recognized as distinct, both generically and specifically, 
from our common Scalops aquaticus. 

That this is no other than the Scapanus is shown by the den- 
tal formula of forty-four teeth, which is applicable neither to 
Scalops nor to Talpa ; and the rest of his description is incom- 
patible in no respect with Scalops "breweri" which so closely 
resembles Talpa europea in superficial appearance that it has not 
seldom been mistaken for the latter. That there is no doubt in 
the case is further witnessed by Audubon and Bachman, who 
state (Quad. N. A. m, p. 219) that "Harlan had described the 
skull of the species we have since described and figured as 
Scalops brewcrii, having forty-four teeth," &c. 

In connection with this description, Harlan published William 

^ : Tho dqxmmeres of ( hnitho'o 'v an<l Man. ni.il ,- v are conducted bv Dr. ELLIOTT 
Coues, U. S. A. 



190 General Notes. [March, 

Bat-tram's MS. name, " Talpa americana," which thus antedates 
the trivial name "dreweri" of Bachman. It therefore becomes 
necessary to. know the hairy-tailed mole as Scapanus amcricanns. 
—Elliott Cones, Washington, D. C. 

The Clover-seed Fly, a new Insect Pest. — At the annual 
meeting of the N. Y. State Agricultural Society, held at Albany 
in January last, J. A. Lintner, of the State Museum of Natural 
History, read a paper in which, among other injurious insects 
recently observed, he gave an account of the larvae of an insect 
which had been discovered two years ago in several localities in 
Eastern and Northern New York, hidden within the seed-pods 
of the red clover {Trifolium pratcnse) and destroying the seeds. 
The perfect insect had not yet been seen, but the examination of 
the larva showed it to belong to the Cecidomyidae, and in all 
probability very nearly allied to the wheat-midge, Cecidomyia 
destructor. A description of the larva was given under the name 
of Cecidomyia trifolii n. sp. 

The range of this insect's depredations or the extent of its 
ravages was as yet unknown. In some localities in the western 
counties of the State of New York, the clover was so infested 
with it last year that it was worthless for seed. It is believed 
that the not infrequent failure heretofore reported of the clover- 
seed crop throughout the country, which has been ascribed to 
imperfect fertilization of the blossoms and various other causes, 
has been the result of the secret operations of this little insect— 
J. A. Lintner. 

The English Sparrow and our Native Song-Birds. — The 
introduction of the English sparrow, and the substantial disap- 
pearance of the smaller song-birds from our cities and villages, 
have been nearly coincident in point of time, but it does not fol- 
low that they are connected as cause and effect. The imported 
bird is just making its appearance in the smaller villages of North- 
ern Ohio, where it finds the territory substantially unoccupied. 
Our native songsters disappeared from these localities before 
they came in contact with the intruders. The house wren, the 
summer yellow-bird, the blue-bird, the green-finch, song-sparrow, 
chippin— sparrow, and the vireos, were, a few years ago, abundant 
in all these villages; now, but few of them are seen during the 
season. The robin is as abundant, and as great a plunderer of 
our small fruits as ever. The Baltimore oriole remains. The 
cedar-birds come for their feasts upon the apple-blossoms in the 
spring, and upon the cherries in their season. The slate-colored 
snow-bird takes up its winter quarters with us, and the crow 
black-bird and the cat-bird build their nests in our ornamental 
trees. 

It can not be supposed that the native songsters retire in antici- 
pation of the intrusion of their foreign cousins, and some other 
cause for their disappearance must be sought. 

In this neighborhood, the want of appropriate nesting-places 



1 879.] Anthropology. 191 

is a sufficient explanation. The forests are now all enclosed, and 
constitute a part of the pasture lands. The undergrowth and 
thick masses of shrubs, brambles, and creepers have disappeared; 
the most of our little swamps are reclaimed ; and as these changes 
have occurred in the forest and field, fashion has prescribed a 
smooth lawn, with scattered trees and clumps of summer bedding 
plants around our dwellings, in place of the thick masses of shrub- 
bery which were cultivated a few years ago. And it is the birds 
which found their nesting-places and their food supplies in this 
shrubbery and undergrowth which have most thoroughly disap- 
peared. 

The robin finds good nesting-places and an abundance of sum- 
mer food ; the Baltimore oriole suspends its nest from the droop- 
ing branches of the elm ; and both these birds are content to 
remain with us. In the forest and field, where the English spar- 
row does not intrude, the thrushes, the warblers, the fly-catchers, 
finches, and black-birds are by no means as abundant as formerly. 
Their nesting-places are greatly restricted, their food supplies 
diminished, and they find no thick copses, under the cover of 
which they delight to hide themselves, and in which so many find 
a large part of their supplies of food. Their nests are more ex- 
posed, and their life is made uncomfortable by these changed con- 
ditions, and they are driven to seek homes more congenial to their 
habits. 

A care for our forest reserves, which will protect them from the 
intrusion of domestic animals, and permit the renewal of the dense 
undergrowth which has been destroyed, and the culture of thick 
masses of shrubbery about our dwelling!, will secure a return of 
the exiles, and perhaps a contest for the occupancy with the im- 
ported birds: We shall then learn whether they can dwell to- 
gether in amity or not.— M. C. Read, Hudson, Ohio. 
ANTHROPOLOGY. ' 

H abel's Account of Ancient Guatemalan Sculptures. — 
The Smithsonian Institution will issue, in a few days, an illus- 
trated pamphlet of eighty-six pages, by Dr. Habel, upon a won- 
derful series of sculptures from Santa Lucia Cosumalhuapa, 
Guatemala, near the capital. It is impossible, in a brief note to 
epitomize a work of such great merit. We give a few of the 
concluding remarks of Dr. Habel in his own words : 

" These sculptures of Santa Lucia Cosumalhuapa are to me 
the most interesting of the kind that have been preserved of the 
ancient inhabitants of America, furnishing as they do, unequivo- 
cal proof of the advanced culture to which their constructors 
had attained. Those found in other localities represent either 
single individuals, or groups in which the relations are obscure ; 
but the bas-reliefs of Santa Lucia in every case but one present 

Edited by Prof. Otis T. Mason, Columbian College, Washington, D. C. 



1 9 2 General Notes. [ Ma rch , 

scenes in which there are generally two actors, one of them being 
a mythological personage. We are introduced into the very feel- 
ings and thoughts of the people, and learn much of their modes 
of living. 

" We are enabled to decide the progress of a people by the per- 
fection to which they had carried the useful arts, by the advance- 
ment which they had made in the fine arts and in scientific knowl- 
edge, by their religious conceptions, and by their language, in- 
cluding the methods of representing it. A comparison of these 
also acquaints us with those things which different peoples have 
in common. Let us therefore compare the sculptures of Santa 
Lucia with those of other parts of America in these four particu- 
lars, in order that we may perceive the resemblances between 
their fabricators, if any exist, and form some opinion of their com- 
parative status in culture. 

'As regards the useful arts, when we consider the hardness of 
the material, a dark gray porphyry from the volcano of Acate- 
nango, we arc convinced that the Santa Lucian sculptors used 
The advancement of technical skill is 



af manufactures represented in the 
i as wood-carving, textile fabrics, shell and metal 
/ork, carved stones, etc. The elevated character 
;ts of industry is attested by the uses to which 
With the exception of sculptures nine and four- 
"icates clothing merely. 
> the body is an orna- 
although the drapery suspended from the girdle may have 
been introduced to hide the genital organs. The foot also may 
be said to derive some slight protection from its ornamented san- 
dal. The neck, arms, body, and legs, however, are adorned and 
not clothed. The ornaments of the head, and especially those of 
the hair, are extremely profuse, reaching often to the ground. It 
is worthy of notice that no part of the body is mutilated for the 
sake of beauty, excepting the lobe of the ear, which even in our 
enlightened age serves the ladies as a means of perpetuating 

'Again, the variety of forms in the same object is an indication 
of progress. The headdresses are greatly varied. In one in- 
stance it is a crab, in another entwined serpents, and in others it 
is so complicated as to remind us of the fashions in highly enlight- 
ened nations. The most lavish care was bestowed on the hair, 
which in v_*ry few cases indeed appears without ornament, even 
on the heads of immolated victims. The method of ornamenta- 

The hair is at times adjusted to resemble a wig, but is generally 
braided with ribbons, adorned with rings, etc., and reaches in cues 
to the shoulders and below them. Other yet more complicated 
ornaments reach to the ankles, and even trail upon the ground, 



1 879.] 



form of a sheathed scimitar. 

ear, which assume the form df rings, embossed disks, tassels, etc., 
and of the neck, which may be a single band, a double collar, a 

ring with pendant tassel, or a necklace of many rows of beads or 

" Generally the wrist of but one hand is adorned with a bracelet, 

stone or metal beads. The other hand is inclosed in a human 
skull or in that of a fierce animal. If these are the skulls of im- 
molated victims, we have here the evidence of the sacrifice of 

" The waist above the hip, is surrounded by a broad stiff girdle, 
the upper portion which stands off from the body. On the back 
part of it is usually seen the head of a ferocious animal with 
open jaws replaced in one instance by a human head. From the 
lower edge of the forepart of the girdle descend two kinds of 
sashes, the one surroimding the thighs, the other tied in a bow- 
knot in front. The material of these sashes varies greatly. In 
one instance it appears to consist of leaves and flowers ; in another, 
that of the priest, it is replaced by a serpent. A twisted band 
tied in a bow replaces the girdle on the waists of the immolated 



" The orm 


imentation 1 


of the 1< 


■g deserv 




■sped, 


tl a 


ttention. A 


band with p> 


'riform pendant enc 


Irclesthe 




it leg 


bel 


OW tlK 


.' knee. 


A single pen 


dant is att; 


iched tc 


) the bar 


id' i 




:a- 


's, exc 


epting 


that of the pe 




onathn 




e tl: 








,l-o\ 


thebandvisil 




.■dbysix 


pClld.lUtS 


. F 


en tl 




rircum 


stance 


this person ii 


, supposed 




been th 


e c 


hief, < 


JI- L 


[Wind 1 


naster 




iraldic tern- 




1 order 


f W 


hich 








simply knigl 


its or laym 


ien. Tr 


le occurr 


enc 


e of 


the 


same 


orna- 


ment on the 


neck of the 


figure .- 


supposed 




re pre, 




the m 




dicates that : 












of 






the members 


thereof m; 


l'v have 




du- 


; oft! 






io had 


their countei 


•part in the 


Virgins 


of the S 


ll n 


in IV. 


u. 






" This inst 




ring a b 










v the 1; 




remarkable i 




dance t< 


. the < >r< 




of the 


Ga 


a-ter \v. 


1 Eng- 


land. It is 
other, but u 


eluve't, 


to supp 


,)se that 


sin 


itioT 


i::-, 


imit.it 


ed the 



turns widely separated in time and space. This is further im- 
pressed in the fact that these knights uiiiv wore their distinctions 
<>n high and festive occasions, or when adoring their gods; while 

takes the place of the badge. 

" The protection of the feet is greatly diversified. Exceptionally 



194 General Notes. [March, 

both feet are nude, but generally the bottom of one or both feet 
is protected by a sole, which is rolled up more or less to cover 
the upper part of the foot. The toes, with few exceptions, remain 
unprotected, and in no instance is the covering of both feet alike. 
" We come now to speak of the artistic taste of the sculptors 
of Santa Lucia as an indication of the superior culture of the 
people to whom they belonged. In the representation of natural 
forms we attribute the highest culture to those people who imi- 
tate nature most closely in her best manifestations. For this rea- 
son we should attribute to the ancient Greeks a very high degree 
of culture if we had received no other knowledge of their civili- 
zation excepting the relics of their works of art, which, when 
attempting to imitate nature, avoid all grotesqueness and 

" In the sculptures of Santa Lucia the human form stands 
before us, not with ill-proportioned features, but in regular outline 
combined with marked expression of the countenance. The 
observance of these details proves a diligent study of the human 
body. That which does appear as grotesque, must not be attrib- 
uted to a crude conception or to want of skill, but to the orna- 
mentation, which has a barbarous luxuriance. If we examine 
the heads in the sculptures of Santa Lucia, we shall find that 
while they all possess the curved nose so characteristic of the abo- 
rigines of America, they have no stereotyped forms ; on the con- 
trary, this feature varies with the expression of the face, so as to 
individualize each person represented. Some of the faces are 
attractive on account of the quiet expression of their features; 
and one especially approaches very nearly to our sense of beauty. 
The engraving hardly does justice to the original. 

" Again, just as each art passes through several stages in its pro- 
gress to perfection, so among all arts there is the same gradation. 
Thus lyric and didactic poetry are assigned a lower place than 
epic poetry, and the drama is the most elevated of all. Dramatic 
conception can originate and be cultivated only by a people who 
have passed the other stages. The monoliths of Santa Lucia 
show that their authors had cultivated the poetic sentiment as 
well as sculpture ; for, not only do we find that they had statuary 
as well as low reliefs, but we have evidence of the degree of 
poetical elevation to which they had attained. All of the scenes 
represented are dramatic, and four of them are allegorical. In the 
two sculptures representing sick men, the individuals are doubt- 
less of high standing. One of them is visited by death in the 
shape of a skeleton, who draws the attention of the sick man to 
the fact of his having lived for a number of years, indicated by 
the signs for numerals, and that it is, therefore, time for him to 
depart. In the other case, the sick man is visited by the medicine 
man in the guise of a deer, and reminded of the moderate number 
of years he has lived, as indicated by the numeral signs. This 
news would cheer him with the hope of recovery. 



1 879.] Anthropology. 195 

" In each of the other two allegorical sculptures, a human being 
is devoured by a bird — perhaps the Bird of the Sun — as it wears 
the image of the sun on the breast. This myth, again, has arisen 
independently in many lands. 

" The advancement of a people is also said to be measured by 
their religious conceptions. If we inquire into the stage which 
the evolution of the religious sentiment had reached among the 
people of Santa Lucia, we shall find that they were passing from 
the adoration of the sun and other heavenly bodies to the worship 
of men — Anthropomorphism. Among the deities in the sculp- 
tures can still be found the sun and moon, but both represented 
with human forms. The entire body is not given, but only the 
upper, nobler part. In the images of the deities are preserved 
the natural human features, not disfigured by any addition of 
animal organs or fantastic attributes. 

" The sculptures prove, alas ! that human sacrifices were prac- 
tised by their makers. The mode of immolation was peculiar. 
It was not the entrails of the victims which were dedicated to the 
gods, nor the heart torn from the breast and thrown at the feet of 
the idol ; but we see here the noblest part of the body, the head, 
severed and presented to the deity. 

" Finally, the language of a nation and the methods of repre- 
senting it are valuable indications of their status in culture. The 
same may be said of their numeral system. 

" It has been frequently affirmed that the aborigines of Amer- 
ica had nowhere arisen high enough in civilization to have char- 
acters for writing and numeral signs; but the sculptures of Santa 
Lucia exhibit signs which indicate a kind of cipher writing, 
higher in form than mere hieroglyphics. From the mouth of 
most of the human beings, living or dead, emanates a staff vari- 
ously bent, to the sides of which nodes are attached. These 
nodes are of different sizes and shapes, and variously distributed 
on the sides of the staff, either singly, or in twos and threes — the 
last named either separated or in shape of a trefoil. This man- 
ner of writing not only indicates that the person is speaking, or 
praying, but also indicates the very words, the contents of the 
speech or prayer. It is quite certain that each staff, as bent and 
ornamented, stood for a well-known petition which the priests 
could read as easily as those acquainted with a cipher dispatch 
can know its purport. Further, one may be allowed to conjecture 
that the various curves of the staves served the purpose of strength 
and rhythm, just as the poet chooses his various metres for the 
same purpose. 

" In the supplications of human beings this staff and its knots 
have a simple form, in the speeches of death the bends are angu- 
lar ; but the staves emanating from the deities are exceedingly 
complicated, and proceed, not from the mouth, but from the head 
or neck. To the variously bent and ramified staves of the deities, 



addition to the ordii 

"Besides the modes of writing just mentioned the sculptures ex- 
hibit another method of representing emotions and aspirations 
not expressible in words. It consisted in wavy ridges or lines 
originating either from the mouth or from the girdle of the sup- 
pliant, and uniting at the upper extremity, or separated like the 
conventional sign for flames. The artists of Palenque have ex- 
pressed a somewhat similar conception by a figure blowing a 
horn, from the end of which proceed similar wavy lines to de- 
signate either the music or the escaping breath. (Stephens, Incidents 
of Travels, c. ii, 354.) Besides these methods of expressing 
thought there are, as before mentioned, hieroglyphics, chiefly 
a circular ridge inclosing the head of an animal or a pointed 
trefoil. 

" In regard to the signs for numerals, it is evident that the radix 
of their system, whatever may have been its value, was repre- 
sented by a circle, the same sign indicating zero in our system. 
A single horizontal line may be taken for a unit, two lines inter- 
secting as in a Roman X, some other value, and lines shorter 
than the unit may be taken for fractional parts. This system of 
recording numbers throws some light on the question whether 
the ancient inhabitants of Middle America had any intercourse 
with the civilized nations of Europe. Evidently, if by accident 
or design, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Jews, or any other race had 
imported their civilization into America, some traces of it would 
be exhibited here." 

Anthropological Nf.ws. — The following brief notices may be 
of interest to some: In the MittktUungen der Anthropologischen 
Gescllschaft in Wien, Dr. M. Much has a paper (pp. 203-273) 
upon agriculture among the ancient Germans, in which he takes 
the ground that the ancestors of the present Germans were always 
a settled people in Germany. The paper evinces a great deal of 
learning. L'Evolution Sociale en Occident depuis le moyen age 
jusqu'a nos jours, by P. Lafitte, Revue Occidental, Nov. 1878, 
4 pp. Essai sur Symbolique Planetaire chez les Semites, H. 
Charency, Revut Unguistique, 1S78. Bericht iiber die IX. allge- 

scbaft, zu Kiel, 12.-L 





878, in Correspond ,1: />'/.///. No. 


in'"ru 


rkev: Their History, Condition 


Clark 


, Dodd & Mead. 



Esquiss- d'une Grammairc Raisonm'e de la Langue Aleoute. 
V. Henry. Revui Unguistique % Oct.-Dec, 1878. Aborigines of 
the Housatonic Valley, E. W. B. Canning, Marine of American 
History, Dec, 1878. Oregon: The origin and meaning of the 
name, id.. Jan., 1879. The Wanga Plant and Voudooism, Phi/a- 
dclphia JAdica/ limes, 1878, p. 539. 



1879] Geology and Paleontology. 197 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

Mineral Wax in Utah.— Prof. J. E. Clayton of Salt Lake, 

has recently discovered an immense deposit of mineral wax in 

Southern Utah. He describes it as sixty miles long by twenty 

tains' more or less clay in scams and layers. Prof. Newberry 
finds it to be ozocerite, and Prof. Wurtz has obtained from the 

Merycopater and Hoplopiioneus. — Having recently had the 
opportunity of examining the entire dentition of the lower jaw of 
the Hyopotamus guyotianus Cope, 1 I find that it does not belong to 
the genus to which I referred it, but to an allied one, which ap- 
pears to be undescribed. It differs from Hyopotamus, having but 
three premolars and a simple diastema. The premolars are wide, 
and the last has four crescentoid cones, as in the first true molar 
(crowns of first and second lost). Canine well developed, com- 
pressed, anterior. The cones, both internal and external 
have a crescentic section. The inner cones are convex on the 
inner side in Gelocus, which also differs from this form as does 
Hyopotamus, in the simple compressed form of the premolars. 
The present genus may be called Merycopater. M. guyotianus was 
as large as the white-lipped peccary. 

Fine specimens of the Mar/u, rod us hracliyops Cope (I. c. p. 10), 
show that it possessed an inferior tubercular tooth. It therefore 
belongs to the genus Hoplopiioneus Cope. It is a very much larger 
species than the H oreodontis Cope. — E. D. Cope. 

The Nature of Eozoon. — Dr. Karl Mobius contributes to 
Pakeontographica for 187S, the results of his investigations into 
the .structure of Eozoon from Canada. He used specimens re- 
ceived from Drs. Dawson and Carpenter. As an expert in the 
study of recent Fora,ninij\ < (Rf, /> fa), Dr. Mobius's opinion 
carries with it much weight. His conclusion is, that the col- 
umns of the Eozoon limestone which Carpenter and Dawson 
supposed to be the casts of a canal system of the " intermediate 
or supplemental skeletons," are simply casts of fissures of various 
and unsymmetrical shapes having no resemblance to the tubules 
of any organic being. They are mostly fiat, and frequ ntly in- 
terrupted. The fibrous material found between the serpentine and 
the calcareous masses, supposed to be casts of the canals of the 
walls of the chambers of Eozoon, such as exist in the korami- 
nifera, consists of prismatic crystals of chrysotile. Dr. Mobius 
does not believe them to be casts of tubes, since no tube walls or 
interspaces can be seen by high powers either with or without 
polarized light. 

The Age of the Laramie. — Prof. Schimper, of Strasburg, 

1 I'alx'ontological Bulletin, 30, p. 15, Proceed. Amer. Phil. Sue. lor November, 
187S. 



198 General Notes. [March, 

writes to Mr. Lesquereux to this effect in regard to the fossil 
plants of the Laramie group : 

" I do not cease reviewing and studying your last magnificent 
publications which have given to phytopaleontology an immense 
forward impetus. ' Par lesquelles vous avez faite faire un pas im- 
mense a la paleophytologie.' You ask me to express my opinion 
on the age of your flora of the lignitic. It seems to me impossi- 
ble that one can see in it anything else than a tertiary flora, unless 
one wishes to reverse all the data acquired by science until now. 
I consider this flora just as you do, as truly (franchement) eocene, 
not even pliocene, perhaps contemporaneous with Mt. Bolca or 
eocene, possibly a little more recent. It is very possible that in 
marine strata, intermediate to the land or lignitic deposits, one 
may find remains of cretaceous animals. It has been observed 
already many times that the modification to which the inhabitants 
of the land have been subjected, do not accord with those exhib- 
ited by the inhabitants of the sea. These are very often back- 
ward in their development, and this is quite natural from the 
slower action of the climate or climatic influence upon the in- 
habitants of the sea than upon those of the land. The facies of 
your lignitic vegetation is tertiary ; it is impossible to change that. 
Messrs. the geologists have to decide as they may find proper." 
of a Solid Hydrocarbon in the 
Jersey.— Mr. I. C. Russell states that 
associated with the sheet of trap rock known as the First Newark 
Mountain, which traverses the central portion of the Triassic 
formation of New Jersey, there occurs near Plainfield, at an 
abandoned copper mine on the western slope of the mountain — 
the upper surface of the trap sheet — an amygdaloid trap passing 
into a metamorphosed shale. In this region it is frequently 
impossible to distinguish in small exposures the genuine trap 
from the metamorphosed shales that rest in contact with it. 
Many of the cavities in the amygdaloidal rock are filled with a 
brilliant jet black carbonaceous mineral resembling very closely 
the albertite of New Brunswick. These cavities are frequently 
tubular in shape having a length of three or four inches and 
usually a diameter of about a quarter of an inch. Sometimes 
these tubes were lined throughout by infiltration, with a coating 
of quartz or calcite a line or two in thickness, before the carbon- 
aceous material was introduced. Above the amygdaloid is found 
a metamorphosed shale which still retains its bedded structure, 
and in places presents something of the usual reddish color of the 
unaltered shales. This altered rock is traversed in various direc- 
tions by seams and fissures, which are frequently filled with the 
same albertite-like mineral. Resting upon these metamorphosed 
beds occur slates, shales and sandstones, which contain fossil 
fishes and a considerable abundance of obscure vegetable remains. 
It seems evident that these organic bodies furnished by their 



1 879.] Geography and Travels, 199 

decomposition the carbonaceous material in the associated rocks. 
The heat derived from the slowly cooling injected rocks may 
have played an important part in this process. 

The mineral whose geological occurrence we have thus 
described, gives, when subjected to chemical tests, almost pre- 
cisely the same reactions as albertite. It is insoluble in heated 
acids and alkalies, and is but sparingly if at all soluble in alcohol, 
ether or oil of turpentine. Like albertite, also, it is infusible, but 
softens by heat and burns with a yellow flame, emitting an agree- 
able odor. It gives when incinerated a little less than 0.10 per 
cent, of ash. — Amer. your. Sci. and Arts, August. 

The Hudson River Group at Poughkeepsie.— As the result 
of the examination of the Hudson River region by Profs. Logan 
and Hall, these gentlemen traced the " Hudson River Group" as 
far as Rhineback, and gave that as its eastern boundary. At a 
June meeting of the Poughkeepsie Society of Natural Science, 
Prof. T. Nelson Dale (who has temporarily occupied the chair of 
geology at Vassar College) reported the occurrence of fossils in 
situ in the college grounds. The specimens shown and presented 
by him to the society were Leptmia sericea, an Orthis (undeter- 
mined) and some fragments of Encrinites. A few days ago Prof. 
Dale and the secretary of the Poughkeepsie Society of Natural 
Science, Dr. E. H. Parker, made a careful examination of the rocks 
on the west side of the river, opposite Poughkeepsie, and about 
a mile back, and were fortunate enough to discover large quantities 
of the same species of Brachiopods as those mentioned above, as 
well as some excellent specimens of what appear to be Fucoids, 
and similar to what Dana figures as Buthotrephis. This discov- 
ery would seem to show that the " Hudson River Group" extends 
perhaps as far as the Highlands. — W. R. Gerard. 



GEOGRAPHY AND T . 

American Geographical Society. President's Annual Ad- 
dress. — At the meeting of this Society held in New York, Feb- 
ruary 11, 1879, the President, Chief Justice Daly, delivered his 
annual address in which, instead of giving the usual summary 
of the progress of geographical exploration and research during 
the past year, he chose as his subject, " The History of Cartog- 
raphy, or the Progress of the Art of Map-making from the Earli- 
est Times to those of Mercator." Cartographic Art, he stated, is 
probably as old or older than the invention of the alphabet, and 
has been found in use among races who had had no previous con- 
tact with civilized man nor any written language. The Esqui- 
maux understood the charts of Parry and Ross and even extended 
lines of coast unknown to the explorers. The North American 
Indians have always had maps which were serviceable to them. 

1 Edited by Ellis H. Yarnai.l, Philadelphia. 



200 General Notes. [March, 

The earliest thing known in the nature of a map is the ground 
plan of a town identified as that of Susa, the Shushan of the 
Bible, a city of remote antiquity. The plan is supposed to be as 
old as the seventh century before Christ and represents with mi- 
nute accuracy the details of the town. The Egyptians doubtless 
had maps and some general idea of the form of the earth. It is 
from the Greeks that we get our earliest knowledge of maps. 
Strabo says that Anaximander (B. C. 612) was the first who re- 
presented the world on a map. Parmenides, a contemporary of 
Herodotus, is said by Diogenes Laertes to have been the first per- 
son who asserted that the earth was of a spherical form and the 
same idea was entertained by Socrates. Strabo credits Parmen- 
ides also with having been the first to divide the globe into five 
zones, or, as they were then called, climates. Aristotle, half a 
century afterward, was convinced that the earth was a globe, 
drawing that conclusion from the shadow which it casts on the 
sun in eclipses. Crates (B. C. 325) constructed a globe of the 
inhabited part of the earth — from the arctic to the tropic in the 
form of a half circle. Dicearchus (B. C. 296) constructed a map 
of the world in oval form. With Eratosthenes (220 B. C.) the 
science of geography may be said to have begun. He devised 
what has ever since been employed as the most accurate means 
of determining the circumference cf the earth, the measurement 
of an arc of the meridian. Hipparchus, a century later, first 
divided the globe by lines of longitude and latitude into degrees. 
Ptolemy of Alexandria (A. D. 250) is one of the best known of 

imm.d It in'TV o, , M mi'^'of Py'u-. ^Tlic'u o.kscof 'Eratos- 
thenes, Hipparchus and Marinus have perished, and the geogra- 
phies of Strabo, Pompom' us Mela and Ptolemy are the only 
important works of the ancients that have come down to us. A 
period of 1 200 years elapses from the time of Ptolemy to the 
inauguration by Prince Henry of Portugal of the spirit of mari- 
time enterprise which led to the circumnavigation of Africa and 
the discovery of the continent of America. This includes the 
period of the Dark Ages. The Arabs from the ninth to the 
thirteenth centuries, however, assiduously cultivated geography. 
To them we owe the preservation of the works of Ptolemy. They 
determined the obliquity of the ecliptic and measured two arcs of 
the meridian. Through their intercourse with China the west- 
ern world probably learned of the mariner's compass. The 
Chinese also had maps from a verv remote period. 

After the journeys of Marco Polo and Cademostra in the fif- 

cuted. On that of Benewitx ( [52 L-4X , the name "America " first 
appears. The last and greatest map is that of Gerard Krehmer, 
better known to the world by the Latinizing of his name as Mer- 
cator (1 569). His projection not only gave the world in one view, 



1 879.] Microscopy. 201 

but showed the most effectual way for a vessel to sail in a straight 
line over a curved surface and thereby solved what was before 
one of the most difficult problems of navigation. 

Obituary.— Dr. J. G. Kohl died at Bremen, his native city, 
October 28, 1878. He was born April 28, 1808. He was very 
widely known as the author of a very large number of geographi- 
cal works and books of travel. These include accounts of travels 
in Russia, Poland, Austria, Hungary.. Great Britain and Ireland, 
Denmark, Styria, the Alps, Netherlands, Dalmatia and Montene- 
gro, etc. He came to America in 1854, and spent four years in 
travel, of which he told in books on Canada and the north-western 
States and Territories. He also wrote several works and papers 
on the early history, folklore and maps of America. One of 
his latest productions, remarkable for its learning and research, 
was a history of the discovery and voyages made to Magellan 
Straits. 1 He made many friends when in this country, and was a 
member of several of our historical and scientific societies. 

Nicholas de Kanikoff, a Russian Orientalist, died near Paris on 
November 15, 1878. Born October 24, 1819, he at the age of 
twenty accompanied Gen. Perovski's unfortunate expedition to 
Khiva, and afterwards traveled much in Asia, especially in 
Bokhara, Persia (where he was Russian Consul General) and 
Afghanistan. He published ( 1 845) Bokhara, its Amir and its People, 
and (186 1) a Memoir on the Southern Part of Central Asia, for 
which the French Geographical Society gave him its gold medal. 
These and several other works are the source of much of our 
information concerning Central Asia. 

MICROSCOPY. 2 

New Microscopical Societies.— The Microscopical Society 
of Camden, N. J., was organized November 7, 1878, with eighteen 
members. Meetings are held on the first Thursday evening of 
every month, at the residences of members. The following are 
the officers for 1870 : President, Albert P. Brown, Ph. G. ; secre- 
tary and treasurer, Joseph L. De La Cour ; managers, Harry S. 
Fortiner, C. Henry Kain, Samuel S. Cochran; curator, Alfred 
W. Test. 

A Microscopical section of the Cincinnati Natural History So- 
ciety has been recently formed, with fifteen or twenty members. 
Meetings are held on the first Friday evening of each month, at 
the rooms of the Society, with good attendance and the promise 
of interesting and valuable work. 

The Rochester Microscopical Society was organized January 
27, 1879, with a membership of nearly forty persons. From 

1 Geschichte der Entdeckun.^ « < i un 1 SduiV.i! i, M ^ollan'- -tr;wse unci 

n Von I G. Kohl Zeits brifi der Ge- 
sellschaft fur Eni ) r ^ and 403. 

2 This department is edited by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. Y. 



202 Scientific Neivs. [March, 

the number of prominent microscopists in that vicinity, an active 
and successful society may be looked for. The first officers are 
as follows : President, Prof. S. A. Lattimore ; vice-president, C. 
C. Merriman; secretary, Dr. E. Line; treasurer, Dr. C. E. 
Rider. 

American Quarterly Microscopical Journal. — This new 
journal is published by Hitchcock and Wall, at No. 150 Nassau 
street, New York. The second number, just published, fully 
justifies the promise of the first, and establishes the Journal as a 
carefully edited and liberally published work, characterized by an 
abundance of elaborate memoirs upon microscopical subjects. 
Illustrations of a high grade are introduced when required. An 
able summary is also given of recent news and publications ; though 
it may be doubted whether the news as such, can be given in a 
quarterly with sufficient promptness to meet all the requirements 
of modern science. It only remains for those who use the micro- 
scope or study its revelations to decide whether they will render 
the new enterprise permanent by making it self-sustaining. A good 
subscription list is all that is required in addition to what the pro- 
prietors have already accomplished. 

Sale of a Microscopical Library. — The library of the late Jno. 
E. Gavitt is now being broken up, and catalogues of the books 
for sale can be obtained from his son, W. E. Gavitt, of Stockbridge, 
Mass. The library includes many rare and almost inaccessible 
works, which will be doubly valuable as mementos of one of the 
earliest American cultivators of Microscopy. Mr. Gavitt also 
possesses a very fine copper-plate portrait of old Anthony von 
Leeuwenhoek, which, though not specified in the catalogue, could 
probably be obtained by any one who would appreciate it at its 
real value. 

Spring Clips. — E. H. Hawley, of 102 Grove street, New 
Haven, Conn., has recently made spring clips for the use of several 
distinguished histologists. The clips are very light and neat, be- 
ing made of light steel wire, and having a leather disk instead of 
a cork to press on the cover. They can be bought for seventy- 
five cents per dozen. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
— We are sorry to learn that the Legislatures of Georgia and 
North Carolina have suspended the geological surveys of those 
States. This is much to be regretted, since both regions will 
amply repay to the people the small amounts heretofore expended 
on them, if only continued long enough to permit the results to 
be elaborated and published. These measures are a blow at the 
educational interests of those States which we had not looked for 
from so-called " reform " legislatures. 



1 879.] Scientific News. 203 

— A recent number of the Gold Hill (Nevada) News, says : 
" The artificial lake at the mouth of the Sutro Tunnel swarms 
with fish from three to four inches in length. They were planted 
in the lake by some Indians about fifteen months ago. They have 
increased at a wonderful rate, and there now appear to be millions 
of them. These fish are likely to find themselves in literally hot 
water when pumping from the flooded mines has been commenced." 

— We have received the fourth, fifth and sixth plates of Leuck- 
art and Nitsche's Zoologische Wandtafeln ; these diagrams illus- 
trating the structure of different types of the animal kingdom. 
Each diagram is a lithograph, costing in Germany from eighty pfg. 
to at most two marks. They are thus cheap, and on the whole 
most excellent, and will prove serviceable in schools and colleges. 
The present diagrams represent the Crustacea and the anatomy 
of the living crinoid Rhizocrimis. This is a most valuable dia- 
gram, and very cheap. The sixth represents the metamorphosis 
of the potato beetle, Doryphora xo-liih-nta, and is not particularly 
well done. One of the figures is not accurate, nor is the beetle 
sufficiently typical of the Coleoptera, to be selected as a subject 
for a diagram. They are published by Theodor Fischer, but can 
be imported, we suppose, through B. We^termann & Co., 524 
Broadway, N. Y., or any other importers of German books. 

— In the course of a couple hours' search last August, by Prof. 
A. S. Packard, Jr., and Mr. L. A. Lee, at the Fossil Fish Cut, 
Green river, Wyoming, the results of which were sent to Mr. 
S. H. Scudder for identification and description ; nearly fifty new 
species of insects were discovered, showing that these beds are 
much richer in fossil insects than formerly supposed ; nearly all the 
orders are represented ; among them a new dragon-fly, several 
grasshoppers, eight new Hymenoptera, two new Heteropterous 
Hemiptera, and eighteen Homopterous Hemiptera, nearly all new 
and determinable, fifteen new species of Coleoptera, and twenty new 
species of Diptera. Mr. Scudder is engaged upon a general work 
on the Tertiary insects of the West, to be richly illustrated. It 
will form one of the quarto reports of Hayden's U. S. Geological 
Survey of the Territories. 

— M. Lucien Lethierry, Lille, France, desires exchanges of 
Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera of the United States, 
for European species. 

— Mr. Richard Rathbun is now publishing in the Proceedings 
of the Boston Society of Natural History, a paper on the Devon- 
ian Brachiopoda of the province of Para, Brazil. This constitutes 
a complete list of the Devonian Brachiopods at present known 
from the lower Amazonian valley, with descriptions of several 

— A paper was recently read by Mr. B. B. Redding before the 



204 Scientific News. [March, 

California Academy of Sciences, on the desirability of the intro- 
duction and culture of the olive in California. From the evidence 
presented it would seem that in the olive we have a tree that 
can be grown on the dry plains and naked hillsides of California. 
In the Eastern hemisphere its limits of profitable cultivation are 
as far north as the South of France, and as far south as Cairo, in 
Egypt Wherever on the coast from San Diego to Monterey, 
and wherever in the interior of the State, within the limits of 
the temperature stated, there is an annual fall of rain sufficient to 
produce barley or wheat— on rocky hills and sandy plains, when 
once-rooted, this tree will thrive and bear. 

— A Wilmington, California, paper, reports among the novelties 
of that neighborhood, a lake on Dominguez's ranch containing a 
great number of trout; the lake was stocked by an overflow of 
the San Gabriel river last winter; some of these fish have reached 
a foot in length. The settlers in the vicinity are revelling in this 
acquisition to the ordinary bill of fare. 

— Mr. A. H. Curtiss, Jacksonville, Fla., has issued a second 
fascicle of 250 species and varieties of Floridan plants. Of most 
of the species enumerated he has specimens outside of his regular 
sets, as also of most northern plants, and if persons desiring a 
selection from them will make out a list of their desiderata (the 
numbers in Mann's Catalogue may be used) he will supply as 
many of them as possible at $ 10 per hundred. The fascicles 
will be forwarded from Cambridge upon receipt of the price, $20. 
The postage on packages or freight to New York or Boston will 
be paid by Mr. Curtiss. 

— The unusually cold winter in California is indicated by the 
movements of the wild animals, which have been driven from their 
usual haunts in the mountains to the lower lands in the immedi- 
ate neighborhood of the settlements. 

The mountain lions, so-called [Felts concolor), are reported as 
very bold in San Gorgonio and San Jacinto, San Bernardino 
county, since the recent storms ; in one instance intruding into 
the town of Banning in the night. In Carpenteria, Santa Bar- 
bara county, these animals made a descent upon a goat ranch and 
carried off sixteen Angora goats out of twenty-two ; quite a loss 
to the rancher, as the Angoras are valuable stock. Deer are 
plentiful in the vicinity of V'allecito, Calaveras county, the storms 
hem from their „ 

party of Indians killed nine 
rs in and about Lower Lake 
in Lake county, also complain of the depredations of the " gray 
eagles " on their young lambs. In other parts of the State the 
grizzlies are prowling uncomfortably close to the settlements. — R. 
A. C. S. 



■aper, th. 
The fai 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

American Geographical Society, Jan. 14th.— Major A. G. 
Constable lectured upon Afghanistan, the present seat of war, and 
the relations of that country to England and Russia. 

Feb. 11.— Chief-Justice Daly delivered his annual address, the 
subject being Cartography, the history of map-making previous 
to the time of Mercator. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Dec. 18. — Dr. II. 
Hagen made a communication on the carpet-beetle and other 
house and museum pests. 

Jan. 1, 1879. — Mr. L. S. Burbank remarked on a definite 

enclosures in the granite of Rollstone Hill, Fitchburg, Mass., and 
exhibited crystals and cut gems of yellow beryl from Fitchburg. 

Jan. 15— Prof. R. H. Richards remarked on' some optical phe- 
nomena seen at Lake Superior. Prof. N. S. Shaler spoke con- 
cerning the nriiditon Amygdaloids. 

Feb. 5. — Dr. S. Kneeland read a paper on the monstrous in 
art, or the relations of zoology to symbolism. Mr. W. O. Crosby 
remarked on the fossiliferous boulders of Cape Cod. Dr. T. 
Sterry Hunt referred to recent studies in Pre-Cambrian geology. 

Appalachian Mountain Club, Jan. 8. — At the election of 
officers for 1879, Prof. Charles E. Fay was elected president. Mr. 
Frederick A. Ober read a paper on his explorations in the Lesser 
Antilles (illustrated by stereopticon views). 

Feb. 12. — Mr. J. Raynor Edmands read a paper on the identi- 
fication of distant points, with a description bf Prof. Fernald's 
recent determination of the position of Mt. Katahdin, Me. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, December 17, 1878.— President, Ruschenberger, in the 
chair; Mr. Meehan made some remark- on the seeding of Catalpa, 
stating that terminal flowers only perfect seed. Mr. Ford from 
a perfect specimen of A'. /.■:.'■.« A melius suggested that the use 
of the siphon was to keep alive that part of the shell constituting 
the chambers. Mr. Ryder offered some observations on varia- 
tions in the number of toes of young Aniphiinnu-. suggesting that 
the two hitherto recognized genera were hardly yet differentiated 
from each other. 

December 31.— Dr. Ruschenberger in the chair. Dr. Koenig 
gave the results „f , m analysis of a new mineral substance which 
he proposed to call RamUtc, provisionally. In the election for 
officers to serve for the ensuing year, which occurred at this 



206 Proceedings oj Scientific Societies. [March, 

6th, aged 66 years. Messrs. Redfield, Rogers, and Leidy were 
appointed a committee to draft resolutions expressive of the 
Academy's esteem for Dr. Beadle. The annual reports of the 
Sections were then read and referred to the publication committee. 

January 14.— Dr. Ruschenberger in the chair. Mr. Redfield 
for the committee, offered a resolution regarding the death of Dr. 
Beadle, which was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. H. A. Kelly exhibited some handsome and perfect casts of 
batrachians taken from the animals themselves in gelatine molds. 
Mr. Ryder said he had recently observed that the jaws of herbi- 
vora were moved from without inwards, instead of the reverse, 
which threw new light upon the subject of the " mechanical gene- 
sis of tooth-forms." Dr. Leidy exhibited some lemons with a 
species of coccus or scale insect adhering to the rind, which he 
thought might become a serious pest in Florida, from whence the 
specimens were obtained. A letter accompanied with blanks, 
from Charles F. Folsom, was read by the President, requesting 
the cooperation of the members of the Society, in the collection 
of statistics relating to the subject of heredity. 

December 16th, 1878. — Biological and Microscopical Section, 
Dr. R. S. Kenderdine in the chair. Professor J. Gibbons Hunt 
delivered a very interesting lecture on the lichens. His remarks 
were beautifully illustrated by many fine specimens 'of his own 
preparation, demonstrating the minute structure of these simple 
plants, which are found everywhere encrusting rocks, stones, the , 
bark of trees, etc. A dish in which a large number of specimens 
were tastefully arranged by Professor Hunt under a bell-glass 
attracted much attention, forming as it did a display quite equal 
in beauty to the handsomest fernery. Speaking of their habitat, 
the speaker said that these, as well as many other interesting 
plants, were found in the greatest profusion and variety in the 
swamps of New Jersey, which he called the paradise of the bot- 
anist. After going briefly over the classification of these 
plants, the lecturer entered upon, their anatomy. The great 
interest and value of the study of these plants as a means of men- 
tal discipline, and their use in the arts of design, were also dwelt 
upon by the speaker. Mr. Lewis exhibited a specimen of a rare 
wheel animalcule of marvelous beauty belonging to the genus 
Stc/>/inii»ccnis from the vicinity of Philadelphia. 

Jan. 6.— Biological and Microscopical Section, Dr. R. S. Ken- 
derdine in the chair. Dr. Carl Seiler favored the society with a 
discussion of the leading facts of animal histology, the branch of 
science which has for its subject-matter the consideration of 
the various kinds of cells composing animal bodies. He con- 
sidered the classification of the living tissues according to their 
offices. These, he said, could be very simply and conveniently 
divided into three classes, as follows: — 1st, connective; 2d, epi- 
thelial ; and 3d, the nervous. 



1 879.] 207 

The speaker's remarks were illustrated by numerous beautiful 
microscopical objects prepared by himself, some of which showed 
as many as four different colors, each component part of the cells 
being of a different color, all of which had been accomplished by 
artificial means, though the process was comparatively a simple 
one. The great practical use of the study of histology and the 
comparative ease with which its main principles might be ac- 
quired, were dwelt upon, as well as the great facilities which were 
now offered to students owing to the mechanical and optical per- 



indicated more decidedly than ever the identity of animal and' 
vegetable protoplasm. In both the animal and vegetable cell the 
behavior of the central nucleus of the cell seemed to be quite the 
same ; as it elongated preparatory to division, it was seen to be 
composed of two opposite poles, from which very minute granules 



lines ,J granules co 


imected tin 


• pol 




The apr. 




:e was that 


presented by iron fi 










plate „f 
















fas! 




in the 




1 of a 


horseshoe magnet a 










It was 






that 


the process of cell- 


di\ 1 








netic pr- 


..cess. 


but 1 


t .was 


simply a resemblanc 


e u 


Inch w;i 


.s SU| 


_r._r,w 




een th 


e twe 


1 i')he- 


nomena. The curv 












the p< 




»f the 


cell-nucleus, m the 


















which mark the poii 




f division eq 


uato 


rially of 


the eel 


1 mt. 


1 two. 






t of the 






> at the 




les ot 


the nucleus has huh 


iced 


Fol to 


C 1*11 1 


t an 


amthia. 


to; ir.c 


•anmi 


I like 


two stars joined tog 


■ th. 


:r. The 






n of the 








pronucleus in the egg-c 








;idered,a 








produced previous t 


fei 


•tili/.atir 


>n. at 


leas 


t in the 1 


case ot 


' a sta 


r-fish 


and a small species 


of 




Many fi 












cert 


am reca 


mtly 


•disc 


overed j 


)hases 


Of CM 


nbry- 




















Mr. Lewis exhibit 


ed i 


1 fine liv 














the Lymnias. 



















2o8 Selected Articles in Scientific Serials. [March, 1879. 

SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

Mesozoic strata of Virginia, by W. M. Fontaine. Notices' of fifty 

species of east-coast fishes, by G. B. Goode and T. H. Bean. Age 
of the clay slates and grits of Poughkeepsie, by J. N. Dale, Jr. New 
order of extinct reptiles (Sauranodonta), from the Jurassic of the 

Rocky Mount. tin- ; principal characters of American Jurassic Di- 
nosaurs, by O. C. Marsh. Early Types of Insects, by S. H. 

February. — Has Lake Winnepeg discharged through the Min- 
nesota within the last two hundred years ? By J. E. Todd. The 
relation of secular rock-disintegration to loess, glacial drift and 
rock basins, by R. Pumpelly. 

Psyche. — September-December, 1878. Life history of Danais 
Archippus, .by T. L. Mead. Breeding habits of Callosamia pro- 
methea, by C. E. Webster. 

January, 1879.— The nervous system of Phylloxera, bv E. L. 
Mark. 

On the existence of a head-kidney in the embryo chick, and on 
certain points in the development of the Mull'erian duct, by F. 
M. Balfour and A. Sedgwick. Notes on some reticularian Rhiz- 
opodaofthe Challenger expedition, bv 11. B. Bradv. Researches 
on the Flagellate Infusoria and allied organisms, by O. Butschli. 
The morphology and systematic position of the Spongida, by F. 
M. Balfour. Flagellated organisms in the blood of healthy rats, 
by T. R. Lewis. 

The Geological Magazink.— December, 1878. On the occur- 
rence of a fossil tree in the Upper Silurian of Ohio, U. S., by E- 
W. Claypole. 

Zoologischer Axzeiger.— December 16. Voges, on the Mor- 
phology and anatomy of Julidae. 

Canadian Naturalist. — December 20th, 1878. Graptolites o\ 
the Niagara formation, by J. W. Spencer. On some marine in- 
\ ertebrata from the West Coast of North America, by J. F. Whit- 
Inlet, B. C, by A. E. Verrill. 

The Geogkahiicai. Magazine.— December, 1S78. The Bolan 
Pass (Map). Account of the Dutch Arctic Expedition, by one of 
the seamen. Voyages between Northern Europe and Siberia in 
1878. Darien Interoceanic Canal. (This Journal ceases to exist 
with tin's number.) 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. XIII. — APRIL, 1879. — No. 4. 
ANIMAL MUSIC, ITS NATURE AND ORIGIN. 

BY XENOS CLARK, B.S. 

THE songs of birds and the few other animals that sing, have 
almost exclusively been treated of in the world of sentiment, 
where poet- naturalists and nature-poets have culled a wealth of 
fancies that will endure as long as there is human emotion, but 
which count for little in the field of exact knowledge. They are 
choice reading; a kind of pleasure gardens. The purpose here is 
simply to bring together such songs as have been written in 
musical notation, and from this compilation to make whatever 
inductions may seem of scientific value to ornithologists, physiolo- 
gists, psychologists and theoretical musicians, whose studies touch 
this subject. 

The young bird acquires his song by traditional inheritance ; 
that is, each brood, endowed by physiological inheritance with a 
certain aptitude, learns, after long practice, by constantly hearing 
the song of its elders, the melody peculiar to that species, which 
is in turn similarly transmitted to the succeeding generation. In 
conclusive proof of this is the fact, that a young nestling reired 
by foster-parents of some other species will learn their song. 
Hon. Daines Barrington (i), 1 an early and discriminating observer, 
says, " I have educated nestling linnets under the three best sing- 
ing larks, the skylark, woodlark and titlark, every one of which, 
instead of the linnet's song, adhered entirely to that of their 
respective instructors." This process seems very decisive, for a 
titlark-linnet (a linnet educated by a titlark), well fixed in song, 
which he kept for three months with common linnets in full song, 
borrowed no passages, but adhered to the titlark melody. It 



210 Animal Music, its Nature and Origin. [April, 

is evident, therefore, ^hat birds acquire their songs as infants 
acquire a language, by instruction rather than by instinct ; and 
that those of the same species sing alike for the same reason that 
children of one nationality speak alike, viz: that their instructors 
have a common tongue. 

The next question is, how birds came originally by the notes 
which are peculiar to each species. Daines Barrington answers 
this also, saying substantially that scarcely any two birds of the 
same species sing exactly alike; there are, so to speak, " provincial 
dialects " in different districts, as well as individual mannerisms 
and defects. All these minor differences, continually renewed, 
will be imitated by the young birds, and passing from them to 
succeeding generations, will be perpetuated and grow to wider 
divergencies. The loss of a parent at the critical period, also, 
will compel the young bird to invent or copy from other birds, 
perhaps of different species. Had this explanation been thought 
out a hundred years later, in 1873, it would have been added that 
of all these variations sexual selection would perpetuate the 
most agreeable, so that, as Darwin says (11, p. 378), " It is not 
difficult to imagine the steps by which the notes of a bird, pri- 
marily used as a mere call, or for some other purpose, might 
have been improved into a melodious love song." 

The ultimate origin of melody is a more difficult problem. 
Darwin writes elsewhere (11, p. 569), " But if it be further asked 
why musical tones in a certain order and rhythm give man and 
other animals pleasure, we can no more give the reason than for the 
pleasantness of certain tastes and smells." I will attempt here to 
briefly answer this question, reserving at present the fuller state- 
ment of a theory, which, very strangely, has never before been 
hit upon, though Darwin in the paragraph preceding that just 
quoted, and Helmholtz (in, p. 553) have almost come upon it, 
and then passed by. 

A musical sound is compound in its structure, being really a 
group of simple tones heard simultaneously; in fact, a chord. 
This group is composed of a ground tone or fundamental, which 
predominates, and of a number of overtones, that decrease in 
intensity as they rise in pitch through a series of harmonic inter- 
vals. Thus between the ground-tone and over-tone No. 1 is the 
interval of an octave; between Nos. 1 and 2, of a fifth; between 
Nos. 2 and 3, of a fourth ; between Nos. 3 and 4, of a major 
third (see songs No. 1). These intervals, the octave, fifth, fourth 



1 879.] Animal Music, its Nature and Origin. 2 1 1 

and third, which thus occur in every musical sound we hear, and 
which existed as physical peculiarities of vibrating bodies long 
before any living being came upon the earth, are also at the basis 
of human and, I hope to show, extra-human melody. It is a 
very suggestive coincidence, too thorough-going to have occurred 
by chance. The thought at once arises that the peculiar, com- 
pound, harmonic structure of musical sounds (more accurately, 
of the vibrations which produce them) has in some way impressed 
itself upon the auditory mechanism ; so that melody, gradually 
growing under the guidance of the ear thus modified, has been 
moulded into a musical form similar to that possessed by the 
group of harmonically-related tones which we have seen to com- 
pose the sounds indicated. 

This seems very probable. For since each terminal nerve of 
the thousands in the cochlea responds to a given simple tone, the 
group of such tones forming a musical sound will excite a cor- 
responding group of nerves, which will of course be related 
amongst themselves as are the exciting tones amongst them- 
selves ; that is, they will be serially octaves, filths, fourths and 
thirds apart. Every nerve will, therefore, have always been 
stimulated in company with certain others, at harmonic intervals 
from it; and it is inevitable that the incessant and long continued 
repetition of this cooperate activity should have resulted in some 
anatomical or functional bond ; a pathway, as it were, leading 
from each member of the group to every other. The progress of 
any melody ivill he easiest along this harmonic pathzmiy, worn by 
the physical structure of sound. 

For this reason it seems to me, " musical tones in a certain 
order give man and other animals pleasure." 1 Take the case of 
some primitive bird of the type from which the various Insessores 
have diverged (singing birds belong chiefly to this Order). For 
innumerable years the harmonic structure of sound vibrations 
had been impressing itself upon the auditory mechanism of his 

tory units might be, into groups, and habituating the members of 
each group to concerted activity. He, in turn inheriting that 



212 Animal Wit !s Va i md Origin. [April, 

modified mechanism, began to sing, at first a single note. When 
this grew wearisome and for remedy the pitch was altered, true 
song arose. But the change of pitch could hardly have been at 
haptazard; the first note excited a nerve belonging to a certain 
coherent group, and it was a necessary alternative that the next 
note should excite some other nerve, either within or without 
that group. If within, the combination had occurred mil- 
lions of times ; if without, perhaps not once. I cannot doubt 
that the change was within the group; was harmonic; indeed the 
overtones of the first note had already slightly stimulated the 
related nerves, so that their faint tremor extended, as it were, an 
invitation to touch them more firmly. The invitation was fol- 
lowed, and then other similar ones, and finally the song grew 
harmonic, because it followed the easy, preestablished pathway, 
rising and falling octaves, fifths, fourths and thirds from one to 
another of the many-grouped nerves. He sang to please himself 
or his mate, and the most pleasing combination of notes was that 
most easily heard ; the combination producing least friction and se- 
curing the most economical action of the sound-receiving apparatus. 
In this brief exposition all details are neglected, and even 
inexactness admitted where rigorous truth of statement would 
consume too much space. The more technical treatment of the 
theory, if it can be called that, belongs to physiological acoustics, 
in which province many facts tend to its support. The further 
evidence that can be appropriately presented here, consists of 
certain statistical proofs gathered from the bird songs which 
occupy the last pages of this article, and it seems very con- 
There are four hundred and six intervals in the thirty-eight 
bird songs. Of these, all below the major third may be consid- 
ered as a " filling in " — material for runs, trills, etc.; they number 
one hundred and eighty-four. 

The major third and the intervals above it are the true pro- 
gressive steps followed by the bird's ear in the long leaps of his 
song; there are of these two hundred and twenty- two. The fol- 
lowing table will show the details : 



1879] Animal Music, its Nature and Origin. 213 

These results are as pregnant as they are simple. The perfect 
fifths, fourths, thirds and octaves have a marked predominance, 
their proportion of the whole number being respectively twenty- 
seven per cent., twenty-five per cent., twenty-six per cent, and nine 
per cent., or taken all four together, eighty-seven per cent, as 
against thirteen per cent, of the remaining five intervals. Nearly 
all the songs illustrate this pronounced harmonic character; that 
•of the song sparrow (Nos. 18-22), for example, in which the best 
intervals lie between the trills, is very good. Indeed, the very fact 
that various keys are selected in which to write bird songs is proof 
that they rest on the same basis as human music. And the 
immense preponderance of harmonic intervals seems sufficient 
answer to whatever may be said about the difficulties and possi- 
ble inaccuracies attendant on the writing of these songs. 

There are some curious observations on the singing of birds in 
concert which seem to show that they have an "ear for music." 
Daines Barrington (1) says that, as tested by trained ears, a dozen 
singing birds of different kinds in the same room made no dis- 
agreeable dissonance. And Mr. Augustus Fowler writes me that 
in a meadow where many red-winged black-birds are congregated, 
one may "hear their familiar notes pitched to the same key; not 
a discordant note is uttered because the intervals are thirds, fifths, 
etc." In a concert of male goldfinches, when they sing for an 
hour together, "although one may pitch his tune and commence 
singing, the others following, begin their tunes on the same pitch, 
and to an unpracticed ear, or to a casual observer, their notes 
seem discordant, when they are in perfect unison." 

What few songs of other animals than birds can be gathered, 
point even more strongly in the same direction. Darwin (11, p. 
567), speaking of the Hylobates agiiis, an ape allied to man, says, 
" This gibbon has an extremely loud but musical voice. Mr. 
Waterhouse states (xvi), ' It appeared to me that in ascending and 
descending the scale, the intervals were always exactly half-tones, 
and I am sure that the highest note was the exact octave to the 
lowest. The quality of the notes is very musical ; and I do not 
doubt that a good violinist would be able to give a correct idea 
of the gibbon's composition, excepting as regards its loudness.' 
Mr. Waterhouse then gives the notes. Prof. Owen, who is a 
musician, confirms the foregoing statf ment. This gibbon is not 
the only species in the genus which sings, for my son, Francis 
Darwin, attentively listened in the zoological gardens to //. leu- 



214 Animal Musk, its Naturi and Origin. [April, 

ciscus whilst singing a cadence of three notes, in true musical 
intervals and with a clear musical tone." 

The Rev. S. Lockwood writes in the American Naturalist 
(vi) of a most interesting singing mouse, Hcspcromys cognatus, 
and fortunately gives the music, written by his son (Song No. 39). 
He says, "Although she had no ear for time, yet she would keep 
to the key of B (two flats) and strictly in a major key. Her soft 
clear voice falls an octave with all the precision possible, then at. 
the wind up it rises again into a very quick trill on C sharp and 
D. When singing whilst turning in her wheel, and suddenly 
thrown on her back by its stoppage, as if in surprise, she would 
roll off four or five notes in a higher octave, and in a greatly 
increased loudness of voice.' 

In answer to some inquiries, Mr. Lockwood kindly writes me 
as follows : " Octaves, fifths and thirds were usually selected for 
the long intervals of Hesperomys 1 song. I have had and still 
have singing guinea pigs, Cavia cobaia. What is said of my 
Hesperomys is in the main true of the Cavia. There are other 
rodents that sing, Mits musculus, or house mouse ; the rat, Mus 
rattus\ the white-footed mouse, H 'csperomys leucopus ; the wood- 
chuck, Arctomys monax, and the squirrels." Recent numbers of 
Nature (vn) and the Popular Science Monthly (vm) contain brief 
accounts of singing mice. That in the former confirms some 
curious phenomena observed by Mr. Lockwood — the singing of 
an air with an accompaniment, and the influence of fright as well 
as joy in starting the song. 

It is doubtful whether true music is produced by any inverte- 
brates. There seems to be no provision in the ear for the exact 
discrimination of pitch, and the sounds are instrumental rather 
than vocal, being generally produced by stridulation. Some refer- 
ences, however, are given with the others to what has been writ- 
ten on this subject (xxn to xxvi, see also 11, pp. 274, 289, 301). 

For assistance in my work of collecting and studying animal 
songs I am much indebted, especially to Mr. Wilson Flagg, Prof. 
E. R. Sill, Dr. Elliott Coues, Rev. S. Lockwood, Mr. H. A. Pur- 
die, Mr. Robert Ridgway, Miss Alice Bacon, Mr. H. D. Minot and 
Dr. P? L. Hatch. It was necessary that the work should be 
largely one of compilation, for the material had never been 
brought together before. Thus the attempt has much of a 
pioneer character, and my chief hope is to direct attention to this 
important field of study, where acute observation is very much 



1 879.] Animal Music, its Xatitrc and Origin. 215 

needed ; for the comparative sciences hold the keys to all ques- 
tions of origin, and their method is simply the intelligent noting 
and collating of the facts of Nature. Allegiance to this method 
in the field of animal music has even at this early stage resulted 
in two encouraging starting points for future work — a statistical 
demonstration of the harmonic character of animal, especially 
bird, song; and a theory for the origin of melody, whether hu- 
man or extra-human, which besides the usual basis of physiologi- 
cal acoustics, employs the law of modified, inherited, selected and 
adapted structure, i. c, the law of evolution. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

, "Philosoph. Transact," 1773, p. 249. 
■' Applelon & Co., 1875, 2d ed. 
r Tone as a Physiological Basis for the 
Theory of Music,'' trans, by A. J. Ellis. London, 1875. 
IV. Tamo Sully, " Sensation ami Iutuiti .u." London, 1874, 71I1 essay. 

V. "Grant Allen, M. A., » Phy-doh -gical .lMhetics." London, 1S77. Hearing. 
VI. Rev. S. Lockwood, "A Singing Hesperomys," American Naitrai.is: . 

VII. "Singing Mice! ^Nature, Nov. 8, 1877, p. 29. 

■ 
IX. White's "Natural History of Selborne." 
X. Kircher, " Musurgia "—Notes of nightingale, quail and cuckoo. 

'■■■ 

of Nature," by Gardiner. London, 1832. 

Tart ford, 1853. 



>od, p. 189. 
XIV. John Blackwall, Mem. Lit. and Phil. 
iv, 1824, p. " 






in's " General Introduc. to Nat. Hist 



XVIII. Kennedy. >. Abhaiu- -v.//.), 1797- 1>- l6 9- 

XIX Su n /;,. f Xotizai H.s.w.), 1826, pp. I and 20. 

XX. Brefan 54. 9 6 » >8i. 

XXII 7 ' V" °" ''r ' '^ lS '' l 1 S 5< II S udler Amfrican N 

XXIII. "Steidn] 



ux, par M. F. Lescuyer. (Paris, J. V,. Bailiieu 
fisiologia e biologia zoologica inrapporte 




2. Lark, Engls 

3. Nightin 

4. Robin. 



5. Blackcap, -V. ,.-/>■/ 

6. Willow Warbler, 5t 

7. Yellow-Hammer, i 

8. Ring Plover. 

9. Peewill. 

10. Oystercatcher. 

11. Little Ring Plover. 

12. Whimbrel. 

13. Curlew. 



YiUurc rind Origin. [April, 

iiL-nla! C with its overtones (ill, p. 33). 

23. Peabody Bird, Fringilfa olHcoIlh- 

(This is a corrected song, sent me 
by Mr. Flagg.) 

24. Vireo — " The Brigadier." 

25. Wood Sparrow, Hirundo bicolor. 

26. Whippoorwill, Caprimul^h vocif- 



Chewink, FringiUa e> 


Vthrofhtha! 


Chickadee, Farm pah 


strh. 


Golden Robin, Itteru 


Baltimore. 


Green Warbler. Syh 




Quail, Ferdix Virginic 


na. 


Skylark (caged). Set 


t me by Mr 



33. Reed Warbler. 

34. Thrush. 

35. Blackbird. 

36. Baltimore Oriole. 

Harper* Mag., Sc 

37. Golden Oriole, On 



18". Song Sparrow, Joyful. 



39. Vesper Mouse, //\y 

40. Vesper Mouse, IFsj 



1 879.] Animal Musir, its Xaittn and Origin. 217 



OVERTONES OF C. 









-i:or;cz.- 



This Music can be had in regular sheet 
form {ten pages) by sending sixty cents to 
the publishers. 

McCALLA & STAVELY, 

237-9 Dock St., Phila. 






6. WILLOW WARBLER. 



1 879.] Animal Ma sir, its Nature and Origin. 217 

1. OVEETONES OF C. 




3. NIGHTINGALE. 




6. WILLOW WAEBLER. 



Animal Music, its Nature and Origin. [Api 



7. YELLOW HAMMER. 



8. KING PLOVER. 



^^^^^Mi 



9. PEEWILL. 



l^tliiil^iiS] 



10. OVSTl-n-CATClIK] 



^=M™pMi^^ 



11. LITTLE liINC iM.oYKk. 



12. WHTMBREL. 






13. CURLEW. 



1 879-] Animal Mu, 



14. DULIS 



£±££ £. 



j^^ga ^LUml-i[L-Tl 3 



U L - m j H <■ ! I l iteiHg 



16. a SOXG SPARROW. 



17. 6 BONG <l\\l«M;<m\ 



18. c SONG SPARROW. 



19. d song spai;i;ow. 



giii ':i 



Animal Music, its Nature and Ori. 
SOX<; SPARROW. 



21. / SONG SPARROW. 






22. $r SOXCi sparrow. 



23. PEABOPY BIRD. 



[^^ ^g^ ^l 



** s 






25. WOOD SPARROW. 



26. WHIPPOORWILL. 



m 



l8 79-] Animal Music, its Nature and Origin. 221 

27. CHEWINK. 

28. ' CHICKADEE. 

29. GOLDEN ROBIX. 

30. GREEN WARBLER. 

31. QUAIL. 

32. SKYLARK. 

Ej H^t^ H rlf rir riff I 



Animal Music, its Nature and Origin. [April 



REED WARBLER. 



iyciffCr i elfit££J35eeffcttfl r Cf r l g ca 




36. BALTIMORE ORTOLE. 



Animal Music, its Nature and Origin 



37. GOLDEN ORIOLE. 



IS 



38. CALIFORNIA MEADOAV LAK'K. 



f| : J^^^gj|i^pizgirJ^=PpI=== 



30. VESPEfi I 






ft f 1=-. 



40. VESPER MOT'SE.-OitAxn 

^' -'V'V'V'V'V^l - ! ' 






224 Artificial Mounds of the Island of Marajo, Brazil. [April, 

THE ARTIFICIAL MOUNDS OF THE ISLAND OF 

MARAJO, BRAZIL. 1 



Of all the localities in Brazil where the remains of ancient In- 
dian tribes have been found, the Island of Ma raj 6 is the most in- 
teresting to the archaeologist. Whether the race at this point was 
a superior one, or whether the conditions under which they lived 
were more favorable, it is certain that the ancient inhabitants of 
Marajo, or at least a portion of them, made greater advancement 
toward civilization than any other of the aboriginal tribes, having 
excelled in the arts those of every other part of Brazil, so far as 
we know to-day. In addition to shell -heaps and stone imple- 
ments, similar to those existing in nearly all the provinces of 
Brazil, there are found at Marajo antiquities whose characters are 
quite peculiar to that locality and indicate superiority. I refer to 
the artificial mounds and the objects they contain, of which I pro- 
pose to give a brief description. 

Marajo, like all the region about the mouth of the Amazonas, 
is very low, and excepting a small tract in the east, is so slightly '■ 
elevated above the level of the river, that in the winter it becomes 
changed into a large lake. Over all its expanse there is not a 
single natural elevation that might be called a hill, the portions 
not subject to overflow, being very gentle undulations of the sur- 
face, having a height of only a few metres above the surface of 
the water. As explained by its indefatigable explorer, Dr. S. 
Ferreira Penna, of Para, the island may be divided into two nearly 
equal parts; the western, covered with forests in which abounds 
the India rubber tree, and the eastern, consisting of plains. It 
is the eastern part that concerns us now. 

The plains being covered with a heavy growth of rich grass, 
constitute a good grazing ground, and are thus well suited to the 
raising of cattle, which is to-day almost their only industry. 

The farmers have, however, to contend with many difficulties, 
due in part to the structure of the island. Every year many 



1S79.] Artificial Mounds of the Island of Ma raj o, Brazil. 225 

cattle are drowned in the lowlands, or fall victims to the alliga- 
tors, and, from time to time, a more severe winter than usual de- 
prives them of fodder, and occasions severe losses. Another and 
more important inconvenience arises from the impossibility of re- 
taining in good condition a sufficient number of horses for farm 
work. Formerly horses thrived so well on the island that they 
came to take entire possession of the grazing grounds, forming a. 
serious impediment to the industry of cattle-raising, and about 
forty years ago the farmers killed them by thousands for the sake 
of their hides. To-day horses are so expensive and their preser- 
vation so difficult that they are only in use where it is absolutely 
impossible to dispense with them. For ordinary service, and even 
for traveling, oxen are used, and, upon one occasion, I witnessed 
a troop of horses being driven to their enclosure by herdsmen 
mounted on oxen. 

Near the centre of the island, in the midst of the plains, is a 
lake called Arary, out of which flows a river bearing the same 
name. Other important rivers are, the Igarape-grande, which 
empties at the south-east part of the island, and the Anajus, which 
rises a little to the west of lake Arary, and, crossing the forests 
of the western side, receives, before leaving the plains, the tribu- 
taries Camutins and Mocoes. On the margins of all these rivers 
artificial mounds exist, but only those of lake Arary and the Ca- 
mutins have been examined. Those which I shall now describe 
may be taken as types. 

The best known mound is situated by the side of lake Arary, 
and in the winter becomes transformed into an island called the 
Island of Pacoval. In shape it is nearly oval, having a length of 
one hundred and fifty metres, a breadth of seventy metres, and a 
height of five metres above the water of the winter's overflow, 
which covers all the neighborhood for many miles around. 

On one side of the island, exposed to the action of the waves, 
is a small cliff, in which the structure of the mound is displayed, 
and where it is seen that even to its base the earth is filled with 
pottery and ashes, proving the artificial origin of the mound. 
The waves have excavated very extensively into it, and the beach 
below is covered with the fragments of pottery. The mound 
being thickly wooded, the objects lying near the surface have 
been much broken up by the roots of the trees, but at a greater 
depth they are preserved in perfect condition. Several other lo- 



226 Artificial Mounds of the Island of Marajb, Brazil. [April, 

calities on the shores of the lake have yielded a similar kind of 
pottery, but these places have not been investigated. 

About six or seven leagues to the west of Arary, on the banks 
of the Camutins, there exists another well-known group of mounds, 
and a league farther are over fifteen others of large and small size. 
The plain is here also very low and subject to inundations, the 
greatest natural elevations not rising more than one or two metres 
aoove the water during the rainy season. A narrow strip of for- 
est usually borders the margin of the- river where the mounds, 
also wooded, are generally encountered ; there are, however, 
other mounds situated upon the plain. The principal mound of 
the Camutins, known by the same name, is a veritable hill, having 
a height of fifteen metres above the plain, and with its sides so 
steeply inclined as to render their ascent on horse-back quite dif- 
ficult. The outline of the mound is elliptical, its length being 
two hundred and ten metres, and its breadth at the base about 
eighty metres; but at the summit it is much narrower. The sides 
are furrowed by the rain which commences to excavate in holes 
made for the purpose of procuring iguacabas, which are in great 
demand as receptacles for farinha. In these furrows the earth is 
seen to be full of pottery and ashes as at Pacoval. As a stronger 
evidence of the artificial origin of the mound there is found near 
it a large excavation, similar to those sometimes formed in rail- 
road grading, and from which, without doubt was obtained the 
material for constructing the mounds. This excavation is on the 
opposite side of the river, and near it is another mound almost 
equal in size to that of Camutins. A few hundred metres below 
the mound of Camutins, on the same side of the river, is a third 
mound of less height, but broader and probably longer. This 
last is situated in a bend of the river, being surrounded by water 
on three sides. 

These three mounds all extend in different directions, indi- 
cating that their position is without significance. They all have a 
more or less elliptical or oval form, but this seems to have been 
accidental, as there is no evidence that they were constructed ac- 
cording to any definite plan. It is quite different with the North 
American mounds, which in other respects closely resemble those 
of Brazil. In the former country they often assume the outline of 
a geometrical figure or of some animal. 

According to the statements of the inhabitants there are in the 



1 879.] Artificial Mounds of the Island of Marajo, Brazil. 227 

upper part of the river ten or twelve mounds of smaller size than 
the above. Still others exist on the margins of the Anajus, 
Mocoes and Igarape-grande, and also in various parts of the plains, 
distant from any river. 

From what has been said it is evident that the mounds of Ma- 
rajo were the work of man, and that too of an exceedingly indus- 
trious race. For what purpose were they built — for defense, as 
dwelling places, or as cemeteries for the dead ? They were prob- 
ably intended for all these. They were primarily localities for living 
upon, elevated as much to escape inundation as to afford a better 
means of defense against enemies. That they were also used for 
interment is proved by the number of burial urns with skeletons 
which they contain. The remains of fire and of an abundance of 
pottery for domestic use indicate as well that they were places of 
habitation. It is likely that they were the sites of fortified vil- 
lages, occupied by a tribe holding to the custom, so common 
among Brazilian Indians, of burying the dead inside the house. 

I will now pass to a consideration of the objects found in the 
mounds ; these consist of stone implements and pottery. The 
former are not common and do not differ notably in shape from 
those of other localities; they are well polished and made of 
diorite, a kind of stone which is not found on Marajo, nor at 
any near locality on the main-land. 

Pottery exists in the greatest abundance, and is as noteworthy 
for its superior make as for the beauty and perfection of form and 
ornamentation which it displays. Of the majority of objects 
made by prehistoric man, it may be said that they are curious and 
interesting, but devoid of taste ; that is, they do not gratify our 
tastes, perfected and purified by centuries of culture and art. 
Among the vases of Marajo, however, are some that compare 
very favorably with those of the ancient Greeks and Etruscans 
in symmetry and elegance of form, as well as in the relief and 
high grade of their decorations. The ancient inhabitants of 
Marajo were truly masters in ceramic art. 

Considering that the aboriginal mode of making an earthen- 
ware pot was to coil up a long strip of clay — and of this fact we 
have ample proof in the mounds we are describing—it is won- 
derful to behold a pot thus constructed, measuring almost a 
metre in diameter, made perfectly symmetrical. This, together 
with the regularity and perfection of the lines of ornament, 



228 Artificial Mounds of the Island of Marajo, Brazil. [April , 

demonstrates the great experience and culture of the maker. 
The ornaments encountered are naturally divided into three 
classes — those in relief, the engraved and the painted. The first 
kind is found upon idols and trinkets, and upon the sides of 
vessels, often forming handles by which they can be lifted. They 
are made by the hand, of soft clay, and generally rudely represent 
the human figure or that of some animal. 

The engraved and painted ornaments, however, very seldom 
represent natural objects, and when they do, it is in a very con- 
ventional way, rendering it difficult to interpret them. They are 
usually of a purely aesthetic character, and include the fret, the 
cross and other styles very well known in art. 

From some of the primitive forms has been worked outan exceed- 
ingly interesting series of modifications, from which arises the 
greatest value of the antiquities of Marajo. It is evident that we 
have there vestiges of a savage race that had entered upon the 
first rudiments of art, and advanced so little that it is possible 
now from their relics to trace each step in the early development 
of art. As the study of embryology has solved many difficult 
questions in zoology, so has the study of art here in the embryo 
explained important points in the general history of art. 

Prof. Hartt has thoroughly investigated this subject, and has 
arrived at very important conclusions regarding it. A single 
example will serve to explain the importance of this study. 
Ruskin and others have proved that many of the complex designs 
of architecture and the other arts are evolved from the fret, but 
no one has carried the analysis farther. Now the pottery of 
Marajo comes in to complete the series, by showing that this fret 
originated from straight lines, which the savage, like a child, uses 
in his first attempts at ornamenting. 

I am unable within the limits of this paper to discuss this 
exceedingly interesting subject further. It simply remains for 
me to add a few words respecting the uses of these various 
objects, that an idea may be obtained of the customs and the 
mode of thought of this ancient people. Some of the objects 
were doubtless idols, and indicate a form of religious belief to 
have existed among them ; others seem to be trinkets or objects 
made as pastimes ; others ornaments for the dress or person ; 
while others still were articles of domestic use, and even these 
last were carefully ornamented. Finally, the largest and most 
elaborate of all were burial urns, sometimes of broad dimensions, 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 229 

but always so constricted at the mouth as to admit only disjointed 
bones, deprived of their flesh. In these are encountered human 
remains, unfortunately, however, so reduced to powder that it is 
impossible to determine the physical characters of the race. 

In conclusion, I can safely affirm, that even to-day it is very 
hard to find on the Amazonas proofs of greater industry than that 
furnished by these mounds, or a higher appreciation of the beau- 
tiful than is manifested by the ornamentation of the pottery of 
the ancient Inhabitants of Marajo. 



MINERAL pitch and the most of the native bitumens have 
been known from very early times. Among the ancient 
writers we find many statements indicating not only a knowledge 
but a practical use of these substances; and it is known that 
asphaltum was applied to architectural purposes more than four 
thousand years ago. That this substance was held in high esti- 
mation may be inferred from its being ranked by these writers 
among the b rials of those ages, and from its 

application to structures requiring great solidity and permanence. 

It is mentioned at several places in the Bible under the names 
of slime and pitch: Noah, in building the ark, being commanded 
to "pitch it within and without with pitch," while we read that the 
bulrush ark of the infant Moses was " daubed with slime and with 
pitch." Herodotus says it was used as a cement in building the 
strong walls of Babylon, large quantities being brought down 
to the Euphrates by the small river Is. These fountains of 
Is, celebrated as having attracted the attention of Alexander the 
Great, Trojan and Julian, still continue to pour out inexhaustible 
supplies. The same author describes the mode of obtaining solid 
bitumen and petroleum from a spring near Anderica, on one of 
the Ionian islands, and of separating them from each other and 
from foreign substances. This spring is flowing there to-day. 

Diodorus Siculus and Josephus noticed the bitumen of the 

for the purpose of embalming bodies, which it preserved from 
putrefaction. 



230 Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April, 

In their structures, the Romans directed much attention to 
solidity and permanence, and of course endeavored to select 
what were considered the most useful and durable materials. 
That these materials were often good is shown by the state of 
preservation of many of their works, and by the fact that their 
cement is scarcely equaled by any of modern time ; and yet 
Vitruvius, a celebrated architect of the age of Augustus, speaks 
of bitumen as superior to every other kind of cement, and regrets 
its scarcity. 

Notwithstanding the long time that native bitumens have been 
known, it is only within the present century that they have come 
to be extensively employed in the arts ; and that geologists and 
chemists have reached definite conclusions concerning their origin, 
modes of occurrence, properties and relations. The prevalent 
notion that these substances are of rare and limited occurrence is 
entirely erroneous, for, as I shall presently show, the bitumens, 
taken as a class, are very widely and abundantly diffused through 
the crust of the earth. They are found in every quarter of the 
globe, and in every geological formation from the Cambrian to 
the present time. Their occasional association with what appear 
to be igneous rocks, has led some writers to infer that in their 
origin they are in some way connected with volcanic action. An 
explanation which, as Canon Kingsley has remarked, " savors 
somewhat of a ' bull ;' for what a volcano could do to pitch, save 
to burn it up into coke and gases, it is difficult to see." When, 
as undoubtedly sometimes happens, the bore of a volcano passes 
through sedimentary stiata holding bitumen or bituminous coal, 
it is easy to see how the connection of these substances with 
volcanic products may arise. But be their associations what they 
may, it has been definitely settled that in their origin the bitu- 
mens, like the coals, are always strictly organic. In every case 
they are the more or less transformed tissues of plants or 
animals. 

Under the general name of bitumen are included both the 
liquid forms, petroleum and naphtha, and the solid varieties such 
as asphalt. Chemically considered, the bitumens are hydrocarbons 
the average composition being represented by the general 
formula C n H^. The so-called bituminous coals, which, how- 
ever, are destitute of true bitumen, are likewise hydrocarbons. 
These are distinguished from the bitumens by their smaller 
hydrogen ratio, analysis affording the general formula C n H 2? , and 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 23 1 

by the important facts that unlike many of the bitumens they are 
not liquid at ordinary temperatures, and unlike all the solid bitu- 
mens, are incapable of assuming the liquid state on the applica- 
tion of heat. The coals partake in a large degree of the nature 
of their chief constituent element, carbon, the most thoroughly 
solid substance known, distinguishing, as we should, solidity from 
density. In their entire insolubility, again, the coals are strongly 
contrasted with the bitumens, the latter class being all more or 
less soluble in liquids like benzole, sulphide of carbon, oil of tur- 
pentine and ether; and the less fluid bitumens, as asphalt, dis- 
solving in the more fluid, naphtha-like, varieties. 

Notwithstanding the general distinctness of these two great 
classes of native hydrocarbons, there is a point where they are not 
easijy separated. Among the bitumens there are different degrees of 
fusibility and solubility, and a concomitant variation of the 
hydrogen ratio, presenting a regular gradation as we pass from 
naphtha with the maximum solubility and fusibility, and the 
largest proportion of hydrogen, through petroleum, mineral tar, 
and the various asphalts to idrialite, which, having the composi- 
tion of bituminous coal, is fusible with difficulty, and only slightly 
soluble. From idrialite the passage is easy to true bituminous 
coal, and from this, as is well known, to anthracite. So that, as 
Dr. T. Sterry Hunt has stated it, "Anthracite or nearly pure car- 
bon, on the one hand, and petroleum and naphtha, or carbon with 
a maximum of hydrogen, on the other, represent the two extremes 
of a series of which bituminous coals and asphalts are interme- 

Following is a list of the more important members of this 
series, with their formulas, which have been calculated for twenty- 
four equivalents of carbon, to compare with the chief 1 
of wood, cellulose : 

Cellulose C 24 H 40 O a 

* a ' ,h ; ha 1 c,h m 



<-•„ 1T O.3 



232 Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April, 

A little study of these figures will make it clear that all these 
different hydrocarbons may be produced, theoretically at least, by 
removing from cellulose, which represents all woody matter, vari- 
able proportions of carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ), marsh gas (CH 4 \ 
and water (H 2 0); and this is, in many cases, the course that nature 
pursues. Under ordinary conditions decaying wood is attacked 
by the oxygen of the air and burned up to carbonic anhydride, 
water and ashes as completely as if thrown into a furnace; but if 
kept out of contact with the atmosphere, as when lying beneath 
the water and mud of a marsh, or buried in deposits of sand or 
clay, the wood is still subject to decomposition, though the decay 
is of a very different order and much less complete. The oxygen 
is the most active element of the wood, and the first to leave ; 
but it never goes alone, always taking with it some of the hydro- 
gen in the form of water, or of carbon as carbonic anhydride. 
Afterwards other portions of the carbon and hydrogen unite and 
make their escape as the inflammable gaseous substance known 
as marsh gas. The presence of this gas in most swamps and 
marshes attests that nature's laboratory for the manufacture of coal 
and bitumen is still in operation. Both these species of decom- 
position, whether in the air or out of it, go on much more rapidly 
in the presence of heat ; the first process being exemplified in 
every stove and furnace, and the second by the charcoal pit ; for 
anthracite, the ultimate product of slow decomposition out of 
contact with the air, is simply a mineral charcoal. 

A further inspection of our formulas will make it evident that 
to transform cellulose or wood into the average bitumen we must 
remove all the oxygen, some carbon and but little hydrogen ; 
while for the conversion of vegetable matter into coal, the oxygen 
is less completely removed, and the hydrogen suffers much greater 
loss than the carbon. In the one case the escaping volatile pro- 
ducts of the decomposition are mainly carbonic anhydride with 
some marsh gas ; and in the other case the loss has occurred 
chiefly in the form of water, the carbon remaining largely intact. 
This is an important difference, and one which would be more 
obvious if our series included all the varieties of coal. The fact 
is this series is not a very natural one after all. It represents 
fairly well the changes resulting in the production of the different 
bitumens, viz: a complete abstraction of the oxygen and a 
gradual diminution of the hydrogen; but the coals are generated 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 

by a gradual diminution of both elements, as the following 1 
will show, the formulas being still computed for comparison 
cellulose : 



1 to C 2l H 6 0. 5 

We are, then, to regard the coals and bitumens as forming two 
distinct but parallel series, in each of which there is an evident 
tendency to the reduction of organic matter to the state of pure 
carbon. Theoretically, at least, the final results, like the starting 
points, are chemically the same for the two series ; but they are 
reached by different roads. Graphite, which is essentially pure 
carbon, is the final term of the coal series, and it is not improb- 
able that diamond stands in the same relation to the bitumens, for 
Liebig has suggested that diamond is most probably formed by- 
crystallization of carbon from a liquid hydrocarbon. 

Oxygen and hydrogen exist in cellulose in the right propor- 
tions to form water, and the conversion of this substance into 
coal, as already stated, consists mainly in the union of these two 
elements. But we may now profitably notice some important 
observations of Principal Dawson, according to which we should 
no longer regard the ordinary vegetable fibre or cellulose com- 
posing the main body of plants as the principal source of coal, 
but certain epidermal tissues which differ from cellulose in being 
much poorer in oxygen. In other words, it is the bark mainly, 
and not the solid wood from which coal is formed. Dr. Hunt 
gives the composition of cork, which is a bark, as Q, H 37 7 . 
These cortical tissues, Dawson says, "are very little liable to 
decay, and resist, more than most other vegetable matters, aqueous 
infiltration, properties which have ' caused them to remain 
unchanged and resist the penetration of mineral substances more 
than other vegetable tissues. These qualities arc well seen in the 
bark of our American white birch (Betu/a alba). It is no wonder 
that materials of this kind should constitute considerable portions 
of such vegetable accumulations as the beds of coal, and that 
when present in large proportion they should afford richly bitu- 
minous beds. All this agrees with the fact apparent on examina- 



234 Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April 



, that the greater number of its purest layers 
consist ok the flattened bark of the sigillariae and similar trees, 
just as any single flattened trunk imbedded in shale becomes a 
layer of pure coal. It also agrees with the fact that other layers 
of coal, and also the cannels and earthy coals, appear under the 
microscope to consist of finely comminuted particles, principally 
of epidermal tissues, not only of the fruits and spore- cases of 
plants, but also of their leaves and stems." 

Every one, I think, must have observed, at some time, decaying 
logs, or better, stumps, of which little or nothing remains but a 
cylinder of bark, and this is apparently little altered. Dawson 
has found such hollow stumps in the coal formation, with abun- 
dant evidence that they had been the homes of animals, such as 
insects and reptiles. Such phenomena are the best illustrations 
of the superior resistance which this class of vegetable tissues 
offers to atmospheric action, a resistance undoubtedly due to the 
small proportion of oxygen which they contain ; their composi- 
tion, as Dr. Hunt has pointed out, approaching closer to resins 
and fats than to wood, and, " like these substances, they repel 
water, with which they are not easily moistened." 

We have now traced to their origin in the vegetable kingdom 
all of the coals, so far as known, and many of the true bitumens. 
The notion is rapidly gaining ground among geologists, however, 
that the bitumens, especially the lighter and more fluid forms, 
such as petroleum and naphtha, are largely of animal origin. 
This view, for the development of which we are mainly indebted 
to Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, is based upon the following general con- 
siderations : (i) Animal tissues, the average chemical composi- 
tion, but not the molecular structure, of which may be represented 
by the formula C^ H^ N 6 4 , approaches even more nearly than 
epidermal vegetable tissues to the composition of bitumens. (2) 
Although, as a rule, eminently unstable compounds, subject, 
under ordinary circumstances, to rapid and complete decomposi- 
tion ; yet we have good reason to believe that there are vast 
regions where the conditions are not only favorable for, but must 
necessitate, that slow and partial decay resulting in the formation 
of bituminous substances. The regions referred to are the depths 
of the ocean. Recent researches have shown, contrary to the old 
idea, that the deep sea holds an abundant fauna. All grades 
of animal life, from the highest to the lowest, have need 



1879] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 235 

of a constant supply of oxygen. Now on the land, vegetation is 
constantly returning to the air the oxygen consumed by animals, 
but in the abysses of the ocean vegetable life is scarce or wanting, 
and hence it must result that over these greater than continental 
areas countless myriads of animals are living habitually on short 
rations of oxygen, and in water well charged with carbonic anhy- 
dride, the product of animal respiration. As a consequence, 
when these animals die their tissues do not find the oxygen 
essential for their perfect decomposition, and in the course of 
time become buried, in a half decayed state, in the ever increasing 
sediments of the ocean floor. The same thing must happen to 
animals living in higher bathymetric zones, all the way to the 
surface, whose bodies sink to the bottom after death ; they yield 
a little ammonia and carbonic anhydride, and then pass into the 
comparatively stable condition of a liquid or solid bitumen. 
During the lapse of ages these sediments, rich in organic matter, 
will be consolidated into limestones and slates, and at a later 
period may be elevated to form new land; a process which has 
been many times repeated in the past. (3) For, as geologists 
well know, rocks corresponding to those just described are of 
very frequent and extensive occurrence among the formations 
now exposed to their observation. 

Petroleum is usually associated with salt, the same well often 
affording both oil and a strong brine ; a fact very suggestive of 
the marine origin of the petroleum. While the disagreeable 
smell of some oleiferous limestones is probably due, as remarked 
by Newberry, to the animal origin of the oil. 

The capability which the so-called bituminous coals possess of 
yielding, by a process known to chemists as destructive distilla- 
tion, various liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons, some of which 
resemble petroleum, a property common to most substances of 
organic origin, has not only led to their being erroneously 
regarded as bituminiferous, but many geologists have inferred 
that we have here a clew to the origin of the vast reservoirs of 
petroleum known to exist in this and other countries, and which 
have of late years been tapped with such astonishing results. 
Anthracite is undoubtedly a species of natural coke, produced 

general mode of occurrence and geological relations prove this. 
But is nature's mode of making coke strictly analogous to what 



236 Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April, 

goes on in the retorts of the gas works? Probably not. We 
have every reason to believe that the natural process is a very 
gradual one, and that the volatile products are all gaseous. In 
every bituminous coal mine in the world the two permanent gases, 
carbonic anhydride and marsh gas — the deadly choke-damp and 
fire-damp of the miners, are constantly escaping from the coal, 
but unaccompanied by any oily, petroleum-like liquid. This 
action, sufficiently long continued, must result in the production 
of anthracite, and that it has so resulted is evidenced by the fact 
that the rocks lying above the great deposits of anthracite are 
quite free from the liquid bitumens we should otherwise expect 
to find there. The fact is, that in Pennsylvania the anthracite is 
in one end of the State and the petroleum in the other; and, 
moreover, the petroleum is obtained from a formation below the 
Carboniferous, to which the coal belongs. Its origin is some- 
times referred to the carbonaceous shales or pyroschists of the 
underlying Hamilton beds; but these, like the coals, are found, 
on examination, not to contain any bitumen, and like the bitu- 
minous coals, they still retain perfectly the power of yielding 
bitumens when sufficiently heated. Beyond the limits of Penn- 
sylvania the general facts are the same, and nowhere is there any 
evidence proving a connection of the petroleum with the coals or 
pyrochists. Petroleum is generally obtained from wells sunk in 
sandstone or slate. In some cases it is probably indigenous in 
these, but usually it has been forced up by hydrostatic pressure 
or sponge-like absorption from oleiferous limestones. There are 
several extensive formations of these limestones in Eastern North 
America, and geologists are only beginning to appreciate their 
abundance and richness. The oil is found filling the pores and 
cavities of fossil shells and corals, and saturating the entire sub- 
stance of the limestone, the evidence being plain that it is indig- 
enous in this position and has not been introduced into the lime- 
stone subsequent to the formation of the latter. Dr. Hunt has 
made a quantitative determination of the petroleum in a lime- 
stone of Niagara age occurring near Chicago, with the following 
almost incredible result : Although the formation has a thickness 
of only thirty-five feet, yet in each square mile it must contain 
not less than " seven and three quarter millions of barrels of 
petroleum." He says further, " The total produce of the great 
Pennsylvania oil region for the ten years from i860 to 1870 is 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 237 

estimated at twenty-eight millions of barrels of petroleum, or less 
than would be contained in four square miles of the oil-bearing 
limestone formation of Chicago." 

As a rule limestone is too massive and close grained to permit 
the oil to flow freely through it to supply wells sunk in this rock ; 
but overlying sandstones gradually soak up the oil, and its accu- 
mulation along the crests of anticlinal arches in the latter rock is 
due to the presence of water in the strata, which, being the 
heavier liquid, forces the oil to the top. The richest wells are 
those which tap large bodies of oil contained in the great fissures 
and cavities which, as geologists well know, usually accompany 
an anticlinal fold of the strata. Very often these subterranean 
chambers are filled partly with oil and partly with gas, and the 
latter serves a useful purpose in forcing the former to the surface. 
This gas is derived from the oil itself, and if the situation of the 
fissure or the texture of the rock are such that the gas can escape, 
its formation will continue until, in some cases at least, the petro- 
leum is reduced to a thick viscid or even solid condition. It is by 
a similar but more rapid fractional distillation that the petroleum 
is refined for illuminating purposes, the solid residue being chiefly 
the substance paraffine. The fissures filled with solidified or 
inspissated petroleum are not wholly theoretical, for several have 
been discovered, which, through some accident of erosion or 
faulting of the strata, are now exposed on the surface. The most 
noted of these is in New Brunswick, the material occupying the 
fissure being the famous and valuable mineral, albertite. This is 
a jet-black lustrous substance intermediate in physical characters 
between bituminous coal and asphaltum, though chemically it is 
much nearer the latter than the former, affording the formula 
QuH S2 16 . This deposit bears no resemblance to a true coal 
bed, but fills a large irregular crevice cutting across the strata. 
The enclosing shales are rich in the remains of fish, and so bitu- 
minous as to be visibly oily, and to " sustain a fire without the 
aid of other fuel." The grahamite of West Virginia is a sub- 
stance closely resembling albertite and occurring in a similar fis- 
sure or crevice. The same phenomena, on a smaller scale, are 
many times repeated in Canada, in the vicinity of Quebec and 
elsewhere. 

Whenever petroleum is exposed to the air for any length of 
time, as when it slowly exudes from the rocks, forming petroleum 



238 Native Bitumen* ant the Pitch Lake of Trididad. [April, 

springs, it is likely, in a manner similar to that just described, to 
lose its more volatile ingredients and become semi-solid like min- 
eral tar, or solid like asphalt. And so it happens that many of 
the smaller deposits of asphaltum in this and other countries are 
simply dried up petroleum, and are -of animal origin. The great 
deposits of the globe, however, those which constitute the prin- 
cipal source of the asphaltum employed in the arts, do not appear 
to have been formed in this way , but have, in most cases at least, 
been derived directly, after the manner of coal, as already 
explained, from decaying vegetation. 

Extensive deposits of asphaltum, such as that for which the 
island of Trinidad is celebrated, are commonly regarded as some- 
thing exceptional, something out of the natural order, a freak of 
nature. This notion is without foundation in facts, for asphaltic 
substances are not only widely disseminated, as already stated, 
but in not a few localities, which form a zone girdling the earth, 
they are accumulated in such vast abundance as to ensure an 
unfailing supply for man's purposes for all time to come. 

A list of the localities where asphaltum is especially abundant 
may further enforce this view, these are: Cuba, several of the 
Windward islands, especially Trinidad and Barbadoes, the Carib- 
bean shore of South America, particularly the province of Mara- 
caybo, Caxitambo and Berengela in Peru, where are lakes of 
asphalt similar to that on Trinidad ; Mexico, Texas and California 
in North America, Persia and Arabia, Palestine on the shores of 
the Dead sea and on Mount Lebanon, Ionian islands, France, 
Switzerland and Portugal, It is a curious fact that the asphalts 
are confined almost wholly to tropical and sub-tropical regions. 
There appears to be in low latitudes some general climatic or 
other condition which has in many cases determined the conver- 
sion of vegetable matter into bitumen instead of coal. 

The largest deposit in Europe is probably that in the Val-de- 
Travers, Neufchatel, Switzerland, which has been worked for 
more than one hundred and fifty years. This occurs in rocks of 
Cretaceous age; but as a rule the great masses of asphalt are 
found in connection with Tertiary strata. This is the geological 
position in Trinidad, Barbadoes, Peru and other points in South 
America and in California. Trinidad is composed chiefly of Ter- 
tiary and Secondary beds, the former predominating; but toward 
the north the island otherwise quite low, is bordered by a bold 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 239 

range of mountains, a detached link of the great littoral Cordillera 
of Venezuela. These are composed of ancient crystalline strata. 
and stand like a wall between the Tertiary plain on the south and 
the Caribbean sea, and the long chain of volcanic islands on the 
north. There is scarcely a trace of true volcanic action observa- 
ble in Trinidad, the hot mud springs — the so-called mud volcanoes 
— hardly coming in that category. They may be classed as 
hydro-thermal but not as igneous phenomena, I have also seen 
little or no evidence of volcanic action during the past epochs in 
the history of the island ; and the frequent severe earthquake 
shocks of the regions on the west and north are very rarely felt 
with destructive force in this favored isle. 

Asphaltum, usually accompanied by mineral tar and petroleum, 
occurs at many points on Trinidad and also on the adjacent main. 
But the largest and most interesting deposit, not only of this 
region but of the world, is that known as the Pitch Lake. This 
is on Point La Brea (La Brea being Spanish for the pitch), in the 
south-western part of the island, and one mile from the Gulf of 
Paria. The topography of the country about the lake is ex- 
tremely simple; from three sides — north, west and south— the 
land slopes gradually upward from the sea to the surface of the 
lake, which lies one hundred and thirty-eight feet above the gulf; 
while on the east the land is slightly higher than the lake. In 
other words, the Pitch Lake is on the faintly-marked shoulder of 
a broad, low ridge which, projecting into the gulf of Paria, forms 
the peninsula or promontory of La Brea. Contrary to all topo- 
graphic laws and precedents, this so-called lake is not in a valley, 
but on a hill-top. I have already denied the existence, both past 
and present, of volcanic phenomena in this region, and yet the 
situation of this remarkable deposit of asphalt is very much as if 
the broad-mouthed crater of a low-lying volcano were filled to 
the brim with this material. I say filled to the brim, because on 
the three sides named above, the surface of the pitch is even with 
the brow of the hill, and more so, for at many points the viscous 
substance is constantly overflowing and moving seaward, after the 
manner of very sluggish lava streams. The motion is extremely 
slow, the pitch, where it issues from the lake, being a brittle solid. 
The moving masses present curved lines and surfaces, which are 
convex downwards ; and Kingsley has very aptly likened these 
streams of asphalt to glaciers, the lake representing a mcr dt 



240 Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April, 

glace. The asphalt becomes harder the longer it is exposed to 
the air and the sun, through loss of its volatile ingredients, and con- 
sequently the downward progress of the "black glaciers" must 
sooner or later be checked, if- not entirely stopped. It seems 
impossible to determine the extent of the overflow, for although 
the entire slope from the lake to the sea appears as a continuous 
stratum of pitch, the soil being everywhere very thin or entirely 
wanting, yet it is probable, as pointed out by Messrs. Wall and 
Sawkins, 1 that the most of this superficial sheet has exuded from 
the asphaltic sandstone — a sandrock supersaturated with asphal- 
tum — which forms the rocky basis of that portion of the ridge 
where the free asphalt is found. The area covered or underlaid 
by this mantle of pitch is estimated at 3000 acres. 

The bitumen is certainly not injurious to plant life, for the scanty 
soil covering the pitch, and consisting largely of that material 
in a pulverulent state, supports a luxuriant vegetation. The vil- 
lage of La Brea, on the shore, with the boiling houses where the 
asphalt is refined, rests on the pitch ; and the inhabitants com- 
plain that their houses are liable to be thrown out of level by the 
rising or sinking of the tarry foundations. It seems as if every- 
thing superficial here, vegetation, houses, roads, etc., must be 
slowly but surely drifting toward the sea. 

" It is fortunate," as one writer has remarked, " that the pitch 
when compact will not kindle, or in other words will not burn 
without a wick, for otherwise the entire region, including the 
village, might suffer the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah." 

The pitch not only forms the sea-shore for the greater part of a 
distance of four miles, but in front of the village it appears from 
beneath the sea as a solid barrier reef some hundred yards from 
the shore, which is a source of danger to unwary boatmen when 
the water is rough. It is probable that this peninsula of La Brea 
owes its existence to the protection afforded the land by the 
asphalt, which resists the action of the waves and running water 
far better than the unconsolidated clays and sands forming the 
coast to the north and south. 

We may now return to the fountain head, the lake. Of the 
various published descriptions of this remarkable phenomenon, 
there are very few that can justly lay any claim to accuracy, and 
strange to say these are not to be found in encyclopedias, nor 
even in our best text books of science. Probably no object in 

1 Report on the Geology of Trinidad. 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 241 

nature has been so grossly misrepresented as the Pitch Lake of 
Trinidad. In an official history of the English Exposition of 
185 1, under the head of descriptions of articles from Trinidad, it 
is stated that, " The Pitch Lake is on the highest land in the 
island. It is soft and fluid at the center, and there is an active 
submarine volcano near the coast." I have already given the 
true altitude of the lake as one hundred and forty feet, while the 
highest point on the island is Mt. Tucutche, 3100 feet above the 
sea. The submarine volcano is a petroleum spring which comes 
up under the water a short distance from shore; the water is 
visibly oily over an area of several rods, and bubbles of gas are 
sometimes seen to escape, but nothing farther, though another 
writer speaks of this as " a submarine volcano which at times 
makes a noise like thunder and emits naphtha and petroleum." 
The lake itself is usually described as three miles in circumfer- 
ence, hot and fluid in the center, but cold and solid toward the 
shore. In point of fact this body of pitch, which is of approxi- 
mately circular outline, is scarcely one and one-half miles in cir- 
cuit, and there is no part of its surface that may not be walked 
upon with impunity. The temperature is uniform throughout. 
The area of the lake is ninety-nine acres. Its surface, soft enough 
in a few spots to receive the impression of a man's boot, is for the 
most part quite hard and firm, and everywhere of a dull earthy- 
brown or brownish-black color. The fracture is eminently con- 
choidal, but the lustre is always dull, the result of an admixture 
of twenty to thirty per cent, of earthy matter, sand and clay. 
These impurities are removed by boiling, and the pitch then 
becomes shining black and still more brittle. 

There are some twenty or more patches on the lake, five to 
fifteen yards in diameter where soil has collected and vegetation 
— trees, shrubs and grasses — has gained a foothold, forming green 
islands or oases. The surface presents many small dome-shaped 
swellings or protuberances, from an inch to a foot in diameter; 
these pitch bubbles are always hollow, and contain traces of the 
lighter portions of vegetation in a half decayed state, the thin 
covering appearing to have been raised by gases given off from 
the decomposing leaves and twigs, or liberated by the sun's heat 
from the pitch itself. Excavations made in the pitch show that 
below the surface these cavities or vesicles are exceedingly 
numerous; they are usually almond-shaped or ellipsoidal, being 



242 Nati ki Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April, 

flattened by pressure, and though always the result of gaseous 
expansion, are commonly filled with water ; in fact the entire 
mass of the pitch is saturated with water, so that even where quite 
soft it will not soil the hands, because the water oozes out and 
prevents adhesion. The earthy impurities of the pitch also assist 
in rendering untrue, in this instance, the old proverb that one can- 
not touch pitch without being defiled. 

The pitch is mined or quarried by excavating areas thirty or 
forty feet square to a depth of two to four feet. As soon as the 
work ceases on one of these cellar-like excavations the surround- 
ing asphalt, seeking to restore the equilibrium, begins to obliter- 
ate it, the walls not closing in perceptibly but the bottom rising 
up, and in a kw days no trace of the opening remains. This is 
only one of many indications of greater fluidity below the sur- 
face. The plasticity of the pitch is evidently due to the oily matter 
which it contains, and not in any sensible degree to the tempera- 
ture. Hardened bitumen, it is true, may be fused by the applica- 
tion of sufficient heat, but that which is naturally fluid remains 
so at all ordinary temperatures. As already explained, when the 
asphalt is exposed to the air it becomes solid through loss of its 
volatile ingredients. Towards the center of the lake are several 
detached areas, a rod or two in breadth, which are softer than the 
rest of the surface, and yield under the feet, "so that on standing 
a few minutes one feels that he is gradually settling down, and in 
the course of ten or fifteen minutes he may find himself ankle deep." 
" But," as Mr. Manross 1 truly says, " in no place is it possible to 
form those bowl-like depressions round the observer described by 
former travelers." Nor is it probable that Kingsley is right in 
saying, " No doubt there are spots where, if a man stayed long 
enough, he would be slowly and horribly engulfed." The inferior 
density of the human body would prevent its submergence even 
if the pitch were quite fluid. 

In the vicinity of these places many small streams of gas 
escape from the pitch. The evil smell and the deposit of sul- 
phur left on the pitch tell us that the gas is chiefly sulphuretted 
hydrogen; but the sulphurous odor ceases to be perceptible at a 
distance of a few rods, and does not extend for ten or twelve 
miles, as some writers have asserted. 

The surface of the lake does not present a continuous sheet of 
asphalt, but is traversed by a net-work of channels in which the 



1879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 243 

rain-water collects. These anastomose and divide most curiously, 
forming one connected system, and dividing the pitch into 
numerous flat-topped or slightly convex areas or islands which 
are usually of quite irregular outline, though sometimes nearly 
circular, and from ten to one hundred feet in diameter. A piece 
of marbled paper would make an excellent map of the lake. 
The sides of the channels are always convex, presenting curves 
of great regularity and beauty ; and where three or four chan- 
nels meet, a star-shaped depression is formed. Canon Kingsley 1 
says, " Conceive a crowd of mushrooms, of all shapes, from ten to 
fifty feet across, close together side by side, their tops being kept 
at exactly the same level, their rounded rims squeezed tight 
against each other ; then conceive water poured on them so as to 
fill the parting seams. Thus would each mushroom represent, 
tolerably well, one of the innumerable flat asphalt bosses which 
seem to have sprung up, each from a separate center, while the 
parting seams would be of much the same shape as those in the 
asphalt, broad and shallow atop, and rolling downward in a 
smooth curve till they are, at bottom, mere cracks from two to 
ten feet deep. Whether these cracks actually close up below and 
the two contiguous masses of pitch become one, cannot be seen. 
As far as the eye goes down they are two, though pressed close to 
each other," the hard exteriors of the masses preventing them from 
coalescing. 

The water filling the channels is clear, pure rainwater, and con- 
tains numbers of small fishes, water beetles and other aquatic 
animals. It has been observed escaping from the canals at eight 
nearly equidistant points on the circumference of the lake. 

Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the 
peculiar structure of the lake. Mr. Manross says, " The chan- 
nels are produced and maintained by the following singular pro- 
cess : Each of the many hundred areas into which the lake is 
divided possesses an independent revolving motion in this wise : 
In the center of the area the pitch is constantly rising up en masse, 
displacing that which previously occupied the center, and forcing 
it towards the circumference. The surface becomes covered with 
concentric wrinkles and the interior structure somewhat lami- 
nated. Where the edge of such an expanding area meets that of 
the adjoining one the pitch rolls under to be thrown up again in 
the center at some future period. It is difficult to conceive of a 

1 At Last : A Christmas in the West Indies. 



244 Native Bitunn \ and tlu Pih \ Laki < * Trinidad. [April, 

n a material almost of stony hardness, 
is constantly taking place over the 
entire surface of this black lake cannot be doubted. The con- 
clusion then to which a close observation leads us in regard to 
the present condition of this singular lake is, not that it has sud- 
denly cooled down from a boiling state as heretofore described, 
but that solid as the material is, it is still boiling, although with 
an indefinitely slow motion. As the descent of the glaciers may 
be considered the slowest instance of flowing in nature, so the 
revolutions of the scarcely less solid bitumen of this lake may be 
set down as the slowest example of ebullition." 

Messrs. Wall and Sawkins, on the contrary, deny the existence 
of the revolving motion, and consider that each of the areas rep- 
resents a center of emission where the asphalt has issued from 
the underlying sandstone, "and gradually advanced until the 
material from the surrounding foci being encountered, further 
progression was impeded, and the accumulation proceeded in the 
vertical in place of the horizontal direction." But the present 
level of the lake has evidently been maintained for ages, and con- 
sequently it is difficult to see why, if this view is correct, the 
asphaltic bosses have not flattened out and closed up the water 
channels. 

Neither of these views can be regarded as entirely satisfactory. 
Mr. Manross is undoubtedly right as regards the circulation, 
though in error as to its cause. He finds unique and conclusive 
evidence of the revolving process in " numerous pieces of wood 
which being involved in the pitch are constantly coming to the 
surface. They are often several feet in length and five or six 
inches in diameter. On reaching the surface they generally 
assume an upright position, one end being detained in the pitch 
while the other is elevated by the lifting of the middle. They 
may be seen at frequent intervals all over the lake, standing 
up to the height of two or even three feet. They look like 
stumps of trees protruding through the pitch, but their parvenu 
character is curiously betrayed by a ragged cap of pitch which 
invariably covers the top and hangs down like hounds' ears on 
either side." These fragments of wood are of the same recent 
origin as the leaves and twigs contained in the vesicles of the 
pitch. From the surrounding forest or the green islands of the 
lake itself, they have found their way into the water channels, 



1 879.] Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 245 

become water-logged, sunk to the bottom and been drawn down 
by the ever-revolving pitch. 

In one case at least within my observation, a recently detached 
portion of one of the islands of vegetation afforded incontestable 
evidence of a horizontal movement of the subjacent pitch to the 
extent of several feet. 

According to the present writer, the true cause of the revolving 
motion of the pitch, and of the structure resulting therefrom, is 
found in a fact pointed out by Wall and Sawkins, but not insisted 
upon or fully appreciated by them, viz : the great diurnal range 
in the temperature of the surface of the pitch. On unclouded 
days the asphalt attains an average temperature of about 140 
Fahr., and sinks during the night to 70 or 6o°, suffering a varia- 
tion of 70 to 8o°, which must produce a considerable change of 
volume, especially if we consider the vesicular nature of the 
pitch and the quantity of water which it contains. This expan- 
sion will be superficial, and its chief tendency to extend the 
pitch horizontally. Where the pitch is covered by water it will 
not experience this alteration of volume. The courses of the 
water channels may have been determined originally by slight 
inequalities of the surface, holding shallow sheets of water, or 
drifting sand may have occupied these positions and served to 
protect the asphalt along these lines from the heat of the sun. 
The main point is that the protected areas would be forced down- 
wards by the expansion of the unprotected areas, and this motion 
once established would continue without interruption until the 
contours of the present surface were developed. 

Nocturnal radiation and consequent contraction could not undo 
the effect of the diurnal expansion, but the equilibrium would 
be and doubtless is maintained by the elevation of pitch from 
below in the center of the areas. The plastic pitch beneath the 
solid crust is sometimes forced upwards through the crevices in 
the bottom of the channels. One interesting example of this is 
described by Mr. Manross : " In one of the star-shaped pools of 
water, some five feet deep, a column of pitch had been forced*per- 
pendicularly up from the bottom. On reaching the surface of the 
water it had expanded into a sort of center-table about four feet 
in diameter, but without touching the sides of the pool. The 
stem was about a foot in diameter. I leaped out upon this table 
and found that it not only sustained my weight but the elasticity 
of the stem enabled me to rock it from side to side. Pieces torn 



246 Native Bitumens and the Pitch Lake of Trinidad. [April, 

from the edge of this table sank readily, showing that it had been 
raised by pressure and not by its buoyancy." 

No soundings have ever been made in this lake and its depth 
is unknown. The thickness of the deposit is of course a factor 
of the first importance in determining whether the supply of 
asphalt from this locality is likely to prove practically inexhausti- 
ble in view of the steadily increasing demand for this material in 
the arts. According to Wall and Sawkins each foot in depth is 
equivalent to 158,400 tons, and they assume the maximum aver- 
age depth at thirty feet, making the total supply 4,752,000 tons. 
Judging by the uniformity of the asphalt and the size of the 
revolving areas, the true mean depth must considerably exceed 
this estimate. It is believed that the pitch could be readily exca- 
vated to a depth of ten or fifteen feet, and from that level iron 
bars could probably be forced to the bottom and the true depth 
accurately ascertained. In considering the question of the prob- 
able permanence of the supply, it is important to remember that 
the material is doubtless still escaping from the underlying 
asphaltic sandstone, though perhaps very slowly. 

As regards its origin, the lake is believed not to differ essentially 
from any of the patches of pitch scattered over the surrounding 
country except in this, that the form of the surface has been more 
favorable for its accumulation. It appears to be simply a large 
puddle of pitch, which has oozed out of the sandstone and col- 
lected in a basin-like depression in that rock. 

The observations of Mr. Wall have placed the vegetable origin 
of this bitumen beyond question. The asphaltic sandrock is rich 
in vegetable remains, and it is possible to trace every step in the 
conversion of these into asphaltum, until the organic texture of 
the wood is entirely obliterated and pure bitumen results, the 
external form of the wood alone remaining. 

The fact that the Island of Trinidad lies between a portion of 
the delta of the Orinoco and the sea, long ago led Sir Charles 
Lyell to adopt the view that the asphalt deposits of Trinidad, in- 
cluding the Pitch Lake, which is on the side of the Island 
towards the delta, represented the drift wood brought down by the 
Orinoco in past geological ages. But I believe he afterwards 
concluded that this explanation, like the wood itself, was rather 
far-fetched. For it can be proved that at the time (Miocene pe- 
riod) when these asphaltic beds were forming, the mouth of the 
Orinoco was some one hundred and fifty or two hundred miles 
further up stream than at present. 



1 879.] Obsidian in |. 247 

NOTES ON AN EXTENSIVE DEPOSIT OF OBSIDIAN 
IN THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 



CONSIDERABLE deposits of obsidian and obsidian porphy- 
ries had been observed in the national park previous to our 
visit in the summer of 1878, but no satisfactory exposures of the 
glassy varieties had been found. In October I had occasion to 
make examinations of a locality particularly rich in them, situated 
in the north-western part of the park, near the head of Obsidian 
or Alum creek, a tributary of the middle fork of Gardiner's river. 
The crumbling trachytes of this part of the park give, in general, 
a rounded and monotonous character to the topography. The 
slopes of the valleys are gentle excepting at points where the 
glassy rocks predominate. 

In ascending Obsidian creek, by way of the newly-cut wagon 
road which connects Mammoth Hot Springs with the Geyser 
Basins, we pass first through broad meadows and parked forests. 
Farther on the valley narrows up and the timber becomes 
extremely dense. At a point about twelve miles above the junc- 
tion of the creek with the main stream, there is a narrow gateway 
known as Obsidian canon, through which the road and creek 
pass. From the east side of the valley a low promontory extends 
forward to the creek and breaks off in an abrupt nearly vertical 
wall, in which the obsidian rocks are exposed. The road 
approaches the canon along the west side of the valley, and 
crosses to the east side at the lower end of the canon ; in order 
to avoid the swampy ground that borders the stream it has been 
carried across the steep debris slopes of the obsidian cliffs. For 
half a mile it is paved with glassy fragments and lined by 
huge angular masses of black and banded obsidian rock. From 
the upper border of the debris slope the vertical cliffs rise to the 
height of nearly two hundred feet. The lower half is composed 
of a heavy bed of black obsidian which exhibits some very fine 
pentagonal columns, somewhat irregularly arranged and frequently 
distorted, but with perfectly cut faces that glisten in the sunlight. 
The upper portion of the wall is composed of a much more 
obscurely columnar mass of impure spherulitic obsidian, the rude 
faces of the columns being often as much as ten or twelve feet 
across. To the right and left the columnar character becomes 



2 4 8 Obsidian in tin Yellowstone Xational Park. [April, 

less marked, both in the upper and lower part of the cliff, and 
farther out seems to be entirely lost, the glassy rocks grading 
into the gray sanidine trachytes and obsidian porphyries of the 
surrounding hills. 

Extending upward from the edge of the promontory in a mod- 
erately gentle slope are four or, five hundred feet of obsidian 
strata that exhibit some most interesting characters. There is no 
heavy mass of pure glassy rock, but a succession of irregular lay- 
ers of a dozen or more varieties of spherulitic obsidian, obsidian 
porphyries and breccias. The colors of these rocks are exceed- 
ingly varied, the prevailing blacks giving way to reds, browns, 
greens and the richest possible marblings and mottlings. 

One of the most striking characteristics of these rocks are the 
spherulitic concretions which occur to a greater or less extent in 
all the varieties. These bodies seem to prevail in the ashy-like 
bands or layers which, in the more compact mass toward the base, 
are frequently contorted, giving the rock the appearance of a 
banded and contorted gneiss. The ashy- appearing layers are 
probably composed of the same material as the concretions, since 
when we split the rock with the bands, the surfaces of the gray 
bands next the glassy layers are simply a connected or coales- 
ced series of nodes or hemispheres which have the usual appear- 
ance of the more isolated concretions. Where the concretions 
are scattered throughout the glassy mass, they are globular or 
composed of a cluster of globes. They have, in most cases, a 
distinctly radiated structure, with not infrequently concentric lay- 
ers near the surface. The interior is gray or pinkish-gray, and 
the surfaces, pinkish or flesh colored. 

In the coarsely columnar part of the wall the spherulites are 
often a foot or more in diameter and appear much flattened and 
distorted. It is probable that these irregular forms are produced 
by the coalescence of a large number of smaller ones, as there 
are apparently many centers of radiation. Large beds of the 
rock seem to be made up almost wholly of the concretions, and 
where decomposed, a mass of coarsely cellular or honey-combed 
obsidian remains. The brecciated beds consist of an ashy 
matrix in which are imbedded angular fragments of every variety 
of the brilliantly-colored spherulitic and ordinary obsidians. 

The collection of hand specimens made at this place is very 
complete, numbering upwards of three hundred. Their examina- 



250 Obsidian in the Yellozvstone National Park. [April, 

tion by specialists in petrography will doubtless develop many 
new and interesting features, as no equally rich deposit of similar 
rocks has heretofore been brought to their notice in this country. 

Indian Implements. — It occurred to me, while making examina- 
tions at this point, that the various Indian tribes of the neighbor- 
ing valleys had probably visited this locality for the purpose of 
procuring material for arrow-points and other implements. A 
finer mine could hardly be imagined, for inexhaustible supplies of 
the choicest obsidian, in flakes and fragments of most convenient 
shapes, cover the surface of the country for miles around. 

Having climbed the promontory, I observed that an old but 
quite distinct trail passed along the brink of the ledge and 
descended the broken cliffs to the valley above and below. In 
the vicinity of the trail the glistening flakes proved to be more 
plentiful than elsewhere, and were also apparently gathered into 
heaps. After a short search a leaf-shaped implement of very fine 
workmanship was found ; it is made of the black opaque obsidian, 
and is four inches in length, three inches in width and one-half an 
inch in thickness ; an outline of this implement is given in Fig. 
I. Having continued the search as long as the time at my com- 
mand would permit, I was amply rewarded in the possession of 
ten more or less perfect implements. Three are leaf-shaped and 
nearly the same in size as the first specimen found, but imperfect 
from having been broken. One is somewhat pyramidal in shape, 
as shown in Fig. 2 ; the bottom is flat, the flaked surfaces ex- 
tending from the base to the apex; it is two and a half inches 
in width and one and three-quarters in height, and is the only 
specimen in the collection that appears to have been in the least 
used ; the sharp edge at the base is considerably worn ; Fig. 3 is 
a top view of the same. Another specimen is triangular in shape 
with sides about three inches long; another is rectangular and 
about three inches wide by four in length, and still another is a 
rude ova! ; nearly all of these implements are imperfect, as it 
broken or unfinished. If we are to suppose that the great quan- 
tities of minute flakes are the fragments left from the manufacture 
of implements we must conclude that extensive supplies have 
been obtained here, but by what tribes or at what period it will 
be quite impossible to determine. 



18 79 .] 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Macfarlane's Geologists' Traveling Hand-Book. 1 — The 
design of this small octavo of two hundred and sixteen pages, 
which is well expressed in the title, is certainly novel. This is a 
distinctly new departure in geological literature; and it is sur- 
prising that it is so, since there has long been room for such a 
work. It supplies a want long experienced, for every geologi- 
cally-minded traveler must have felt the need of a key or guide 
to the geology of the districts traversed. But the book is de- 
signed for the unscientific observer as well as for the professional 
geologist. In this connection the author says : " One object of 
the work is to teach persons not versed in geology something of 
this science during the tedious and unprofitable hours of travel- 
ing, without study, not as in a text book, but by pointing to the 
things themselves as seen at railway stations and through the 
windows of a railway car;" and it is not improbable that the 
chief value of the "Guide," as regards the interests of the science, 
will consist in the wider diffusion by right means of geological 
knowledge and interest which it will effect. 

Forty pages in the first part of the book are devoted to brief 
but comprehensive descriptions, especially designed for unscien- 
tific travelers, of the different geological formations, beginning 
with the Eozoic, the divisions of which are those proposed by 
Dr. T. Sterry Hunt and the Canadian Geological Survey. The 
descriptions of these are from the pen of Dr. Hunt and are nota- 
ble as constituting the first general account that has appeared in a 
popular work of those grand fragments of the material record of 
the earth's history which, whether we consider their volume 
or the length of time required for their formation, appear vastly 
more important than the corresponding divisions of the Palaeozoic 
and later eras. From an economic point of view, too, the most 
of these primary Eozoic divisions are outranked by none of the 
more recent formations, except the Carboniferous. Following 
these descriptions are two tables of the geological formations, one 
by Prof. J. D. Dana similar to that in the second edition of his 
Manual, and the other by Dr. Hunt, which differs from Dana's 
chiefly in the divisions of the Eozoic and Cambrian. The former 
is principally followed in the subsequent portion of the work, 
which consists of one hundred and fifty-six pages of tables of 
railway stations, the railways being grouped according to States, 
while opposite the name of each station is the name of the for- 
mation occurring there, and in some cases the altitude above 
sea level. The nomenclature of the formations necessarily varies 



252 Recent Literature. [April, 

considerably in the different States, but a common number 
attached to them throughout the book, serves for their identifica- 
tion by whatever name they are called. 

A majority of those having occasion to use this work, will 
probably regret the almost complete absence of references to 
palaeontology and mineralogy, nothing being given in most cases 
beyond the mere name of the formation, with very rarely an 
allusion to it ter; so that we have here little more 

than a chronological guide. It is true the author tells us that to have 
included fossils, rocks and minerals in the scope of the work, would 
have made an unwieldly volume of what to be serviceable must 
be small ; but this objection to fuller information appears less 
valid when we reflect that an addition of even fifty pages would 
not make the book inconveniently large, i. e., it would still be 
smaller than many railway and tourists' guides, and that the char- 
acteristic fossils, rocks and minerals are not required for every 
station, but only for those points, comparatively few in number, 
where they are best developed and may be studied to best advan- 
tage ; and then it would be quite unnecessary to name the fossils, 
except, perhaps, in a general way. That is, one usually likes U> 
know, not only the name and extent of the formation he is trav- 
ersing, but also the points along his route where its palaeontologic, 
lithologic and other characters are most favorably exposed, as 
this will often determine the choice of a route and the stoppages 
to be made. To some extent the meagre information on these 
points contained in the tables is supplemented by foot notes ; but 
these are copious only for New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
while for the most of the States they are almost entirely wanting. 
The toot notes to the chapters on the Dominion of Canada and 
New England, for example, aggregate scarcely half a page, while 
for New York alone they amount to eight and one-half pages, 
and for Pennsylvania there are nearly six pages, and the great 
State of Ohio has not a single line. 

On railroads where the stations are separated by short dis- 
tances, the less important are sometimes omitted, but we are in- 
formed that this only occurs where the same formation is con- 
tinuous across the break ; a casual examination, however, shows 
that this precaution has not always been observed. The most 
important exception noticed is on the Boston and Albany rail- 
road, in Massachusetts, where eight stations in succession are 
omitted between Brighton and South Framingham, although the 
two stations named are correctly marked as being on entirely dis- 
tinct formations. Brighton and the five stations next to the west 
are on Cambrian, then come Grantville, Wellesby and Natick, on 
typical Huronian with a breadth of seven miles before we reach 
South Framingham, which is marked as Laurentian, though in 
the writer's view more probably Montalban. 

Although the book is deemed susceptible of improvement in 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 2 5 3 

the directions indicated, yet it contains a vast amount of valuable 
knowledge carefully tabulated, and is a highlycreditable first step 
toward supplying a recognized want; and no traveling geologist 
— whether beginner, amateur, or professional — can afford to be 
without it. The binding is not all that could be desired for a 
work of this character, since the covers are neither stiff enough 
to resist bending, nor sufficiently flexible to bend without break- 
ing.— W. 0. C. 

Recent Books \\i, I'AMiHirrs.- Habit and Intelligence : a series of Es^y- 

don, 1879. From 'the aiiihor'.' 

On the Annelida Ci the Vii„i..hn \ TI E Welter (Issued 

72/pls. i-.xi. .From the author. 

Extract- from Letters an- -i Journals in 

from a study of " Natural History " in \,\\\ By Mrs. N. B. 

' ( -...:,.■'>.:■.!.■.. ..■■:■. :'....: • 

mg, Eel*.. IS; .*]>. ' From the author. 



The Department of I'hsdeai I n Amherst College. 

•' ■ ,u in. No. 12— Contributions to N 

American Ichthyology. No. 3, A— On the Distribution of the Fishes of the ; 



By David S. Jor 

" David S. j 
8vo, pp. 2- 

the Golf of Calif. 



. By David S. J< 
mhsoman Institution.) 8vo, pp. 23' 



Phila. Acad. Nat. Sc.ences, 1878.) 8vo, pp. 395-4<>i. 
ology to Biology. By Prof. Joseph LeConte. gyo, pp. 



Proceedings of th c American Philosophical 
'■"-ting Useful Knowledge. Vol. XVIII, Ju 



: about Water Supply, between James Haworth, Esq., his counsel, 
ish, Jr., and John W. Nystrom. Svo, pp. 25. Philadelphia, 1879. 

urocephalus and on the sj ecics which have been referred to that 

Newton, Esq., E.G. S., li. M. (ieol. Su.vey. (Ext. Quar. Jour, 
jn, Nov., 1878.) 8vo, p... 7S0-70.). (Published Oct. 12, 1878.) 

rate Practice. Is the bite of the Heterodon, or spreading adder, 
. Schneck, M.D. (Ext. from Chicago Med. Jour, and Examiner.. 



General Notes. 



Report on the Collection of Fishes made by Dr. Elliott Coi 
uring the season of 187.I and 1874. By I 



, U.S.A., 



ring the season of 187.5 am! [S74. i!y U.ukl S.Jordan, M.D. 

(Ext. from the Bulletin of the U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surveys, F. V. Hayden, in 

charge. Vol. iv, No. 4.) 8vo, pp. 777-799. Washington, 1878. From the author. 

Description of a New Species of Smynthurus. By John A. Ryder. (Ext. from 

Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1878.) From the author. 

Dale, Jr. (I-M sie Soc. Nat. SdencevDec. 4, 1878.) 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Monograph iv— The 

Guide du Nun. -plaque des Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin 

Mensuel. Par A. Bouvier. (Zoologie, < ,. Large 8 vo, pp. 1 4. 

ire Annee, No. I. Paris, Janv., 1879. From the editor. 

Report on the Methods of Surveying the Public Domain to the Secretary of the 
Interior, at the request of the National Academy of Sciences. By J. W. Powell. 8vo, 
pp. 16. Washington, 1878. From the author. 

Letter from the Secretary of the Interior, relating to the cost of geographical sur- 
veys. 8vo, pp. 6. (Washington, Feb. 7, 1879.) From the Secretary. 

- . 
•, .-.../. ,>:■■- ■ ; • ; . : . -. .. ■>. 

Kasmpedovendyr-Slaegten Coslodon. Af. J. Reinhardt. 4to, pp. 257-349, Tab. 
2. (Ext. from Vul nl - S 5 R;cl ,, tturvid og mathem Aid xn, 3.) 

Copenhagen. 1878. From the author. 

Catalogue of the Birds of Granada, from a collection r 







<.!. hum Archives'. 


lr, Sri. 


I'hyV 








5 No. 251. 15 Nov. 




















Un Mot sur la PSche de la 






rctiques. Notice 






Sciences le 1 2 Decembre 




Tar M. 


. J. van Beneden. 8vo, pp. 


- 


15,1878. From the 












deal Survey for the 




1878. 


By T. C. 




. 8vo, pp. 51 


. Madison, 1879. 








Bulletin of the United States Geological 


. and Geographical 


[ Survey of the 


! Territo- 


es. Vol. 5. No. r. 8vo, pp. 


152. From, 










The Devonian Brachiopodi 


i of the Provi 


nee of Para, Brazil. 


r.vKi 


tl'-ird : 





GENERAL NOTES. 



The Number of Stamens in Brasenia peltata. — There is 
quite a discrepancy among botanical writers regarding the num- 
ber of stamens of Brasenia peltata Pursh, the common water- 
shield. A citation of a few of these, and some observations with 
a view to remove the differences, may not be out of place. My 



1 879.] Botany. 255 

attention was first called to this in 1872, when critically examin- 
ing some specimens of the plant gathered at Bear lake, Van 
Buren county, Mich. The stamens were generally 24 or 25 in 
number. In 1875, specimens were collected at La Porte, Ind. 
My notes read, " Stamens indefinite, sometimes 27." They were 
usually not far from 24. 

The past season it was found at Pine Lake county, Ind. The 
highest number of stamens noticed was 37, nearly always above 
30, and commonly about 36. I also gathered specimens last 
summer at Old Mission, on Grand Traverse bay, Mich. The 
plants were advanced in flower and the stamens somewhat de- 
cayed, but were apparently 18 or less. In all these cases the sta- 
mens were picked out one by one, laid on a sheet of paper and 
counted, several flowers being taken in each locality. The con- 
clusion from these facts is, that the stamens vary from about 18 
to 37. It would be safe to say of the plant : stamens varying 
from 12 to some indefinite number. 

Taking the most accessible authorities, especially in American 
botany, 1 find as follows : Gray's Manual, and Chapman's Flora 
of the Southern States, " Sta. 12-18." Gray's Structure and 
Systematic Botany, " Stamens definite, or nearly so." They may 
therefore slightly exceed 20. In Torrey and Gray's Flora of 
North America, Nuttall's Genera, Wood's Class Book (earlier 
edition), "Sta. 18-36. In Pursh's Plants of North America, 
Eaton and Wright's Botany (1840, genus Hydropeltis), Linnaeus' 
Systema Vegetabilium (Sprengel's edition), " Class Polyandria," 
stamens 20 or more. In Rafinesque's Medical Botany of the 
United States (1828), " Sta. 20-30." In Michaux's Flo'ra, under 
Hydropeltis purpurea, " Stamens numerous (about 36)." In Wood's 
Class Book, last edition, " Sta. 18-24." In Baillou's Dictionnaire 
de Botanique, Art. Brasenia, " Its stamens and carpels are indefi- 
nite." In Le Maout et Decaisne (Traite de Botanique) under 
Cabombepe, including Brasenia, " Stamens 6, 12 or 18" — doubt- 
less 12 or 18 for Brasenia, those of Cabomba being 3 or 6. In 
Eichler's Bluthen diagramme (1878), " Sta. 12-8." 

From these references it is evident that there has been but lit- 
tle agreement as regards the number of stamens. While the 
older writers in general gave higher numbers, and in this more 
nearly accord with what I have found in the vicinity of Lake 
Michigan, yet it is probable that they are in error by not going 
below eighteen. Most of them also assigned the plant a southern 
or southerly habitat, on the Atlantic coast from New Jersey south- 
ward, west of the Alleghenies from Kentucky south. It may be 
that in these localities as in the north-west the number had 
a higher range. But the plants found in Northern Michigan 
would seem to indicate the lower number, and hence the entire 
range be covered by plants in this vicinity. This variation m 
number of stamens may be due to locality, or the season, or to 



256 General Notes. 

some inherent tendency in 
tions in the same locality c 
immaterial to a correct statement in our text-books and works of 
reference. Assuming that all the authorities cited above are 
right, which may be shown to be true for some localities, as my 
experience in four localities proves, still there is need of a cor- 
rection that shall include the experience of all. Eichler states 
the fact correctly, a conclusion I had already reached both from 
observation and a consultation of authorities, before receiving his 

While collecting the facts for this paper I had noticed a ten- 
dency in the stamens to be multiples of six. Those found at Old 
Mission were apparently about 18 in number, those at Bear lake 
and La Porte about 24 (24-27), those at Pine about 36. This 
goes to confirm an observation of Nuttall (Genera, Vol. 11, p. 24), 
which I had not read till arranging these facts for publication. 
Having stated that the stem is furnished with two sets of conflu- 
ent central vessels, which, arriving in the leaf, resolve into twelve 
nerves, he continues : " As the elliptic form of the leaf originates 
from the eccentricity and duplicature of the central vessels, 
expanding in an ellipse or two intersecting circles, so we may 
justly consider it as a species of double leaf, hence also the 
stamina and the fruit is in the same manner augmented. In its 
coordinate Cabomba, which produces orbicular peltate leaves, we 
find only 6 stamina instead of 18, two or three styles and capsules 
instead of six or more, but containing the same number of seeds 
and of nearly the same form ; hence we perceive the same type in 
its simple form. A proof of the small importance of mere num- 
ber in the character of classes or of natural groups." 

From this the inference is obvious that the doubling of the 
stamens would be in multiples of six. A plant with a tendency 
to double stamens that ranged between 12 and 18, would have 
from 24 to 36; those approximating the simple type Cabomba 
would be intermediate from 12-18, 18-24, 24-30, 30-36, &c~ 

Doubtless it is better to go back of this and say that the 
stamens are multiples of the three or four parts of which the 
calyx and corolla consist. The perianth of Cabomba is on the 
whole trimerous, the parts alternating. Eichler states : " Brasenia 
does not essentially differ from Cabomba except in its 12-20 
stamens, and 6-18 pisOs." (Bliithten diagramme, Part u, p. 177.) 

Though the stamens are not exact multiples of three and four 
in all cases, they vary but a little from it.— £. jf. Hill, Engle- 
wood, III. 

A Fairy Ring.— Last July my attention was called to a " Fairy 
Ring" on the lawn in front of a gentleman's residence in this city. 
It was a more perfect circle than could have been made by man 
unaided by instruments. The rim of the circle was about twelve 
inches in width, and the diameter from the inner edge about fifteen 



1 879.] Botany. 257 

feet. The lawn was covered with grass some three or four inches 
in height, and every blade forming the circle, was found on close 
inspection to be covered with minute globular bodies of a grayish 
color which, contrasting with the green of the lawn, made the 
circle perceptible at a considerable distance. 
_ On the morning of its discovery the ring was not completed by 

complete where it encroached on a gravel walk. When the circle 
was struck a small smoke like cloud arose. On examining with 
a microscope the blades of grass which formed the ring, they 

from one-fortieth to one-sixtieth of an inch in diameter, which 
externally resembled minute puff balls. Specimens sent to Prof. 
W. G. Farlow of Harvard University, were pronounced by him to 
to be a fungus of the order Myxomycetes (Physanmi ciuari/m). — 
B. C. Jillson, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Insects as Unconscious Selectors of Flowers. 1 — Natural 
selection, the origin of new forms in the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms by the survival of the fittest, and artificial selection by 
man, agree in many points, though differing in others. In gen- 
eral they harmonize in the following respects. From generation 
to generation the number of individuals of every species in pro- 
cess of selection is increased, while the individuals of a given 
generation differ among themselves. Of these individuals, only 
such as surpass their fellows in certain di-rections are allowed to 
produce offspring; and these offspring inherit the peculiarities to 
which the prolonged existence of their parents is due. Hence 
we find that both modes of selection result in the accumulation 
of individual variations, all tending in a particular direction, so 
long as the conditions presiding over the survival of this or that 
individual remain constant. On the other hand, we find that these 
last conditions differ greatly in the two kind<; of selection. Man 
arbitrarily destroys at once, or neg which are 

neither pleasing nor profitable to him; while those which lie spares 
become through successive generations more and more indicative 
of his wishes or needs. But natural select-on preserves only such 
individuals as are best adapted to nourish and protect themselves 
and to produce offspring which may be widely disseminated, 
the offspring becoming from generation to generation better 
adapted to the performance of these duties. With flowers in a 
state of nature we find that the causes presiding over even the 

to human selection; for the insects which visit these flowers are 
guided like man by pleasure or profit; and, though they cannot 
weed out plants which do not satisfy them in either of these re- 

1 An abstract of a series of very interesting article., entitle! Die Inciter, als un- 
bewusste Blumen/iuhter, !>> I>r. Ik-rmann Miillcr, Ko-,»,,s, lian-l ill, Heft 4-6. 



258 General Notes. [April, 

spects, they can cease to visit them, and by this means cause their 
deterioration and final destruction through self-fertilization, while 
such as meet their wants are strengthened by repeated crossing. 
Here, then, we have to deal with something more than natural 
selection proper, namely, a methodical though unconscious selec- 
tion by the insects. A most interesting question, and one well 
treated by Dr. Muller in his papers, is the following : " What 
peculiarities of flowers are to be attributed to insect-selection, and 
what to natural selection ?" 

When an anemophilous flower begins to become entomophilous, 
the first step is one tending to cause insects to come in contact 
with its stamens and pistil; and this is either the secretion of nec- 
tar in both forms of the unisexual flowers, or the union of the 
sexes to form a perfect flower. Adhesiveness of the pollen must also 
be developed in order to insure its transfer by insects from one 
flower to another. Nectar, being of great value to insects, and 
not directly useful to the plant, should be considered the result of 
insect-selection ; but the adhesiveness of the pollen, being of im- 
mediate value to the plant, and only utilized in comparatively 
recent times by insects, should be considered as a result of nat- 
ural selection. We must suppose that at first all flowers were 
equally accessible to all insects which chose to visit them. 
Through successive generations, however, the selective action of 
insects joined to natural selection wrought great changes, whereby 
the flowers were so modified as to adapt them to the visits of 
special groups of insects, which themselves experienced, by nat- 
ural selection, changes fitting them to profitably visit the modified 
flowers. 

Dr. Muller sums up the entire matter as follows : I. All wild 
flowers are the result of the combined action of two different 
sorts of selection. Those peculiarities (such as attractive colors, 
odor, sheltered retreats, food, and the means of protecting this 
latter product against unbidden guests) which are immediately 
useful only to the insects which visit the flowers, are usually the 
result of the selection exercised by these insects themselves ; but 
such peculiarities as are immediately useful only to the plant (the 
securing of crossing when insects visit the flowers, and of self- 
fertilization when they do not, and the protection of the repro- 
ductive organs against inclement weather and enemies) have been 
developed by natural selection, acting quite independently of the 
insects ; finally those which are equally useful to both flowers and 
insects are the result of the combined action of both sorts of 

2. The first flowers were, for the most part, simple, regular and 
open, and were subjected to a mixed company of insect visitors, 
which succeeded in rendering permanent only conspicuous colors, 
odor, and nectar. 

3. From this original mixed group, the carrion-loving Diptera, 



1 879. J Botany. 259 

with their tastes so different from those of other flower-frequent- 
ing insects, have become separated as independent selectors of 
flowers ; and, through structural peculiarities enabling them to 
utilize certain modifications of the flowers, the butterflies, ichneu- 
mon flies, mining-wasps, wasps, bees, and syrphus-flies have like- 
wise become separated. 

4. The carrion-loving Diptera have bred flowers distasteful to 
other insects (Ekelblumen). Natural selection, coming to their 
aid, has produced various contrivances for securing cross-fertiliza- 
tion, such as kettle-traps (Kesselfallen) {Aristolochia clematidis, 
&c.), pinching-traps (Klemmenfallen) {Aschpias, Piiigiticula 
alpina : &c) and deceptive-flowers (Tauschblumen) (Ophrys mus- 

5. Longer tongued, more intelligent, and more dexterous in- 
sects have gradually been developed from those remaining, which 
differed from the Diptera, but agreed among themselves in their 
tastes. These insects have selected nectar, which less intelligent 
or shorter tongued insects could not find or reach, and also recep- 
tacle- and dicker for the nectar, and marks guiding to it. 

6. From this circle the butterflies were adapted by their slender 
tongues, and certain moths by their long tongues, to appear 
as independent selectors of flowers. The former have selected 
to their present 'perfection those flowers which are characterized 
by the narrowness of the passage leading to their nectar ; the 
latter, such as possess greatly elongated nectaries. These flowers 
may be divided according to their time of blooming and their 
color, into diurn 1! and nocturnal butterfly-flowers, and diurnal and 
nocturnal moth-flowers, while we may distinguish many transi- 
tional forms. The well-developed sense of smell of the moths is 
indicated by the spicy fragrance of the flowers selected by them ; 
the well-developed color sense of the butterflies, by the beautiful 
colors of the products of their selection. 

7. Ichneumon flies surpassed all other flower-visiting insects of 
their time in their acute powers of perception, and thus they were 
able to select for themselves inconspicuous flowers which had 
escaped the notice of other insects. But after the appearance of 
the mining-wasps and bees, the ichneumon flies could retain 
their flowers only in places little frequented by these insects. 

8. The mining-wasps probably superseded the ichneumon -flies 
as flower selectors, and selected those whose nectar was accessible 
only by forcing open closely appressed parts, creeping bodily into 
a cavity, or some similar action, easy only to insects accustomed 
to burrowing, or creeping into crevices. Later, however, bees 
came into partial possession of these flowers, and they further 
modified many of them. 

9- Wasps were able by the power of their sting to secure sole 
possession of certain flowers which contained nectar and still 
remained open. These they selected in conformity with their 



260 General Notes. [April, 

wants and tastes ; but in places where wasps are not very abun- 
dant the products of their selection are shared by other insects. 

io. As* the most industrious and most skillful insects, and 
withal those most dependent upon flowers for food, bees have 
played the most prominent part in selecting flowers — at least in 
Germany. They have given us the most numerous, most diversi- 
fied and most specially elaborated flowers, the visiting of which 
calls into play those faculties which the bees have acquired and 
inherited through their labors in caring for their young. 

II. Finally, certain syrphus-flies, passionately fond of color, 
and themselves brightly colored, but not especially dependent 
upon flowers for food, have succeeded in producing certain flow- 
ers corresponding to their tastes ; meantime natural selection has 
given rise to contrivances in these flowers which secure cross-fer- 
tilization through the instrumentality of these insects. — Wm. Tre- 

Botanical News. — In the February and March numbers of 
the Botanical Gazette, Mr. A. H. Curtiss begins a series of papers 
on the Botany of the Shell Islands of Florida. Mr. A. P. Mor- 
gan writes in the February number on the the phyllotaxis of 
leaves. Mr. C. R. Barns indi< it - tin differences between Heliop- 
sis and Hclianthus, and Mr. C. H. Peck describes eight new 
species of fungi. In the March number Mr. A* M. Canby con- 
tributes some interesting notes on Baptisia, with a synopsis of 
American species. 

Trimen's Journal of Hotauy for February contains an interest- 
ing biographical notice of Elias Fries, by A. N. Lundstrom, 
accompanied by a portrait. The ferns of Borneo are enumerated 
and a number of new species described by J. G. Baker. Jacob 
Bigelow, the author of the " Plants of the Vicinity of Boston," a 
book thumbed so much by botanical students twenty years ago, 
and which gave such a gentle and healthful stimulus to the walks 
of local botanists, died recently in Boston at an advanced age. 
Bigelow and other botanists owed much to the zeal and activity 
of Dr. J. W. Robbins, of Uxbridge, Mass., who died at about the 

ZOOLOG-Y. 1 
The Opposition of the Queen Bee and Dzierzon's Theory. 

— According to a classical theory which had its birth in Germany, 
and which no one now-a-days disputes a fecundated egg of the 
queen bee is a female egg, and all unfecundated eggs are male. 
The mother bee, it is said, can even lay at will an egg of one or 
the other sex. This faculty, which is exceptional in the animal 
kingdom, is explained by assuming that the bee, at the moment 
of the passage of the egg into the oviduct, can apply to it or not 
1 The departments of Ornithology and Mammalogy are conducted by Dr. Elliott 
Coues, U. S. A. 



1 879.] Zoology. 261 

a certain quantity of the seminal fluid contained in the seminal 
receptacle. Nevertheless the organization of the generative 
apparatus of the bee does not differ essentially from that of the 
majority of female insects, to which no one has ever thought of 
ascribing the power of acting at pleasure upon phenomena which 
seem to be absolutely removed from the influence of the will. 

The hypothesis w'as set up mainly to explain the fact, which 
has hitherto not been disputed, that an Italian female fecundated 
by a German male I r u - (workers and queens) 

and pure Italian males. The opposite would be the case if a 
German queen were fecundated by an Italian male ; so that a 
male egg would never receive the seminal baptism, a drone would 
never have a father. 

Now I possess at this moment a hive, the queen of which, the 
daughter of an Italian of pure race, has been fecundated by a 
French male. The workers in fact, are partly true Italians, others 
French, whilst others present a mixture in various proportions of 
the characters of the two races. 

Being surprised to see in this hive certain drones amongst 
others as dark as French males, when according to the theory all 
ought to have been Italians, like their mother, I thought it neces- 
sary to examine these males more closely. I therefore collected 
three hundred of them and examined them most carefully, 
obtaining the following statistics : 15 1 were pure Italians, 66 were 
hybrids in different degrees, and 83 were French. From this it 
is evident that the drone eggs, like those of the females, receive 
the contact of the semen deposited by the male in the female 
organs ; and the theory of Dzierzon, proposed to explain an 
insufficiently-ascertained fact, becomes useless if this fact is dis- 

It is easy to understand how an insufficient observation may 
have led to the belief that the drones, the sons of an Italian 
mother fecundated by a male of a different race, were all Italians. 
Of 300 males only 83 appeared to me to be strictly French, while 
151 + 65 or 217,'/. c, the great majority, being yellower than the 
French drones, might easily pass for [Hire Italians. Thus, in such 
cases, if a great number of males in a hybrid hive have not been 
carefully examined one by one, it is easy to understand how it 
might be believed that they all belonged to the same race as their 
mother, especially when the latter belongs to the handsomer and 
yellower race. — Comptes Rendus, Sept. 9, 1878,/. 40S. 

Merrill's Ornithology of Southern Texas.— These notes 
comprise a list of birds observed in the vicinity of Fort Brown, 
Texas, from Feb., 1876, to June, 1878. The brochure is extracted 
from the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, and 
is valuable for the many field noU - ding habits 

of a number of the birds mentioned, with annotations by Dr. 
Brewer and Mr. Ridgway. Three plates of outlines add to the 



262 General Notes. 

value of the article, 
which cross the Me: 

Powder Barrels. — We have received 
m (probably C. variabile), the larva of 
which have been found by Capt. McGinnis, U.S.A., to injure the 
hickory hoops of the powder barrels of the St. Louis Powder 
Depot. So injurious has this gnat proved that no inconsiderable 
sum is now annually spent in re-coopering barrels in order to 
make good the injury thus done. Means have been taken to 
prevent the ravages of the insects. 

A Large Saw-fish. — In a communication from Samuel A. 
Shields, Jr., we are informed that the saw-fish (Pristis) which was 
caught in Grassy sound, opposite Five-mile beach, and about 
seven miles from Cape May city, measured sixteen feet in length, 
and six feet from tip to tip of the pectorals fins ; its weight when 
caught was seven hundred pounds. The " saw " was four feet in 
length with twenty-four teeth on one side and twenty-five on the 
other. 

Wrens and the Bee Moth. — My bees have at times suf- 
fered a little from the ravages of the moth. But in some seasons 
I have had several pairs of wrens nesting in boxes suspended 
from trees near my apiary, and I have noticed that during these 
years the moths are always scarce and but seldom seen. While 
my observation has not been accurate and systematic enough to 
enable me to say positively that the little birds, by catching the 
winged insects, prevented them from depositing their eggs in the 
hives, and thus saved the bees from the destructive ravages of the 
worms, I have always belived they were entitled to the fullest 
credit in that direction. I am so confident of their good offices, 
that I shall try and provide all that come to my premises with 
nesting-boxes, though I am well aware that the best possible pro- 
tection is to keep the colonies of bees in the strongest possible 
condition. But I wish to give my feathered friends the amplest 
credit for all the good they do, and render all of the social kinds 
everv assistance in my power.— Chas. ALlricli, Webster city, Iowa, 
1878. 

A\ Owl's Revenge.— In a village of the canton of Vaud, the 
inhabitants of a comfortable dwelling house discovered, last 
April, that a family of owls had taken up their abode under the 
same roof with them. There was a hole in the wall of the gable 
end about twenty feet from the ground, and in it these birds h id 
made their nest. It was the first year that they had built in that 
place. 

A young farmer and three or four of his friends who had fre- 
quently observed the owls entering and flying out of the cavity, 



1 879.] Zoology. 263 

resolved to examine the nest. One Sunday in May, toward the 
close of the afternoon, they placed a ladder against the wall, 
whereupon the old birds flew out, and our young observers, 
going in turn to the summit, were able to gratify their curiosity 
by inspecting the family of owls. They found several young 
ones of extraordinary ugliness, and, according to their own 
account, after examining them they carefully replaced them in 
the nest. The parent b.irds did not that evening appear to be 
angered at the proceeding. 

The next night, however, between 9 and 10 o'clock, as the 
young farmer was returning home followed by his servant-man 
some six or seven paces in the rear, on passing by the wall in 
question he heard a sound of wings and a violent exclamation at 
the same time from the servant. The latter, in evident pain and 
alarm, held his hands clasped over his right eye. He stated that 
the owl had flown suddenly down upon him, had driven her tal- 
ons into his chin and then struck him upon the right eve with 
her beak. The blow, fortunately, did not fall on the eye-ball, 
and was not followed by an)' mutilation. Upon examination there 
were to be seen, besides a violent bruise below the eye, two 
bleeding wounds on the chin, the unmistakable imprint of the 
talons of the bird of night. 

The man could not sleep during the night, partly from pain, 
partly from the necessity of applying cooling lotions to the 
injured part; he had plenty of time, therefore, to meditate upon 
vengeance, and the destruction of the nest was determined upon. 
But the next morning, about 5 o'clock, a cousin of the farmer 
pissing by found the young owls on the ground at the foot of the 
wall. Unaware of the attack of the evening before, he gathered 
them up and with the aid of the ladder replaced them in their 
nest. Had some one taken these little creatures out? Had 
they fallen down? or, had the parents ruthlessly expelled them 
from the nest, no longer enduring them since human eyes had 
seen them in all their repulsiveness? To this no one can reply. 
It sometimes happens that a man fired with revenge, steals, knife 
in hand, behind his victim, strikes the fatal blow, and then dis- 
covers that he has mistaken the person ; Such an incident 
occurred in Morges not long since. Was tnis the case with the 
owl ? Were the young ones in fact taken from the nest the suc- 
ceeding evening, and did the mother's vengeful beak merely 
•strike the wrong person ? It is impossible to decide this. The 

nest, and that at the moment when he was attacked he was as 
innocent as a new-born child. 

The next day witnessed a new act in the little drama. The 
owl, guilty both of malice and of a blunder, was speedily tried, 
condemned, and the suppression of the entire brood included in 
the sentence. Execution followed in the afternoon. The owls 



264 General Notes. [April, 

were absent or had fled at the raising of the ladder, but the nest 
was destroyed and the young ones killed. Immediately afterward 
the parent-birds returned, exhibited the liveliest agitation, and 
flew backward and forward between the roof and a neighboring 
tree, snapping their beaks and uttering continual cries. The 
death of the old birds was also decreed, and for an hour or more 
the young man and his friends made vain attempts to shoot them. 
They were provided with an excellent gun, but the movement of 
the birds was so rapid that all their efforts were unavailing. 
Twilight came on, ami still the owls pertinaciously hovered in the 
neighborhood of their ruined home. The friends becoming impa- 
tient went away, and the increasing darkness at length compelled 
the young man to give up his purpose. Just then the female owl 
flew into the dense foliage of a tree ; into this the sportsman was 
about to fire at hazard when he suddenly heard a violent rustling 
of wings and leaves ; the bird shot like an arrow across the thirty 
or forty feet of interval, M. I . received a fierce blow full on the 
left eye, and at the same time was conscious of the rapid appari- 
tion of two round flaming eyes close to his face. The shock and 
the pain were so violent that M. F. fell backward on the ground. 
The owls flew away, and only reappeared at long intervals during 
the ensuing clays. The next morning after a night of suffering, 

with a bandage over his left eye, and the servant driving, with a 
bandage over his right. The injuries were as follows: the man 
presented a severe contusion of the tissues around the lower bor- 
der of the eye, extensive swelling and infiltration of blood in the 
eyelids and under the conjunctiva. Ten or twelve days of cold 
applications removed all traces of the attack. 

M. F., on the other hand, was seriously injured. An L-shaped 
wound had laid open the cornea, through the edges of which 
projected two fragments of the iris. The anterior chamber was 
obliterated, the crystalline lens crushed, and the tissues generally 
infiltrated from the hemorrhage. The patient could scarcely per- 
ceive the strongest light, and his sufferings were so acute that 
for some days injections of morphia were continually required. 

(The details of the treatment of the case will not interest the 
readers of the N \ 1 \:\< u.ist, suffice it to say that after four weeks 
of suffering, during which iridectomy was performed, M. F. 
recovered a partial degree of sight in the injured organ, though 
Dr. Dufour is of the opinion that the eyeball will ultimately 
become atrophied.) 

From this recital two conclusions may be fairly drawn: 

1. That the owl is courageous enough not to fear attacking a 

2. That when thus attacking, its blows are directed only at the 
eye. This intention, or these tactics, as it may be termed, was 
clearly shown in the two occurrences related. 



/tropology. 265 

srtain exactly to what species tbe.se 
lirds could be neither captured nor 
supposed, after tbe .second attack a 

All was without avail, they with- 
aiul were only seen again at long 

A'. Fletehei from the TulUtin de la 



The International Congress of Anthropological Sciences 

August 16-21, 1878. — First Day.— Opening address of the Presi- 
dent, Dr. Paul Broca. Report upon anthropological societies and 
instructions in anthropology, by Dr. Thulie. Report upon ana- 
tomical, biological, and pathological anthropology, by Dr. Paul 
Topinard. Report upon ethnology of Europe, of Western Asia, 
and America, bv M. Girard de Rialle. Report upon the ethnol- 
ogy of Eastern Asia, Africa, and Oceanica, by Dr. Bordier. First 
report palaeoethnology — geological times, by M. Gabriel de Mor- 
tellett. Second report upon pahxoethnology — neolithic period, or 
that of polished stone, by M. Emile Cartailhac Report upon 
Demography in relation t'o Anthropology, by Dr. Chervin. 

Second Session.— Physical development of the two sexes in Italy, 
by M. Paghani. Relations of the conformation of the skull with in- 
telligence, by M. Le Bon. Notes upon the East Indians trans- 
ported into Guiana, by Dr. Maurel. Notes on the hair, by Dr. 
Latteux. Relations of the proportions of the skull with those of 
the body, by Madame Clemence Royer. New dolmens in Portu- 
gal, by M. Da Silva. 

Third Session. — Anthropological mensurations, by Professor 
Stieda. The legend of the Nitttons, and the origin or cause of its 
expansion, by M. Edossard Dupont. Anthropological and ethno- 
graphical notes on Central Asia, by M. de Ujfaloy. Anthropome- 
try, by Dr. Paul Topinard. Nineteen brains of criminals, by M. 
Benedict. A Tumulus on the banks of the Parana, Buenos 
Ayrcs, by M. Kstasnilas Ceballo. Upon the arrival of the Bo- 
hen n ins in Europe, by M. Bataillard. 

Fourth Session.— The ancient ( luanehes, bv Dr. Chil y Naranjo. 
Creation of laboratories in the colonies of different States, by Prof. 
Virchow. Incised bones of cetaceans of the tertiary epoch, by 
Professor Capellini. The flaked flints of St. Acheul, by M. 
d'Acy. A cemetery of the epoch of bronze at Pogues (Nievre). 
by M. Jacquinot. Digging in the grotto of the Mammoth, Poland, 
Count Zawisha. 

r Tilth Session.— The ancient monuments on the banks of the 
Vistula, by M. Zaborrowski. Homotypical characteristics of the 
thoracic and abdominal members, by M. Alexis Julien. DifTeren- 

1 Edited by Prof. Oris T. Mason, Columbian College, Wellington, D. C. 



266 General Notes. [April, 

tial characters of the inferior and superior races of men, by M. 
Abel Hovelacque. An indication of ante-Columbian relations be- 
tween America and Europe, by M. G. de Mortillet. Monograph 
upon the grottoes of human origin in the neighborhood of Brives, 
Correze, by E. Rupin and Ph. Lalande. The chipped flints from 
the north of Africa, and from the Orient, by Abbe Richard. 
Presentation of the album of the first age of iron, and of a 
palaeoethnological atlas of the Departments of France, by M. E. 
Chantre. Pre-historic man in the basin of La Plata river, by Fl. 
Ameghino. 

The communication of M. de Mortillet, whom we have learned 
to regard with especial reverence, is certainly premature, to say the 
least. The St. Acheul axes, alleged to be pre-glacial and intra- 
glacial, are found by the hundreds on the surface all along our 
eastern rivers. It is to be hoped that the patriarch of archaeology 
will suspend his judgment until the facts are more fully in hand. 

The paper of M. Ameghino is very interesting and is well re- 
ported in the seventh and eighth numbers of M ate riaux, from 
which magnificent journal this account is taken. 

The following is a list of some Anthropological Cata- 
logues of the Paris Exposition, 1878. — Catalogue de 1' Expo- 
sition des sciences Anthropologiques. Supplement au Catalogue 
des produits dc l'Autriche. Vienne, Juin, 1878. 40 pp., 8vo. 

Dr. G. C. M. Birdwood, Exposition Universelle. Manuel de la 
section des Indes Britanniques. Londreset Paris. 144 pp., 8vo., 
5 pi. 1 ft. 25. 

Catalogue raisonne des Antiquites du nord firmo-ougrien ex- 
posees par l'Universite Alexandrine d'Helsingfors a 1'Exposition 
Universelle de 1 878. 36 pp., 8vo., avec gravures ; 

Catalogue des cranes d'origine finnoise exposes par le musee 
d'anatomie de l'Universite Imperiale d'Alexandre, en Finlande, 
a l'exposition des sciences anthropologiques. 20 pp., 8vo., une 

Espafia : Catalogos de las secciones de ciencias anthropologicas 
y de arte retrospectivo. Madrid, 1878. 56 pp., 8vo. 

Catalogue special de la section anthropologique et paleonto- 
logique de la Republique Argentine. 80 pp., lithog , Paris. 

Exposition Universelle de Paris. Exposition ethnographique 
du musee d' ethnographie Scandinave a Stockholm, represent.6 par 
le Dr. Arthur Hazelius, fondateur et directeur du musee. 8 

Catalogue des objets envoyes a 1'Exposition Universelle de 
Paris, en 1878, par les exposants du departement tie la Savoie. 
Chamberry, 1878 ; p. 302-355 consacrees a l'exposition anthropo- 
logique. 

Philbert Breban : Livret-guide du visiteur a l'exposition his- 
torique du Trocadero, Paris, Dentu. I fr. 

Tarameli Torquato : Note succincte sur l'Atlas de I'Orographie 



1 879.] Anthropology. 267 

des Alpes orientalis dans les periods tertiaire etpostertiaire, essai de 
geologie continentale expose aux sciences anthropologiques ; 
Trocadero, Pavie, 1878. 12 pp., 8vo. 

A. Mariette Bey: La galerie de l'Egypte ancienne a Imposi- 
tion retrospective du Trocadero. Description sommaire, Paris, 
1878. 126 pp., 8vo. 

Chauvet et Lievre : Les tumulus de la Boixe. Angouleme, 
1878. . 44PP-, 6 pi. 

G. Chauvet: Notes sur la periodeneolithique dans la Charente. 
Angouleme, 1878,' 25 pp., 3 pi. 

Rules for the organization, in 1879, of an Anthropological Ex- 
position of the Imperial Society of the Friends of the Natural 
Sciences, of Anthropology and Ethnology attached to the Uni- 
versity of Moscow (confirmed by order of the government, May 20, 
1878). We extract certain paragraphs of the circular, as being of 

I. In order to familiarize the public with the questions of 
anthropology, principally respecting Russia, and to found at Mos- 
cow an anthropological museum as complete as possible, an 
anthropological exposition will be organized at Moscow during 
the summer of 1879. 

II. The exposition shall be composed of objects having rela- 
tion : 1. To the anthropological study of races which inhabit 
Russia. 2. To ante-historic races of that country (pre-historic 
archaeology). 3. To general anthropology and to the systematic 
classification of races. 

III. The objects admitted to the Exposition may be classed as 
follows : 

1. Works concerning the anthropology and ethnology of 

Russia, and pre-historic archaeology. 

2. Charts of the distribution of races, and pre-historic monu- 

3. Photographs of types of different races, views of character- 

istic localities for the study of their customs, photographs 
and designs of costumes, utensils, habitations, and scenes 
displaying the manners of primitive peoples. 

4. Busts and lay figures of different types. 

5. Models of habitations and of costumes of primitive 

6. Objects of domestic use, or having relation to the beliefs 

and the industry of the lower races. 

7. Statistical tables of births, deaths, &c. 

8. Models of tumuli {Kourganes) and of tombs. 

9. Objects taken from ancient tombs, or pertaining to the 

pre-historic epoch. 
10. Charts of geological sections and important localities for 
the study of ante-historic man; plans, models and 
designs of caverns. 



268 General Notes. [April, 

1 1. Specimens of minerals which have served as material for 

ante-historic and primitive man for the fabrication of 
tools, and charts of their distribution. 

12. Specimens of fossil and extant plants which are important 

in the study of the conditions of existence as affecting 
primitive races. 

13. Remains of characteristic animals, or such as are related 

to the conditions of existence among the lower races. 
Skeletons and anatomical models of existing animals 
necessary to the comparative study of fossils. 

14. Apparatus of anthropological research. 

15. Anatomical models for the comparative study of races, 

necessary for instruction and the study of general 
anthropological questions. 

16. Chemico-technical investigations upon objects of pre- 

historic archaeology. 

17. Elementary manuals designed to impart knowledge con- 

cerning the races of men, used in the courses of history 
and geography of the primary and secondary schools. 
Anthropological News. — Robert Clarke & Co., of Cincinnati, 
have issued a pamphlet of 75 pages, by Judge M. F. Force, con- 
taining two papers, the first of which is entitled, "Some Eurlv 
Notices of the Indians of Ohio," the second, "To what Race did 
the Mound-builders belong." In the latter half of the seventeenth 
century, after the destruction of the Eries by the Five Nations, 
in 1656, what is now the State of Ohio was uninhabited. In the 
next half century, the first half of the eighteenth, various tribes 
pressed into Ohio. The Wyandots, or Hurons, extended their 
settlements into the North-western portion of Ohio and became 
permanently fixed there. Shawnees settled the Scioto Valley, 
Delavvares moved to the valley of the Muskingum. Little detach- 
ments of the Five Nations, mostly Senecas, occupied part of the 
northern and eastern borders. The band of Senecas who settled 
between the Muskingum and the Pennsylvania border were called 
Mingoes. Parties of Cherokees often penetrated north of the 
Ohio, between 1700 and 1750, and later a party of them settled 
among the Wyandots, in the neighborhood of Sandusky. The 
history of the Eries and the Shawnees occupies the most of the 
first paper, and is well fortified by references to the original 
authorities from which the author has drawn. The paper upon 
the Mound-builders was read before the Congres International 
des Americanistes, at Luxembourg, September, 1877. The con- 
clusions to which the author arrives, are as follows : " The present 
state of information, therefore, leads to the conclusion that the 
Mound-builders were tribes of American Indians of the same race 
with the tribes now living; that they reached a stage of advance- 
ment about equal to that of the Pueblo Indians ; that they were 
flourishing about a thousand years ago, and earlier and later; and 



that at least i 
some of their 
covery of America." 

On page 56, mention is made of trees on the mounds, six hun- 
dred years old, and this remark follows: "Some of the works, 
therefore, must have been abandoned six or eight hundred years 
ago. It is quite possible that they were abandoned earlier, for 
these surviving trees may not have been the first to spring up on 
the abandonment of the work." 

It is well to bear in mind the following facts before basing a 
chronological deduction upon trees : I. The outer rings of a stump 
are very much narrower than the inner rings. If a section of the 
outer part of a stump decayed in the centre be counted, and the 
number of rings be multiplied by the ratio of the thickness of this 
section to the radius, it will give the age of the tree far greater 
than it really was. A ratio of increment could easily be obtained 
by examining a large number of stumps. Will not some one 
make the calculation for us ? 2. Although the ground from 
which oak forests are cut, springs up thickly with pines, yet any 
one, by walking through these pines, will find here and there 
oaks which in the long struggle for existence will overtop the 
growth which now conceals them. 3. What evidence have we, 
that trees, especially nut-bearing trees, were not allowed to grow 
upon these works by the Mound-builders while they were still in 
possession of them? If this be true, all we can say is, that the 
mound or work was constructed (not abandoned) so many years 
ago. 

These slight queries must not be allowed to detract from the 
value of Judge Force's highly meritorious work, especially with 
reference to the Erics and Shawnees, the latter of whom seems to 
have been the Gypsies of North America. 

Mr. J. D. Putnam, Secretary of the Davenport Academy, sends 
us photographs of two mound pipes, one of them representing an 
animal like a bear, the other (mirabile dictu !) an elephant. The 
former creates no surprise ; the latter is so like an elephant in body, 
limbs, head, trunk, all but tusks, that we have no hesitation in 
saying that the maker of it had seen an elephant, and tried to re- 
produce his likeness in this pipe. It was taken from a mound in 
Muscadine county, Iowa, and, so far as the integrity of the finder 
is concerned, is a genuine mound relic. It is impossible to state 
what the significance of tins find may be; coupled with the dis- 
covery of an elephant mound in Grant county, in the adjoining 
State of Wisconsin, it seems to point to a former connection of 
the mammoth with man on our continent. By preserving the 
most scrupulous account of these ancient landmarks we may, in 
time, be able to explain their significance by further discoveries. 



270 General Notes. [April, 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

The Genus Ccelodon.— In the Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. v, 1887, 
Prof. J. G. Reinhardt gives the first full account of the genus 
Ccclodo)i of Lund, heretofore only described from a few fragments. 
The remains were all found by Lund in Brazil, and include, be- 
sides the fragments of the C. maqninensis, a skull and a good 
many bones of the skeleton of a second species which is described 
by Reinhardt as C. escrivancnsis. The characters of the genus 
are very interesting, being near to Megatherium, although the 
species were not larger than the great ant-eater. The paper is 
well illustrated. 

Dawson on Eozoox. — In the last number of the Amer. Journ. 
of Science and Arts, Prof. Dawson criticises the memoir of 
Mobius mentioned in the last number of the Naturalist. He 
thinks that Dr. Mobius has misinterpreted the evidence derived 
from his specimens. Thus he has mistaken the veins of chryso- 
tile, which traverse the serpentine and calcite, for the walls of the 
Eozo'on chambers. His objections to the unsymmetrical and 
irregular forms of the large so-called tubules, are met by the 
statement that these irregularities are due to pressure, faulting 
and other incidents of fossil ization. The regular round and 
branching tubules, regarded as accidental by Mobius, are stated 
to be the normal structure by Dawson. 

A New Genus of Perissodactyla. — In 1873 I described a 
species of ungulate, supposed to be related to the Rfun&cerida, 
from the White river beds of Colorado, under the name of Hy- 
racodon qnadriplicatus. Further investigation shows that this 
animal represents a genus hitherto unknown, whose affinities are 
probably as much to the tapirs as to the rhinoceroses. The molars 
have the form and structure of those of Lophiodon, and the third 
and fourth premolars have the same characters as the true molars, 
which is not the case in that genus. The second premolar pre- 
sents the elongate form characteristic of some species of Anchi- 
therium. It has two cross-crests, and the external longitudinal 
crest presents three lobes besides the anterior and posterior pro- 
longations, somewhat as in the corresponding deciduous tooth. I 
call this genus Anchisodon: the species . /. qnadriplicatus was as 
large as the Aceratheriinn occidentalc. A second species has been 
found in the John Day region of Oregon, in the White river 
formation. Its molar teeth differ in the presence of a fossa which 
is isolated by the contact of the edges of two processes, one from 
the external crest, the other from the posterior. cross-crest. The 
anterior cross-crest has no processes; there is a compressed tuber- 
cle at the entrance of the transverse valley, but no cingulum on 
the posterior base of the crown as in A. quadriplicates. The fore 
and aft diameter of a middle molar is .028 m., the transverse .028. 
The anterior crest is strongly recurved, and the posterior notch 



1 8/9-] Geography and Travels. 27 1 

is profound. Enamel smooth. The species may be called Anchi- 
sotlon iubifcr.—E. D. Cope. 

A New Genus of Ichthyopterygia. — Prof. Marsh has recently 
described a genus which he does not distinguish from fe/it/iyosait- 
rus excepting by the entire absence of teeth, and even of a den- 
tal groove. He names the genus Sauranodon. The only known 
species .S. natans is from the marine Jurassic of the Rocky 
mountains, and is about nine feet in length. Prof. Marsh pro- 
poses to regard Sauranodon as the type of a new order, but the 
only reason he assigns for this course, the absence of teeth, is 

Muschelkalk Fossils in Idaho — In the last number of the 
Bulletin of the Hayden Survey, Dr. A. C. Peale describes certain 
mesozoic strata of South-eastern Idaho, which contain both 
Jurassic and Triassic invertebrate fossils. The lowest of these 
contains Cephalopods described by Dr. White, which Mr. Hyatt 
regards as more nearly allied to the forms of the Muschelkalk, 
although they are associated with some Jurassic species, one of 
which is also doubtfully identified from the top of the section. 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 1 
The Dutch Arctic Expedition. — In the Naturalist for 
August, 1878, mention was made of the sailing of the small 
schooner Willem Barents from Fjmuidcn, on the 5th of May, 
1873, for the Arctic seas. This preliminary voyage was chiefly 
undertaken to give experience in ice navigation to officers and 
men, as well as to make scientific observations in the Barentz sea, 
between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya, and is expected to be 
followed by a second and more important expedition. For an 
account of the experiences of this small company of fourteen 
souls, we are, indebted chiefly to Mr. Clements R. Markham. 2 

After calling at the Norwegian port of Bergen, they set sail on 
the 1 8th of May for Jan Mayen, arriving in sight of this remote 
volcanic island on a fine day, June 9th. The view, so rarely 
enjoyed in this region of continual fog, was impressive. The 
island is thirty miles long and nine broad, and at the north end 
rises the remarkable volcanic peak, Beerenberg, 63CO feet in 
height, covered with snow almost to the water's edge, and pre- 
senting a most imposing appearance, the high jagged summits of 
the lower hills, fvo;n which smoke was slowly rising, appearing 
quite dwarfed in comparison. 3 

A storm arising prevented their landing, and on the 12th they 

1 Edited by Ellis H. Yarnall, Philadelphia. 

2 Procetdin ty, 1S79. 

8 See Illustrated London News for October 26, 1878, for view of Jan Mayen from 



272 General Notes. [April, 

reached the edge of the west ice, and keeping along the line of 
this ice they reached the north-western end of Spitzbergen on 
the 19th. "Spitzbergen has justly earned its name, for one sees 
nothing but sharp-pointed rocks showing amongst the colossal 
glaciers, while the sun, throwing a red glow, brings the whiteness 
of the snow into startling contrast with the deep shadows." On 
the 27th they reached their furthest northern point in 8o° 18' N., 
off Verlegen Hoek. After stopping at Amsterdam island to 
erect a memorial slab of granite in the midst of the graves of 
Dutch whalers who died there in 1633-5, and touching at Bear 
island they arrived at Vardo, in Norway, on the 22d of July, and 
then commenced the reconnaisance of the sea of Barentz, sailing 
north along the 45th meridian. Ice was again met on the 1st of 
August at 77 10' N., and after proceeding westward and attain- 
ing a point (lat. 77 44' N., long. 35 30' E.) eighty miles from 
Wyche island, they were driven to the south by heavy gales. To 
the eastward of longitude 3 8° the ice was found to be thin, level 
and rotten, while to the westward there were heavy floes of 
immense thickness with hummocks thirty feet high. In the 
beginning of August they appeared to be on the boundary line 
where the warm and cold currents meet. Up to that time they 
found that the temperature of the sea decreased with its depth ; 
but here they met with cold and warm currents flowing one over 
the other. The explorers next proceeded to Novaya Zemlya, and 
proceeding northwards along the coast to Cape Nassau, steered 
to the north-west and found the ice-field on September 7th in 78 
17' and 55 14' E. From here the Willtm Barents made her 
way to Hammerfest, and this successful trip was finally ended at 
Amsterdam on the 13th of October. Experience of the ice 
movements between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya had been 
acquired, a full hourly series of meteorological observations had 
been taken as well as deep sea soundings and magnetic observa- 
tions and very valuable collections in natural history made. Not- 
withstanding almost constant fogs an excellent series of photo- 
graphs was completed. 

The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition. — During the 
past three summers a Norwegian expedition under the charge of 
Dr. Mohn, Dr. Sars and other scientific men has been exploring 
the sea between Norway, the Ferroe islands, Iceland and Spitz- 
bergen. Being well supplied with the most recent inventions for 
dredging, sounding, obtaining sea temperatures, etc., the scientific 
results are stated to be very satisfactory. Their investigations 
have now been concluded. The three summers have yielded in 
all 375 sounding stations, 113 temperature series, 44 dredgings 
and 42 trawlings. It was ascertained that during June and July 
the minimum temperature of the water off the coast of Norway 
is neither at the bottom nor at the surface, but at some inter- 
mediate strata of considerable depth. The explanation offered is 



1879] Geography and Travels. 273 

that in winter the cold water of the surface descends on account 
of its increased weight, until it reaches a stratum where the super- 
incumbent water causes by pressure an equal density. In the 
warm months the surface water becoming heated has no ten- 
dency to sink. The warm Atlantic current was traced to the 
north of the eightieth degree of latitude along the west coast of 
Spitzbergen. 

Geographical News.— The parties under Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, 
Corps of Engineers, continued their work during the season 
of 1878, in California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, New 
Mexico, Utah and Washington Territory, and surveyed ap- 
proximatively 35,000 square miles, commencing July 1st and end- 
ing December 25th. Lieut. Wheeler was with party No. 1, Cali- 
fornia section, in the region north of a line joining Fort Klamath, 
Oregon, and Camp Bidwell, California, northward to the Columbia 
river. Prof. Stevenson, geologist, and his assistant, Mr. Russell, 
investigated the coal fields of Colorado and eastern New Mexico, 
and Mr. Henshaw continued to increase his zoological collections 
in California and Oregon. 

Recent geographical publications in Germany include: Aus 
Mexico, Reiseskizzen aus der Jahren 1874 und 1875, von Dr. 
Fr. Ratzel; Reise durch den Stillen Ocean, von Max Buchner; 
Die Sahara, oder von Oase zu Oase, Bilder aus den Natur und 
Volksleben in der grossen afrikanischen Wuste, von Dr. Josef 
Chavanne ; Die Literatur iiber die Polar Regionen der Erde, 
von Dr. Josef Chavanne; Abriss der praktischen Astronomie, 
vorziiglich in ihrer Anwendung auf geographische Ortsbestim- 
mung, von Dr. A. Sawitsch nach der zweiten russisctien Original 
Ausgabe; Ethiopien-Studien iiber West-Afrika. von Dr. W. 
Hiibbe-Schleiden, and Ueitrfige zur physischer Geographie der 
Mittelmeerlander besondcrs Siciliens, von Theobald Fischer. 

Dr. Edwin' R. Heath, of Wisconsin, sailed from New York 
November 18, 1878, for Para. He expects to explore the Beni 
and Madre di Dios rivers of Brazil. He has already spent some 
years in South America and is well prepared for the difficult 
work he has undertaken. 

The newly colonized " northern territory " of South Australia 
is not the desert it was recently thought to be. The appearance 
of the natives is very gaunt and peculiar, their black faces being 
painted across with bands of white, so that they have a death's- 
head like appearance. It is stated that they cut off a joint from 
the finger of a mother for every child of hers that dies. As they 
also kill their weakly or delicate children, this practice is likely 
often to be of considerable inconvenience. — London Times. 

The Russian government survey for a railway between Oren- 
burg and Tashkend is finished and shows that it is quite possible 
to carry the line through the desert of Kara-Kum. An explora- 
tion will be made in 1879 towards Samarcand and in the direc- 



274 Scientific News. [April, 

tion of Cabul and Peshawur. Col. Prejevalsky will shortly set 
out on his new exploring expedition to Kuldja, Thibet and the 
Himalayas. 

The last supplement to Pctcrmanns Mitthcihin^cn is devoted to 
an elaborate monograph by Dr. G. A. Credner, of Halle Univer- 
sity, upon deltas. The paper is divided into two sections. In 
the first he treats of the limits of deltas, their character, and 
formation of their surface, their size, power, material, rate and 
results of growth, their age, number and geographical distribution 
and classification. In the second he treats of the origin and 
causes of the formation of deltas, and the geological problem 
thus presented. Maps showing the various deltas and illustrating 
the upheaval and subsidence of land are also given. 

The British Arctic exploring ship Alert has again been put 
into commission under her old captain, Sir George Nares, for 
surveying service in Magellan's straits and the south Pacific. The 
work in Magellan's straits is expected to occupy from one to 
two years. The Alert will then proceed to make isolated but 
important surveys in the neighborhood of the Society, Friendly 
and Fiji islands and of shoals and reefs between the Fijis and New 
Zealand, and finally on the south-western and north-western coasts 
of Australia. 

Major Herbert Wood and other writers have heretofore confi- 
dently asserted that the ancient river Oxus (now the Amu Darya) 
has within historic times emptied into the Caspian sea, and that 
its ancient channel can still be traced. The recent breaking 
down of a dam at Fort Bend on the Amu, which has caused a 
deviation of its waters in the direction of this old bed, has orig- 
inated the report mentioned in the London Times that the river 
was about to resume its former course. Prof. Kiepert now writes 
to the Berlin National Zeitung to deny this report. He asserts 
that the old bed of the Oxus belongs to geology and not to his- 
tory and that the project of completely restoring the ancient 
water-course and opening a new water way from Moscow to the 
heart of Asia is one which would overtask the resources of the 
richest state. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
— In December, 1878, Dr. Gustav Leonhard, of Heidelberg, 
died, leaving the editorial management of the Jahrbuch fur 
Mineralogie, so long and favorably know in America, in the 
hands of Dr. Hans Bruno Geinitz, of Dresden. Now, after six- 
teen years association with Dr. Leonhard, Dr. Geinitz retires from 
the editorship. The dissolution of this distinguished partnership 
will create a new feature in geological literature, and we can only 
wish Dr. Geinitz the same success in the cultivation of his favor- 
ite science in the future that he has had in the past. 



— We regret to learn that in the great press of business which 
occupied the last hours of the late National Congress, the 
amendment to the Legislative, etc., Appropriation Bill, abolishing 
the existing Geological Surveys of the Territories, was passed. 
The fact that this measure had been defeated in the Committee 
on the Whole, and also in the House by votes of two to one, did 
not prevent its passage in consequence of a transfer at the last 
moment to the Sundry Civil Bill. A large number of scientific 
men will now have opportunity to repent at leisure their apathy in 
having allowed the substitution of one organization in place of three 
or four, which will, in all probability, not receive from Congress 
even the third of the aid which the surveys have been accustomed 
to obtain. The only remedy is to give the direction of the new 
Bureau to the man who has shown himself most influential in 
impressing Congress with the importance of making large appro- 
priations for scientific work. The plausible plea that the geologi- 
cal surveys have been misused for the prosecution of zoological 
and other work, however it may affect the Executive, will not 
receive much sympathy from men of science. It is not true that 

, a generous sympathy with all branches of science unfits a man 
for the directorship of a scientific survey. 

— With much regret we have to announce the death of the 
distinguished palaeontologist and comparative anatomist, Paul 
Gervais, which took place on February the ioth, in Paris. Prof. 
Gervais was born at Paris, on September 26, 1816. After taking 
the degree of doctor in science and medicine, he served as one of 
the aide-naturalistes of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. In 
1 84 1 he became professor of zoology to the Faculte des Sciences 
of Montpellicr; and on the death of Gratiolet, in 1865, he was 
appointed to the vacant professorial chair at the Museum d'His- 
toire Naturelle, which he filled till his death. M. Gervais' pow- 
ers and industry are attested by the value and number of his 
scientific papers, which in 1873 amounted to a hundred and sixty- 
four in number. In these he touched on almost every group of 
the animal kingdom ; but his principal attention was directed to 
the higher classes, especially to the mammalia, recent and 
extinct. Of his separate works the most generally known arc his 
Zoologie et Paleontolngie Franchises, Zoologie et Paleontologie 
genera l«_\s, Osti-ographio des Monotremes, and (in collaboration 
with Prof. P. van Beneden) his Osteographic dc^ Cetaces ; both 
of the last-named works are unfortunately left unfinished. He 
was principal editor of the Journal de Zoologie. 

In 1873 M. Gervais was elected a member of the Academic 
des Sciences, and he was a foreign member of the geological and 
zoological societies of London. 

Prof. Gervais was one of the few living authorities on the 
palaeontology of the Vertebrata, and was engaged at the time of 



276 Scientific Nezvs. [April, 

his death on a work on the minute structure of the bone of the 
various groups of Vertebrata. He leaves a son who is an' able 

— The Geological Society of London has awarded to Prof. 
E. D. Cope the Bigsby Gold Medal in recognition of his services 
to palaeontology. 

— It appears that the Legislature of Pennsylvania is in some 
danger of failing to make appropriation for the continuation of 
the Geological Survey. We very much regret the existence of 
such a possibility, and hope that our legislators will carefully 
consider the interests of their constituents in this matter. Noth- 
ing is more valuable to a commonwealth than an inventory of its 
actual possessions, with a knowledge of their distribution and the 
methods of making them available. A knowledge of the physi- 
cal constitution of a region is also an essential in the educational 
system of its inhabitants. Neither of these ends can be accom- 
plished without the Geological Survey made by experts in the 
science, and no class of public servants produces more valuable 
work for less money than they. By all means continue the 

— We have received the first number of the Guide du Natu- 
raliste. Revue bibliographique des Sciences Naturelles, Bulletin 
mensuel. Par A. Bouvier. Paris, [879. (Un franc le numeral 
This is a valuable and newsy monthly, giving full details of con- 
tents of the journals and proceedings of the scientific societies of 
France, with courses of lectures in botany, zoology and geology. 

— An elaborate and fully illustrated essay, by Dr. Hermann 
Miiller, on the Cross-fertilization of plants, extracted from 
Schenk's Handbuch der Botanik, has been received too late for 
careful review. 

— Early in January about five million young codfish were 
turned into the sea by the assistants of the United States Fish 
Commissions stationed at Gloucester, Mass. 

— At the annual meeting of the California Academy of Sci- 
ences, held Monday, Jan. 6th, the following officers for 1879 were 
elected : President, George Davidson ; corresponding secretary, 
S. B. Christy; director of museum, W. G. W. Harford. 

— The Marquess of Tvvccdale, better known as Viscount Wal- 
den, President of the Zoological Society of London, died Dec. 
29th, 1878. He was an active ornithologist, paying especial 
attention to the birds of the East Indies. 

— Victor Ghiliani, one of the founders of the Italian Entomo- 
logical Society, died in May last at Turin. Dr. Wilhelm Engel- 
mann, the eminent German publisher of scientific books died at 
Leipzig, December 23. 



r>r>Li tdiu^s of Scientific 



— According to Nature, the widow of the late Prof. Eichwald 
has presented the remarkable palaeontological collections of her 
husband to the St. Petersburg University. The collection con- 
tains upwards of 30,000 specimens of fossils, from the various for- 
mations of Western Europe, from the Petchora Land, from the 
Aleutians islands, Siberia, Crimea, etc. 

— Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen, is the title of an atlas of 
foreign birds, just published by Fischer, of Cassel, under the care 
of Dr. Ant. Reichenow. It is noticed favorably by Nature. 

— Fresh attention is drawn to the study of microscopic organ- 
isms by the appearance of part one, of the third volume of 
Stein's great work on Infusoria ; as well as by a translation of 
Biitschli's essay on the Flagellate Infusoria (referring to H. James 
Clark's work done on American forms), and also by H. B. Brady's 
descriptions of deep sea Rhizopods in the Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopical Science. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

New York Academy of Sciences, Dec. 9, 1878. — Prof. Heniy 
Wurtz exhibited a large series of the minerals from the Silver 
Islet, Lake Superior, and described under the name of Huntilite 
(in honor of Prof. T. Sterry Hunt), a new species of silver ore 
from that locality. Huntilite occurs both massive and minutely- 
crystallized, and is essentially an arsenide of silver, occupying the 
gap in mineralogy between dyscrasite anddomeykite; dyad metals, 
especially nickel, appear to have replaced some part of the silver, 
and antimony a small part of the arsenic. Prof. Wurtz gave 
minute and laborious analyses and many interesting details. 

Dec. 23d. — Mr. A. A. Julian made a communication on the 
glacial excavation of the Kaaterskill Clove. Mr. B. B. Chamber- 
lin exhibited a series of minerals from the zinc and lead mines of 
Wisconsin. 

Jan. 6, 1879. — Dr - Ephraim Cutter addressed the Academy on 
Tolles' one-seventy-fifth-inch objective — its history, construction 
and use (with sciopticon illustrations). 

Jan. 13.— Prof. Henry Wurtz presented before the Chemical 
Section, further particulars of his new mineral, Huntilite, from 
the Silver Isles of Lake Superior. 

Jan. 20th.— Mr. S. W. Ford read a paper on the structure and 
development of certain primordial trilobites. Mr. A. A. Julian 
remarked on the conglomerate from the sand-beds of South- 
eastern New Jersey. Dr. R. P. Stevens made a communication 
on the glacial moraine at Jamaica, Long Island. 

Jan. 27th. — At a meeting of the section of Biology Dr. Charles 



278 Selected Articles in S, iciitifu Serials. [April, 1 879. 

F. Taylor presented the results of 
cho-biology, with especial referen 

March 3.— Mr. W. R. Gerard read a Note on the influence of 
sulphurous acid gas on coniferous trees. 



March 11. — Gen. R. E. Colston lectured upon Life in the east- 
ern and western deserts of Egypt and the Soudan, among the 
Bedouin tribes, with a description of their manners and customs, 
the waterless land, the mirage, the animals — especially the camel. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Feb. 19.— Mr. H. G. 
Kittredge read a paper on the Natural history of Cotton. Mr. 
L. S. Burbank made a communication on the Clay beds of 
ancient estuaries. 

March 5. — Prof. W. G. Farlow read a paper on North Ameri- 
can Characeae, and Mr. W. O. Crosby spoke concerning a possible 
origin of petrosilicious rocks. 

Appalachian Mountain Club, March 12. — Mr. G. F. Ham- 
mett read a Daper on the Practical application of mountain 
sketching, and Mr. W. O. Crosby spoke on the Pitch Lake of 
Trinidad. 

SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

SlEBOLD AND KoLLIKER's ZeITSCHRIFT FUR WISSENSCHAFTLICHE 

Zoologie. — December 19, 1878. The sexual organs of Cephalo- 
poda, by J. Brock. Sixth paper on the structure and develop- 
ment of sponges, by F. E. Schulze. Studies on the anatomy of 
breathing organs — I. On the anatomy of the gills of Serpula, by 

Bulletin of the U. S. Geological and Geographical Sur- 
vey of the Territories, Vol. v, No. 1. — Notes on the Aphididae 
of the United States, with descriptions of species occurring west 
of the Mississippi, by C. V. Riley and J. Monell. . The relations 
of the horizons of extinct vertebrata of Europe and North 
America, by E. D. Cope Observations on the faunae of the Mio- 
cene Tertiaries of Oregon, by E. D. Cope. Notes on the birds 
of Fort Sisseton, Dakota Territory, by C. E. McChesney. Pal- 
aeontological papers — No. 9. Fossils of the Jura-Trias of South- 
eastern Idaho, by C. A. White. Jura-Trias section of South- 
eastern Idaho and Western Wyoming, by A. C. Peale. Fossil 
forests of the volcanic Tertiary formations of the Yellowstone 
National Park, by W. H. Holmes. Palseontological papers— No. 
IO. Conditions of preservation of invertebrate fossils, by C. A. 
White. Supplement to the bibliography of North American 
invertebrate palaeontology, by C. A. White and H. A. Nicholson. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xiii. — MA Y, 1879. — No. 5. 



ON THE DESTRUCTIVE NATURE OF THE BORING 

SPONGE, WITH OBSERVATIONS ON ITS 

GEMMULES OR EGGS. 



IN 1871 a vessel laden with marble was sunk in Long Island 
sound, and according to Prof. Verrill, the boring sponge has 
penetrated the exposed parts of the blocks for a depth of two to 
three inches from the surface. The canals or tunnels in a speci- 
men of this marble which I have examined, vary from one-fourth 
to an hundredth of an inch and less in diameter ; the canals are 
coated within with a thin film of dried sarcode of a brown color, 
which was orange-colored in life. Though the sarcode is dried, 
the needle-shaped spicules are plainly visible under a one-fifth 
inch lens, and display the form usually seen in the same species 
found on the coasts of Europe. The spicules, according to 
my measurements are ^ of an inch long, agreeing exactly 
with the length given by Mr. H. J. Carter as observed in 
British specimens, and about t^tts of an mcn in diameter, 
and are, as is well known, siliceous. The specimen which 
I have seen, shows, in what appears to have been the inner por- 
tion of the block, a series of large branching canals which 
connect freely with each other in the most irregular way im- 
aginable ; moreover, the form of the canals in transverse sec- 
tion is exceedingly variable, being oval or irregular as often as it 
is circular. These last facts, together with that of the great 
variability in the calibre of the canals, leaves no doubt in my 
mind that it is the animal of the sponge which does the boring, 
and not marine worms which have politely abandoned their bur- 



280 Destructive Nature of the Boring Sponge. [May, 

rows for the accommodation of this toiler of the sea. It is well 
known that this species and its allies are found filling systems of 
canals in the shells of many species of mollusks, both dead and 
alive, as well as in fragments of limestone, but it is probably rare 
to find it in such a vigorous condition of development as in the 
submerged cargo of marble referred to above. Mr. H. J. Carter 
believes that occasionally some of the parasitic species do not 
bore their habitation but develop freely in the same manner as 
ordinary non-parasitic forms. Bowerbank in his " Monograph of 
the British Spongidae," mentions an affiliated species which is 
parasitic on a sea- weed, boring or dissolving away the soft parts and 
allowing the harder fibrous structures to remain as a means of 

It may be well to bear in mind that these sponges, notwith- 
standing the fact that they excavate their own habitations, are not 
parasites in the sense in which nematoid and cestoid worms are 
parasitic, as Haeckel, with his usual sagacity, points out in his 
Monograph of the Calcareous Sponges. 

Dr. O. Schmidt observes (Brehm's Thierleben), that, " A large 
portion of the coasts of the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas is 
composed of calcareous material which, from its tendency to 
become eroded, has a broken, jagged aspect, giving it a peculiar 
and often attractive appearance. Of such broken Dalmatian 
coast one can certainly measure off some thousands of miles of 
strand, and where it does not descend too abruptly, large and 
small stones and fragments of rocks cover the ground. One can 
scarcely pick up one of these billions of stones without finding it 
more or less perforated with holes and eroded by Cliona, often to 
such a degree that the spongy remains of the apparently solid 
stone may be crushed in the hand." The same writer farther 
observes : " This brings us finally to the question, by what means 
does this sponge eat its way into the rock ? One would first 
think of the siliceous needles as the cause, but we soon see that 
we must abandon the notion that this is the boring apparatus, 
since it must be borne in mind that such apparatus must be 
operated. Even though the protoplasm executes delicate fluc- 
tuating movements, so that in Cliona ( Vioa), as in many other 
sponges, the needles are drawn into bundles, rows or series in 
particular directions, in any case, the force so exerted would 
not be sufficient to scrape or erode the lime rock with their 



1 879.] Destructive Nature of the Boring Sponge. 281 

points. The mode of distribution and extension of the sponge 
would rather indicate that a process of chemical solution was the 
real agent at work in erosion. Of the exact constitution of this 
corrosive fluid we, however, as yet know nothing. The importance 
of the boring sponge in helping to effect the redistribution of 
eternal matter, does not consist in comminuting the stone into 
particles, but in dissolving it as sugar is dissolved in a glass of 
water, and mingled with the sea-water in this dissolved condition. 
Out of this solution the innumerable shell-fish take the mineral 
materials which have been mingled with their blood, and from 
which it is deposited as new layers on the shell, which, when the 
animal dies, either is also finally redissolved by the sponge, or 
falls to the bottom of the sea as a contribution to the earth's 

Dr. Leidy 1 observes in regard to the agency of this organism in 
disintegrating the shells of dead mollusks, "that an extensive bed 
of oysters, which had been planted by Thos. Beasley at Great 
Egg harbor, and which was in excellent condition three years 
since (1857), had been subsequently destroyed by an accumula- 
tion of mud. The shells of the dead oysters, which were of 
large size and in great number, in the course of two years have 
been so completely riddled by the boring Cliona, that they may 
be crushed with the utmost ease, whereas without the agency of 
this sponge the dead shells might have remained in their soft 
muddy bed devoid of sand and pebbles, undecomposed perhaps 
even for a century." The ability of such an organism to comminute 
both organic and inorganic calcareous materials is well illustrated 
in the instance above cited, and their influence in modifying the 
character of marine deposits is clearly implied. 

In a specimen of the common Ostrea virginiana, recently 
handed me for examination by my friend, Mr. John Ford, the 
substance of the shell was thoroughly cavernated so as to render 
it extremely brittle and readily crushed ; in fact the inner table 
of the shell left standing showed a great number of elevations 
within, which indicated points where the intruding parasite had 
been kept out by the oyster which had deposited new layers of 
calcareous matter at these places so as to give rise to the eleva- 
tions spoken of. Besides this, the inner table had become so 
weakened at the insertion of the adductor muscles that the animal 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. sciences 1'hila., vni, 162. 



282 Destructive Nature of the Boring Sponge. [May, 

in closing had torn a part of it loose, which had been repaired by 
the deposition of a brown horny substance. Evidence of the 
presence of the boring sponge may very frequently be noticed in 
shells of oysters brought to the markets, though it often appears 
as if the parasite had left its work incomplete, being killed on its 
host. I find that Schmidt has alsCnoted this, and that the boring 
operations of the sponge usually seem to stop in the case of 
living mollusks, at the nacreous layer. 

Dr. Leidy (1. c.) gives a lucid account of the living sponge as 
found in Ostrea virginiana and Venus mercenaria. He says, " This 
boring sponge forms an extensive system of galleries between the 
outer and inner layers of the shells, protrudes through the perfora- 
tions of the latter tubular processes, from one to two lines long, 
and one-half to three-fourths of a line wide. The tubes are of 
two kinds, the most numerous being cylindrical and expanded at 
the orifice in a corolla form, with their margin thin, translucent, 
entire, veined with more opaque lines, and with the throat brist- 
ling with siliceous spiculae. The second kind of tubes are com- 
paratively few, about as one is to thirty of the other, and are 
shorter, wider, not expanded at the orifice, and the throat unob- 
structed with spiculae. Some of the second variety of tubes are 
constituted of a confluent pair, the throat of which bifurcates at 
bottom. Both kinds of the tubes are very slightly contractile, 
and under irritation may gradually assume the appearance of 
superficial wart-like eminences within the perforations of the 
shell occupied by the sponge. Water obtains access to the inte- 
rior of the latter through the more numerous tubes, and is 
expelled in quite active currents from the wider tubes." 

A point of considerable interest in this connection is Mr. W. J. 
Sollas' 1 discovery of the existence of membranous and spiculifer- 
ous diaphragms in some English species of these sponges. These 
diaphragms are composed of sarcode in which, in some instances, 
very short club-shaped spicules are imbedded, pretty densely- 
packed together, with their opposite extremities lying at opposite 
surfaces of the diaphragm. In some cases the diaphragms are 
perforate, forming an annular band inside the canal and attached 
by an edge, the other edge being constricted somewhat, so that 
the bands sometimes have the form of hollow truncated cones. 
In other instances these partitions are membranous films contain- 

i Am. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5th Series, Vol. i, No. 1, 1878, p. 54. 



1 879.] Destructive Natur, :f the Boring Sponge. 283 

ng spicule of the ordinary form ; these also may be perforate or 
mperforate and conical. Their office is not yet understood, but 
t is suggested by their discoverer that they are for the purpose 
of interrupting or modifying the direction and flow of the cur- 
rents of water created by the ciliated cells of the tissue lining the 
cavities of the organism. 

In the examination of a second specimen kindly handed me by 
Mr. Ford, and which had been removed from its native brine only 
a few hours before, I was enabled to distinguish very plainly the 
ova or gemmules strewn through the orange-colored sarcode. 
These are bodies fully three times as large in diameter as the 
ordinary sponge cell, of an oval shape covered with a tough 
transparent rather thick membrane. The contents are transpa- 
rent and granular with the exception of the nucleus, which is 
opaque and deep-orange in color and is often broken up into sev- 
eral apparently homogeneous granules of variable size ; a part of 
these granules may occupy one extremity of the ovum, another 
part the other, or they may be placed eccentrically, or be arranged 
in a semicircle. The diversity in this respect is very great, so 
that but few are met with which are very nearly alike. These 
differences may represent various stages of development, but 
there seems to be a want of the orderly arrangement which 
would be expected if this were the case, besides, the wide sepa- 
ration of the nuclear bodies into two and even three parcels 
would not favor such a view. 

I was quite unable to distinguish any flagellate cells in this 
specimen, even with a power of 1000 diameters, although there 
can be little doubt of their existence, as may be inferred from 
Prof. Leidy's account of the physiological actions of the organ- 
ism. Mr. Carter, however, has figured these cells in a paper 
already referred to, and he observes that the flagelliform pro- 
cesses of the cells lining the canals of the fresh-water sponges are 
withdrawn into the sarcode body of the cell soon after being 
detached from the walls of the canals, which may have been the 
trouble in this case. 



The Mesozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. [May, 



BY PERSIFOR FRAZER, JR. 

THREE pamphlets lie on our table and constitute very im- 
portant additions to the knowledge of the most puzzling of 
all geological formations, viz : that portion of the series lying 
between the Carboniferous and Cretaceous in this country. They 
are entitled as follows : " The Mesozoic Formation in Virginia, 
by Oswald J. Heinrich, Mining Engineer," 1 " Notes on the Mes- 
ozoic of Virginia, by Wm. M. Fontaine," 2 and " The Physical 
History of the Triassic Formation of New Jersey and the Con- 
necticut valley, by Israel C. Russell." 3 

Without disparaging the merits of the other two, it must be 
said that the paper of Mr. Heinrich embraces more exact and 
positive knowledge of lasting value than either of the others. 
To complete the set, there should be added to the three just men- 
tioned, a pamphlet of a few pages, by Persifor Frazer, Jr., on 
" The Position of the American New Red Sandstone" (read at 
the New York meeting of the A. I. M. E., Feb., 1877). In this 
paper there is a column of strata represented in a section across the 
Mesozoic belt from York to Dillsburg which will be of interest 
to those who have carefully, read Mr. Heinrich's pages. 

These contributions, taken together, are so valuable that a 
brief sketch of their separate contents will be of interest. 

Fraze/s Paper. — To take them in the order of their date, 
Frazer speculates upon the probable relationships of the various 
strata represented in his broad section with those of the European 
column, rather leaning to the belief that the rocks of Mesozoic 
age in Southern Pennsylvania, correspond with those which fill 
in the space occupied by the upper half of the lower Permian 
and the superior beds at least to the base of the Lias (#. e., in- 
cluding the Rhaetic beds). He says : " By this hypothesis the 
1 New Red ' of York and Adams counties would reach from 
the middle portion of the lower half of the Dyas or Permian 
at least to the base of the Lias, including all the rocks at- 
tributed to the Trias and the beds below it, except the lower 

1 Read at the Phila. Meeting of the Am Lining Engineers, 
Feb., 1878. 

2 American Journal of Science and Arts, Jan., 1879. 



1 879.] The Mesozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. 285 

Rothliegendes of the German scale." The thickness calculated 
by him for Prof. Rogers' section below Yardleyville is 51,500 
feet, or nine and three-quarters miles, on the assumption that 
the bedding is normal, but this is regarded as delusive ; and 
in a subsequent paper, by the same author, on " Some Meso- 
zoic Ores" (Am. Phil. Soc. Proa, April 20, 1877), the wave- 
strewing hypothesis, by means of which Prof. Rogers sought 
to explain the inclined bedding is rejected as insufficient to ac- 
count for all the phenomena. 

Mr. Heinrich's paper is rich in facts, and is as remarkable for 
the absence of speculations as it is for the clear and logical stand- 
point from which he views the whole subject. Like Prof. Fontaine, 
he commences by describing the divisions of the formation into 
belts, but whereas Mr. Heinrich groups all the known exhibitions 
of Mesozoic, in Virginia, into four belts, Prof. Fontaine disposes 
of them in six belts. This latter arrangement does not seem to 
be necessary by reason of the small gaps between the various 
members of Heinrich's belts, and presents to the student not on 
the ground, manifestly greater inconveniences. 

It is evident that even Heinrich's number of divisions is arbi- 
trary, since a prolongation of the " Eastern " belt crosses the 
" Middle Eastern " at Taylorsville and joins the " Middle Western 
at Mount Vernon," but these separate ranges and the lines indi- 
cating them on his map, greatly assist the understanding of his 
minute details. His belts here follow. 

A Eastern. — Includes (1) the Petersburg deposits, and (2) the 
scattered masses of Mesozoic in Greenville and Brunswick 
counties, west of Hicksford and east of Lawrenceville. 
B Middle Eastern. — (1) Taylorsville deposits, (2) Springfield 

deposits, (3) Richmond deposits. 
C Middle Western. — (1) Aquia deposits, (2) Farmville deposits, 

from Mount Vernon to Fredericksburg. 

D Western.— (1) Potomac deposits, running from the Potomac 

river near Point of Rocks to the Wilderness, (2) Barbours- 

ville deposits, (3) James River deposits (near Scottsville), (4) 

Danville deposits, (5) Dan River deposits, on and south of 

the N. Carolina line. 

Prof. Fontaine calls D 1 his " New Jersey " belt, D 3 his 

Buckingham belt, D 4 the Pittsylvania belt, C 2 (or a part of them) 

the Prince Edzvard belt, B 3 and a part of A 1 the Richmond 

belt, the southern portion of A 1 the Petersburg belt, which Prof. 

Fontaine describes as overlapping the Hanover area (i. e., the 



286 The Mesozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. [May, 

northern part of the Richmond belt [?]), whose uppermost beds 
pass into the lowermost of the Petersburg belt; and finally a 
seventh belt C I or the Fredericksburg belt. The area (or areas) 
covered by Mesozoic near Hicksford, which constitute the por- 
tions of Mr. Heinrich's A 2, Prof. Fontaine does not name, as he 
acknowledges that he has not visited them. 

Mr. Heinrich's lucid and careful observation of the rocks 
which follow that of the boundaries of his belts, cannot be too 
highly commended. They are classed as 1, Conglomerates; 2, 
Sandstones, («) Psephites or Siliceous and Feldspathic, and (6) 
Psammites or argillaceous matter with fine siliceous sand and 
some larger grains of quartz ; 3, Slates and Shales ; 4, Lime- 
stones ; 5, Coal, (a) bituminous, (&) carbonite, (c) natural coke, (d) 
semi-anthracite ; 6, igneous rocks ; 7, accessory minerals. 

The following six pages are devoted to a very good sketch of 
the general geological and stratigraphical characters of the forma- 
tion, consisting of some useful information as to areas of 
drainage. 

This third division of his subject ends with a succinct descrip- 
tion of the results of diamond-drill boring, and the separation of 
the measures pierced, into seven groups. This is an exceedingly 
interesting portion of the paper, each division is so clearly dis- 
tinguished from the others by striking characteristics as to seize 
the attention of the reader, who is too apt to forget that he sees 
so clearly because he is looking through Mr. Heinrich's eyes. 

The next six pages are given up to a detailed lithological 
description of the section by inches. The third chapter closes 
with a summary of the results of investigation, and an observa- 
tion (confirmed by the study of the measures near Dillsburg, Pa.) 
that the largest beds of trap, more frequently followed planes of 
bedding than planes of cleavage. 1 

The fourth division of his subject is devoted to the fossil 
remains of the formation, but here Mr. Heinrich confesses his 
inability to do justice to the subject, and Prof. Fontaine's informa- 
tion is fuller and has the additional advantage of his own excellent 
critical judgment, at least so far as concerns the flora. 

The fifth and last division of Mr. Heinrich's report regards the 
economical products of the formation, prominent among which, 
of course, is the coal. Forty-nine analyses are given on p. 42, 

1 Frazer's Report. CC, Sec. Geol. Surv. of Penna. 



1 879.] The Mcsozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. 287 

about equally divided between the north and south sides of the 
James river. On the succeeding page six analyses are given of 
West Virginia coals, and three from the Richmond basin. On p. 
44 is a table of the coal shipped from the basin in various years, 
and the whole concludes with a comparative table of the total 
amounts shipped from the principal basins in Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, and from the Richmond basin. 

The illustrations are on two plates ; Plate I contains a map of 
Virginia and part of North Carolina, south of the Potomac 
and east of the Blue Ridge with the lines of strike of the four 
belts into which the author has thrown the formation. The areas 
of drainage are well marked on this map, and the Mesozoic 
shaded. 

Plate 11 contains, Fig. 1, a geological section of the bore hole; 
Fig. 2, a section of the beds on a vertical plane perpendicular to 
the strike; Fig. 3, a long section along the James river from 
Richmond to Scottsville, showing a synclinal between the western 
and middle western Mesozoic belts, a synclinal in the middle 
eastern, and a probable eroded anticlinal between the latter and 
the eastern, where the rocks seem to dip under newer formations 
to and under the sea. 

In this connection it is almost a pity to note even trifling errors 
in Mr. Heinrich's paper. These are not confined to " elliptic " 
for elliptical (p. 7), " dolorite " for dolerite (pp. 17 and tf), 
square acres (p. 41), and other similar oversights of the proof- 
reader in correcting the text, but may be even found in the maps, 
as in " Ezoic " for Eozoic (Plate 11 Fig. 3, &c). It was to be 
hoped that these defects would have been corrected in the vol- 
ume of the Transactions of the Institute of Mining Engineers, in 
which the paper appears. 

Prof. Fontaine's Paper. — After his grouping of the outcrops of 
the Mesozoic previously given, the author notices a deposit of 
stones which plays an important part in the NW. They are 
neither conglomerate nor boulders. Under this head is classed 
the " Potomac Marble," which is all of limestone fragments. In 
the Pittsylvania belt, however, the stones are the product of the 
granite and azoic rocks lying near. 

In his description of the Richmond basin, Prof. Fontaine has 
probably been led into error by Rogers and Lyell, and in spite of 
his own notes, when he says, " The lower series, from three to 
five hundred feet thick, rests immediately on the granitoid gneiss, 



288 The Mesozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. [May, 

which forms the floor of the basin. It contains all the coal found 
in the field." 

Mr. Heinrich's careful column shows the lowest coal (not 
counting occasional bituminous and carbonaceous slates and 
sandstones) is found at 571 feet from the granite, the second at 
600 feet, the third and fourth at 655 feet. 

On this subject Mr. Heinrich's remarks (p. 35) are very instruc- 
tive ; for even the variable distance noticed by the author between 
the granite floor and the coal could scarcely account for so great 
a discrepancy. The faults in the Midlothian region are conceded 
by all, and. Mr. Heinrich's section presents a very rational view 
of them; but why " borings cannot be relied upon " is not clear, 
though of course their value as guides decreases as the distance 
to the desired locality increases. One would suppose that 
they were all that could be relied upon. 

A very interesting note in regard to certain varieties of the 
Potsdam strata, connect with this horizon the " compact vitreous 
quartzites and peculiar sandstones which have the grains of sand 
imbedded in a white, non-plastic, argillaceous matter," occurring 
a short distance above Harper's Ferry. Such rocks are indeed 
noticed elsewhere in positions entitling them to be considered 
Potsdam, but if by this are intended the quartz fragments imbed- 
ded in crystalline schist which make the high bluffs at Harper's 
Ferry on the Maryland side of the river, it is most interesting to 
note that they are strikingly similar to a great series composing 
the middle and western portions of the South mountain in Penn- 
sylvania underlying the Orthofelsites and schists of probable Hu- 
ronian age. Neither is the Scolithns a sure guide to the age of 
Potsdam in the opinion of all geologists. 

The clay deposits and their supposed origin in " marshes within 
the Azoic area swept away in a general and extensive erosion, ' 
present certainly a new if somewhat hazardous line of dynamo- 
geological speculation, as also does the evident leaning of the 
writer towards a glacial movement to account for deposits of 
schists, granites, &c, on grit. It is noteworthy that Prof. Fon- 
taine, Mr. Russell and others, each from his independent line of 
argument, arrives at the probability of a series of shallow and 
marshy beds to the south of the Mesozoic belts. 

But the most novel explanation of the paucity of animal life in 
the Trias and Jura is that which supposes this time to have been 
one of great cold, when a huge ice sheet was advancing eastward 



1 879.] 7; 'opt. 289 

from the Blue Ridge, and its streams were feeding the Mesozoic 
areas. The ferns, cycads, &c, were furnished with a mild 
equable and moist climate by fogs from the Gulf Winds. 

In this part of his argument it is difficult to follow the author, 
who would produce the glaciers by the cold winds sweeping east 
and north-east unchecked from the Pacific, while an " immense 
growth of coniferous trees covered the hills." 

The problems with which Prof. Fontaine closes his paper, as to 
whether some of the drift in the northern States attributed to the 
Glacial period may not be much older ; and whether there may 
not be drift deposits around the southern prolongation of the 
Appalachian chain, thus carrying an ice period into the far South 
to meet that of Prof. Agassiz in Brazil, are, as he says, well worth 
the attention of geologists. 

In this paper the main points of interest are his belt of stones 
in the north-west and under the Catoctin range ; his criticism of 
Schimper's determination of Equisetum rogk rsii, and his associa- 
tion of the ferns with the " Rhcetic " beds, or their contempora- 
ries, his establishing the drift matter of Azoic fragments in clay 
as passing under the Cretaceous in Maryland, and his conclusions 
as to the great eroding action of a glacier previous to or coinci- 
dent with the laying down of this drift. 

Mr. Russell's Paper. — This is concerned nominally with the 
New Jersey Triassic, but includes observations on the New 
England and British American Trias as well. These rocks and 
the protecting action of their traps in the bay of Fundy are first 
considered, and the tidal action on the soft muds is afterwards 
referred to as a good example of the kind of action which pro- 
duced these soft ripple-marked shales. 

In endeavoring to give, from a few localities in New Jersey, a 
general idea of the characters of these shales and sandstones, it 
must be confessed that either their variety is singularly curtailed 
on the crossing of the Delaware into New Jersey, or many of 
the diverse representatives mentioned by Messrs. Frazer, Heinrich 
and Fontaine must here be classed under the same names. 

Note A refers to a south-westward dip of the Trias just east of 
the Blue Ridge in Virginia. Fontaine gives this dip of his " New 
Jersey belt" as north-west, while Heinrich's section makes it 
east or south-east. 

An italicised paragraph seems to claim novelty for the conclu- 
sion to be drawn from the fact that in New England the dip of 



290 The Mcsozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. [May, 

the Trias was south-east, in New Jersey north-west, while in Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina the flexed structure was apparent. 

This is more definitely stated on p. II, where by the aid of a 
diagram it is insisted that the Triassic beds in New Jersey and 
Connecticut are but flanks of a great arch, the upper portions of 
which have been removed by denudation. The lithological 
evidence which the writer has accumulated in favor of this old 
view must be considered of value. Mr. Heinrich enunciates the 
same view, pp. 22 and 23, but on the ground of supposed analogy 
between the James and Hudson rivers, and indeed this structure 
has been accepted, if not with the foundation which Mr. Russell 
now gives to it, by many geologists from the date of the first 
Geological Surveys of New York and Pennsylvania to the present 

Apropos of the writer's views of the possible agency of the traps 
as lines of displacement, it is worth observing that the largest and 
strongest dykes are found by Frazer (Report CC, Second Geol. 
Surv. of Penna., p. 325), and Heinrich, to follow planes of cleav- 
age. This fact, as stated in the first part of the above, is proof that 
no large amount of displacement took place, since the strata them- 
selves and other beds of trap parallel with the bedding, which 
pursue one direction, and those cleavage dykes, are as so many 
keys to structure, for no displacement of beds could take place 
without displacing these. Rogers' theory of the apparent great 
accumulation of the Mesozoic beds is not quite correctly stated, 
p. 9 (See note on this subject in Frazer's Position of Am. New 
Red, &c, p. 5). 

The supposition that the conglomerate was derived from the 
accumulation of pebbles at the mouths of rivers, is not borne out 
by observations of this characteristic rock along the western 
border of the Trias in Pennsylvania, for it is uniform in character 
for long distances, and according to Fontaine, the most abundant 
stones in Virginia could not have come from a point further south 
than the Lower Silurian of Pennsylvania. 

The two authors, Prof. Fontaine and Mr. Russell, unite in their 
belief that the Triassic conglomerate is an important landmark in 
the formation, but they ascribe its origin to very different causes. 
Whereas the former imagines it to have been carried to its pres- 
ent position on ice rafts, the latter ascribes it to the deposition of 
numerous river mouths pouring out into the sound in which the 
rocks of this age were being laid down. 



1 879.] The Mesozoic Sandstone of the Atlantic Slope. 291 

The text accompanying diagram, p. 16, is not clear, and there- 
fore cannot be criticised. The conglomerates of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania do seem to mark two horizons near the upper and 
lower parts of the New Red series. 

Another oversight is the asse 
composed of crystalline schists c 
Stony Point, N. Y., towards Virginia, sufficiently far to account 
for the conglomerate of that edge as its shore deposit. Over long 
stretches of this intervening distance the only high ground is 
made of these coarse and hard beds. 

In the summary of reasons for accepting the theory of unity 
between the New England and New Jersey Mesozoic, considera- 
tions Nos. 3 and 4 seem to be new and valuable. No. 1 is valua- 
ble. No. 2 if true of New Jersey is not so in Pennsylvania, 
where on the very eastern margin of these beds, in York county 
(as on the western), the rock is a conglomerate (See Report C, 
Second Geol. Surv. of Penna., and CC Ibid, p. 264. Section 6. 
Frazer). No. 5 on the continuity of elevated ground, if well 
founded from Hudson river to New England, is not so for the 
entire course south-west. 

In the discussion of the eruptive rocks Mr. Russell makes a 
very interesting point in regard to the crescent shape of the out- 
bursts of trap in the New England and New Jersey Trias. In the 
former the horns of the crescents turn eastward, while the con- 
vex side is towards the west, whereas in the New Jersey series 
this order is reversed. 

But it is evident that the trap rocks of New Jersey must differ 
materially from those in Pennsylvania, and also in Connecticut, 
because he states that " they are usually composed of an intimate 
combination " (sic) "with some form of feldspar." They very rarely 
contain any hornblende elsewhere, and in the large collection of 
traps from Pennsylvania there are but one or two, and these from 
exceptional localities in which hornblende has been detected. 
Another difference lies in the fact that it is not difficult to find the 
junction of the trap with the shales and sandstones that underlie 
them. In Pennsylvania this is always difficult and sometimes 
impossible. 

Mr. Russell expresses the same view of the effect of a sinking 
of the floor, or what is the same thing, a rising of the eastern 
margin of the Mesozoic area, as that given in CC, 2d G. S. of Pa , 
PP. 269 and 271. 



292 Unsymmetric Arrotv-Heads and Allied Forms. [May, 

Page 28, he under-estimates the amount of thickness of rocks 
with which he has to deal if he employ the " usual manner " of 
calculating it, for Rogers' and Frazer's sections of the New Red 
in Pennsylvania make the total thickness 51,000 feet. 

It is interesting in Note B to find Mr. Russell also testifying to 
the probable high and swampy character of the southern end of 
the Triassic estuaries. 

Taking the papers together, we cannot fail to recognize that 
they form a very valuable and suggestive arsenal from which to 
draw weapons to renew the old attack on the New Red. 



irrow-heads have a symmetric out- 
l generally present variations which 
may be due to unsuitable material, to want of skill in the work- 
man, to a love of variety, to intentional adaptation to a purpose, 
or to the consideration that a single barb might be sufficient. 
Love of ornament appears in the use of paint, 1 and in the selec- 
tion of finely colored jasper and chalcedony for implements. 

While irregularities would interfere with the function of arrows, 
all these objects are not to be regarded as arrow-heads, some of 
the larger kinds being for spears, while others are probably 
borers (Fig. 4), scrapers (Fig. 10) and knives (Fig. 8). As in 
civilized life, the workman whose kit is limited must make one 
implement serve the purposes of several. In fact, the enterprising 
explorer, Major J.W. Powell, brought from the Rio Virgen small 
knives of what would be regarded as arrow-heads if found 
detached, but which were fastened (with the gum of Larrca mexi- 
cand) in a notch in the end of a round wooden handle (see Fig. 
1, p. 2, in Rau's Archaeol. Collections of the National Museum). 

The want of symmetry may be in the form of the body (Figs. 
1, 3, 4, 8), in the shape and inequality of the barbs (Figs. 7, 11), 
and in the slight indication, or the absence of one of the barbs 
(Figs. 2, 5, 6, 8, 9). 

A barb may be accidentally broken off during or after making, 



1 879.] Unsymmetric Arrow-Heads and Allied Forms. 293 




294 Examination of Indian Graves in Chester Co., Pa. [May, 

as shown in many examples where the surface of fracture remains. 
In others, the unarmed side is finished uniformly, as in Fig. 9, 
where the simple edge runs from base to point, but we may infer 
that a workman would economize a broken specimen by shaping 
it anew, as basal and terminal halves are turned into scrapers. 

Want of symmetry in the barbs occurs in the short sub-trian- 
gular forms (Fig. 11) which are often of large size, with one 
prominent barb — forms probably intended for fish-gigs. 

Mr. Ch. C. Jones (Antiquities, p. 266-7) does not figure abnor- 
mal forms, which he regards " as examples rather of misfortune 
than of original design." But even failures are worthy of record, 
and some of the forms may have been adapted to a purpose. 

Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, East Tennessee (L. and F. A. Stratton) ; Fig. 
3, an obtuse-angled triangular form, with all the edges sharp; the 
base or shortest side in some specimens slightly convex ; prob- 
ably knives and scrapers ; white quartz ; Chester county, Pa. (H. 
R. Kervey); in the one figure the base is longer than usual. Fig. 
5 resembles an equilateral form, in one side of which an indenta- 
tion had been made to adapt it for scraping, or for tying it to a 
handle ; black flint. Fig. 7, Liberty county Ga. (Dr. J. L. Le 
Conte.) Fig. 8, Pennsylvania (?). Fig. g, Arkansas (?). Fig. 10, 
Bainbridge, Lancaster county, Pa. (F. G. Galbraith) ; the longest 
edge is dulled and smoothed by use, as if in polishing or scraping 
the inside of earthenware. Fig. 11, Tallahassee, Fla. ; white 
semi-opal (C. N. Haldeman). The figures are of the size of the 
originals. 



EXAMINATION OF INDIAN GRAVES IN CHESTER 
COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA. 



IN the year 1824 there appeared in the Village Record, at West 
Chester, then edited by Charles Miner, Esq., a long and 
elaborate series of communications written, evidently, after 
careful research and personal inquiry, by Joseph J. Lewis, 
Esq., then a young law-student, and now one of the most 
distinguished members of the bar of Chester County." 1 In 

1 Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania. By Sherman Day. Phila., 
1843- Page 207. 



1879] Examination of Indian Graves in Chester Co., Pa. 295 

one of these communications the following paragraph appeared : 
" There is a place near the Brandywine, on the farm of Mr. Mar- 
shall, where there are yet a number of Indian graves that the 
owner of the ground has never suffered to be violated. One of 
them, probably a chief's, is particularly distinguished by a head 
and foot stone." 1 

Having recently obtained permission from the present owner 
of the property, Mr. Caleb Marshall, some of the members of the 
Philosophical Society of West Chester, on the 16th of November, 
1878, proceeded to investigate these graves. The burial-ground 
is situated in a group of hickory and oak trees on a prominent 
knoll some three hundred yards to the north of the west branch 
of the Brandywine or Minquas creek, formerly known to the 
Indians as the Sitspecough. " The Indians upon the Brandywine 
had a reserved right (as said James Logan in his letter of 1731) 
to retain themselves a mile in breadth on both sides of one of the 
branches of it, up to its source." 2 

The exploring party found traces of at least thirty graves, 
indicated by shallow depressions, but originally there was a much 
larger number, as Mr. Marshall asserts that the plough has been 
gradually encroaching upon the cemetery, all signs of many of 
the graves having been entirely obliterated. The portion yet 
protected by the receding grove, however, has never been dis- 

Four of these burial places were opened, with the following 
results : In the first grave, at the depth of three feet was found 
a skeleton stretched at full length on the back, from east to west, 
the face turned toward the north-west, the arms extended close to 
the body. Around the neck were nineteen spherical, opaque, 
milky-white, Venetian beads, each about an inch in diameter. 
These glass beads are similar to some found in Northumberland 
county and other portions of the State, and had undoubtedly been 
supplied to the Indians by the early settlers. This grave was 
filled with the prevailing red clay of the surrounding country and 
was exceedingly stony and loosely packed. The skeleton rested 
on a rude floor of rock. 

In the second grave another skeleton was unearthed, at the 
depth of three and a half feet, having the same orientation as 






296 Exa Graves in Chester Co., Pa. [May, 

number one, but lying on the left side, with the face turned 
upwards. Associated with the skeleton were the following arti- 
cles: Around the neck was found a large number of European 
beads, consisting of ten-sided amber-colored glass beads the size 
of a large pea, and quantities of small cylindrical Venetian beads 
colored white and blue. Three objects of aboriginal workman- 
ship were also found in this grave, consisting of two finely chipped 
gun-flints and a highly polished flat elliptical stone of a dark 
color, three inches in length. These were the only articles of 
native manufacture found in any of the graves. A quantity of a 
red clayey substance resembling paint occurred in this grave, 
which in all probability had been employed by the Indians in 
personal decorations. Close to the right hand of the body were 
found two European white clay-pipes of a pattern employed 
during the seventeenth century ; on the bowls the maker's stamp 
(R T) was impressed. 1 Around the skeleton were found thirteen 
wrought-iron nails, two to three inches in length, much corroded, 
with fragments of decayed wood adhering to them. The body 
had evidently been enclosed in a wooden box. 

In the third grave, three feet nine inches below the surface, 
were found a skull and portions of bones much decomposed, the 
body extended on the back, face up, head toward the east, as in 
the preceding cases. In this grave nothing was found associated 
with the skeleton save a single coffin nail. 

Grave number four revealed nothing but some fragmentary 

Mr. Marshall states that a couple of stones years ago were 
found on the surface of the burial-ground, which were covered 
with pictorial etchings. These were doubtless the same alluded 



1 In the beginn 


ing and middle of the 


seventeer 


ith century, pipes were made by 




the vicinity of Bath, 


England 


. Amongst these was Richard 


Tyler, and the init 


ials R. T. in all probability wer 




We can, therefore, 


with some degree of < 




<sign to these pipes an approxi- 








lled " Elfin " or " Fairy Pipes," 




ted to the Romam 




(uently possessed the initial; 


1 of the makers' names on the bases of the 






gradually superseded by pipes 








were pointed or entirely absent. 








• thereabouts had the names of 


the makers stampec 


I on the stems. The e: 


™m P h.; i. 


i question are of the elongated 














.-Is, havin. 


; been originally longer. They 


were brought to thi 


s country by the earlie. 




nd traded to the Indians. 



1 879.] Examination of Indian Graves in Chester Co., Pa. 297 

to by Mr. Lewis, and in all probability marked the resting-place 
of some distinguished man of the tribe. Unfortunately they 
were removed and carelessly thrown into the public road some 
time ago, where they probably remain to this day imbedded in 
the soil. The exact location of these interesting relics, however, 
can only be surmised, and in all probability they will never be 
recovered. Indian Hannah, the last of this branch of the Lenni 
Lenape, died in the neighborhood, at the Chester county alms- 
house, in the year 1803. The graves above described resemble, 
in many features, others opened near the Delaware Water Gap, 
a few years ago. The skeletons in the latter lay at a depth of 
two and a half to three feet and were extended from east to west, 
some of them being enclosed in rude stone coffins. The contents 
were also similar, consisting for the most part of objects of Euro- 
pean manufacture. In Venango county also, in the vicinity of 
Franklin, a number of Indian tombs have been opened, in which 
were found remnants of fire-arms and copper and iron implements. 

Skeletons. — The bones found in grave number one were much 
decayed, and consisted of skull, one humerus, both ilia, femora, 
tibiae and fibulae, besides some of the vertebral joints and finger 
bones with decayed fragments of ribs. The femur, allowing for 
the decay of the extremities, measured eighteen and a half inches 
in length, from the upper edge of the head to the base of the 
inner condyle. Grave number two produced, besides the cranium, 
a few of the long bones, very much decayed. The third grave 
contained simply the skull and some small fragments of bones. 
The fourth grave had evidently been exhumed at some pre- 
vious time, as the few broken portions of bones it revealed were 
much displaced. About twenty-five years ago two of these tombs 
were opened in the night by a party of relic hunters, and in all 
probability this was one of those which had been disturbed. 

Crania. — The following brief description of the skulls, taken 
from notes hastily jotted down in the field, will convey a general 
idea of their main characteristics, but I hope shortly to prepare a 
more exact description of them, as they are at the present moment 
not accessible to me. Skull number one is somewhat prognathous ; 
teeth normal and excellently preserved, but the crowns, especially 
of the molars, are much worn by the use, probably, of maize. The 
general appearance and massiveness of the cranium would indi- 
cate that the subject was an adult male. Skull number two ex- 



298 Examination of Indian Graves in Chester Co., Pa. [May, 

hibits a marked prognathism, though the superior maxillary waS 
lost in its exhumation. The lower jaw is exceedingly massive, 
the teeth abnormal and number but eleven, the eruption of the 
last molar on either side having never occurred. The skull evi- 
dently belonged to a young warrior, and probably one of some 
celebrity, as the elaborate decoration of his grave would denote. 
Skull number three is probably that of a female. The walls 
are more fragile and show smoother surfaces than the former. 
Besides this, there was nothing of personal adornment found in 
the grave. This was the most perfectly preserved cranium of the 
series. The number of teeth in both jaws is complete. The skull 
is decidedly asymmetrical ; viewed from above, the compression 
is seen to be on the right side, but this deformation is undoubt- 
edly accidental. It presents a more orthognathous form than the 
two preceding. 

The late Anders Retzius, of Stockholm, who devoted much at- 
tention to the study of the craniology of the American tribes, 
classes the Algonquins and Iroquois with the dolicocephali or long- 
heads. This point, however, cannot be satisfactorily determined 
until sufficient material be collected for more extensive measure- 
ments. The few Lenni Lenape skulls which have thus far been 
recovered, present such variable features that a general average 
of a large number must be obtained before we can arrive at any- 
satisfactory results. There are some ethnologists who place the 
modern Indian tribes of America with the brachycephalic or 
short-headed class. It is exceedingly desirable, for the purpose 
of comparison, that every opportunity be embraced for obtaining 
and preserving the skulls of this tribe, as in a comparatively short 
time all traces of them will have irrevocably disappeared. 

The discoveries in these graves go to prove that the inmates 
were among the last of their tribe who lingered on the banks of 
their dearly loved stream, ere the remnants of their people gath- 
ered themselves together and sadly wended their way westward. 
They had adopted, to a considerable extent, both in their manner 
of living and the disposal of their dead, the customs of the whites, 
with whom they had been thrown into contact for a number of 
years. The local legends and memories of the oldest inhabitants 
ascribe to these graves an age of about a century and a half, 
though some of them may be much more recent, as it is not 
probable that the entire number of interments were even approxi- 



1879.] Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of "California. 299 

mately synchronal. We find that the method of inhumation 
practiced by this local clan or branch of the tribe did not differ 
materially from that of other divisions situated in other portions 
of the State. The bodies were generally extended at full length 
from east to west, sometimes encased in rude stone cists, but 
more frequently laid to rest with no covering except the vest- 
ments which had been worn in life. Occasionally, as we have 
seen, under the influence of civilization, the departed were encased 
in wooden coffins, furnished the tribe undoubtedly by their 
European neighbors. 



NOTES ON SOME FISHES OF THE COAST OF CALI- 
FORNIA. No. 1. 



'"THE accompanying notes are chiefly the result of periodical 
*■ visits paid to the markets of San Francisco during the months 
of October, November and December, with the object of ascer- 
taining the comparative abundance of the various species, the 
localities where they are taken, their value as articles of food, 
etc., etc. 

No attempt at classification is made, and in the generic names 
I have in most cases followed Gunther, with whose works I am 
better acquainted than with those of Gill. Sarda is substituted 
for Pelamys, which is also the title of a genus of Hydrophoid 
snakes, and Prof. Jordan informs me that the snakes have a prior 
right to it. 

The icthyology of the Pacific coast of North America is as yet 
far from being fully worked out ; in many cases there is consider- 
able confusion of names, and little is known respecting the food, 
habits, spawning season, &c, of most of the species. 

Several rare and some probably new fishes have been brought 
to the markets this year, principally because the fishermen use 
trawl-nets to a greater extent, and trawl to a greater depth than 
they were previously accustomed to do. 

Amhloplites interruptus Grd. Sacramento River Perch.— This 
species is abundant along the lower course of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin rivers, and in all the branches of those rivers 
that permeate the lowlands; and forms an important article of 



300 Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. [May, 

food not only to the white inhabitants of the district, but 
also to the Chinese, who are particularly fond of it, catch it 
in immense numbers and forward it to their countrymen along the 
railroad as far as the boundary of the State, or even beyond it. It is 
usually taken in fyke-nets, which are most effective engines of 
destruction. It is occasionally brought to the markets of San 
Francisco, but has not been at all common there during the 
months of October, November and December. It is a very good 
fish for the table, unless taken in sloughs that by the falling of 
the water have become disconnected with the river. 

Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) Ayres, Candle-fish. — This species 
is very rare in the markets of San Francisco, but appears to have 
been more abundant this year than at any previous period. 

Dr. W. O. Ayres (Proc. Cal. Acad., 1859) states that in his time 
stragglers on ly occurred in the markets ; and the fish-mongers 
call it a " new " fish, and declare they have never seen it before. 
Dr. Ayres gives the number of rays in the first dorsal as twenty- 
three, but I can only find twenty-one in the specimens I have 
examined. Probably the number varies slightly. The outline 
figure in the Proc. Cal. Ac. Vol. 1, 1859, shows twenty-two. The 
tail is much more deeply emarginate than is shown in the figure, 
as the central rays are only about half as long as the outer ones. 
Most of the individuals brought to the markets this year were 
not over ten inches in length, but Dr. Ayres states that he saw 
one that measured eighteen inches. The fishermen call this spe- 
cies candle-fish, but whether on account of its oilincss, of its 
length and slenderness, or of a fancied resemblance to the spe- 
cies called candle-fish in Oregon and northward I cannot tell. 
The last-named candle-fish {Ammodytes personalis Grd.) is not at 
all nearly related to the present species, but belongs to the Oph- 
idiides, a tribe approaching the eels in many particulars; it is so oily 
that it is said that the Indians make their candles by pulling their 
yarn through its flesh. Since October A. fimbria has not occur- 
red in the markets, but it is not unlikely that the severe weather 
which prevents the fishermen from trawling is the cause of this. 

Ophiodon elongatus Gir., Green Rock Cod.— This is one of the 
largest and commonest of our marketable fishes, frequently attaining 
a length of over three feet; and is usually in great part of a lively 
green color, spotted or clouded with light brown. But the color- 
ation of the adults varies greatly, the brown markings £ 



l8 79-] Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. 301 

cover almost the entire fish, and different shades of brown occur 
in the same individual. The young is spotted with round spots 
of a light yellowish-brown, and it was to the young that the name 
Ophiodon elongatus was originally given by Girard, who described 
the adult with the title of Oplopoma pantherinum. 0. elongatus was 
said to have a continuous dorsal with twenty-seven spines, and 
no membranous flap upon the forehead ; while Opl. pantherinum was 
characterized by two separate dorsals, the first with twenty-five 
spines, and by the presence of a membranous flap, 

Dr. Steindachner corrects this error [Icthyologische Btibagt, X«>. 
in), and proves that the continuous dorsal and membranous flap 
are characters of the species. 

The correct number of spines is twenty-seven, but the adult 
frequently comes to market in a dilapidated condition, with the 
spines torn apart from each other, or even broken away, and it is 
most probable that Girard described his O. pantherinum from such 
a mutilated specimen. Young and half grown individuals are 
common in the bay of San Francisco, but the larger examples are 
taken in tolerably deep water outside the bay, especially in the 
vicinity of the Farallones. A large individual that I measured 
as it lay upon the stall was three feet two inches long. Stein- 
dachner gives the range of this species as from Sitka to 
Monterey. 

Chirus constellatus Grd., and C. guttatus Grd. — These species 
have been brought to market regularly, though not in great num- 
bers, throughout the three months under review, and indeed 
appear to be always in season. Those brought to market are 
usually taken in the bay. 

Scorpamichthys marmoratus Grd., the large red sculpin.— 
Despite the absence of scales upon its body, this species is com- 
monly styled a rock cod. While its nearest relations, the smaller 
sculpins, or catfish, as they are often called here, are thrown away 
by the fishermen, this large sculpin is allowed a place a^iong our 
food fishes. A priori one would expect the other sculpins to be 
good food, and I am assured by those who have tried them that 
they are; all they need is skinning before cooking. 

Sebastes fasciatus Girard, clouded rock cod. — The name fas- 
ciatus is much less appropriate than Ayres's name of nebulosus 
(over which it appears to have the right of priority), since the 
broad light-yellow band which suggested the name is usually 



302 Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. [May, 

absent, and the dark and light tints of the sides of the body are 
mingled together without any regularity. This is one of the 
smallest of the genus, but has been known to reach the weight of 
seven pounds. 

Sebastes nigrocinctus Ayres, black-banded rock cod. — This is 
one of the rarest of our edible fishes, as only single individuals 
are brought to the market at considerable intervals of time. 
Only two specimens have hitherto come under my notice, and 
one of these has the black transverse bands much more developed 
than the other. It is not taken inside the bay. 

Sebastes rosaceus Girard, smooth red rock cod. — This species 
appears to attain a larger size than any of its congeners except 
S: ruber, which it equals in length but not in weight, as it is more 
slender and seldom or never exceeds fourteen pounds in weight. 
5. rosaceus is taken outside the heads. 

Sebastes melanops Girard, black rock cod. — This fish does not 
usually attain so large a size as S. ruber or S. rosaceus, at least in 
the locality where it is usually taken, viz: within the bay of San 
Francisco. It is one of the commonest kinds of rock-fish. 

Sebastes ruber Ayres, rough red rock cod. — This, the largest 
of the genus occurring in our waters, is stated to reach, though 
rarely, a weight of twenty-five pounds. It is of a uniform bright 
red, very different from the brownish-red mingled with orange- 
red, which forms the livery of S. rosaceus. In form it is stouter 
than 5. rosaceus but less so than 5. fasciatus. It is taken outside 
the bay, usually from deep water around the Farallone islands. 
It occurs also northward at least as far as Humboldt bay. 

Sebastes auriculatus Gir., black-shouldered rock cod. — This is 
rather a small species, seldom exceeding eighteen inches in 
length, and is brought to the markets in great abundance, 
probably on account of its common occurrence in the bay. Not 
only does this species occur, together with two or three others of 
the smaller kinds of Sebastes and the young of the larger kinds, 
in the deeper portions of the bay near the entrance, but it is also 
abundant along the eastern shore of the bay, where no other spe- 
cies of the genus is found, probably on account of the admixture 
of fresh water from the Sacramento river. 

Sebastes helvomaculatus Ayres, pink-spotted rock cod. — This 
is smaller even than S. fasciatus, not equaling it in length and oi 
much more slender form. The three elongated pink spots along 



1 879.] Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. 303 

each side are constant, and at once distinguish it from every other 
species. In color it resembles 5. ruber. Though not so common 
as 6". auriculatus, or 5. melanops, or even as S. nebidosus, S. ruber 
or 5. rosaceus, it is occasionally brought in, in considerable 
numbers. 

For all the above species of Sebastes, as well as for S.Jlavidus 
Ayres, 5". paucispinis Grd., and S. elongatus Ayres, the fishermen 
have no other English names but rock cod or rock fish, although 
they can readily distinguish between the species. I have, therefore, 
coined names for them from their most obvious characteristics. 
All the species named, except S.Mongatus, have occurred in the 
markets during the months of October, November and Decem- 
ber. The names rock cod and rock fish are also applied to the 
various species of Chirus, to Ophiodon elongatus and even to the 
scaleless .V, moratus. 

Sphynena argentea Grd., the barracuda. — It is well not to 
be misled by English names ; that of Barracuda is applied not 
only to all the species of Sphyrana, of which there are several, 
but also to fishes of other families, and even other orders. In the 
rivers of South America the name is given to the Sudis (Ara- 
paim.-i) gigas, a soft-finned, large-scaled, fresh-water, carnivorous 
fish. All barracudas, however, are fierce, rapacious fishes, and the 
one we are at present considering attains a length of over three 
feet, and a weight of from twelve to fourteen pounds. The form is 
slender but it is nearly as thick as it is deep, and its jaws are armed 
with a formidable row of sharp teeth. When darting through 
the water it looks like a silver arrow. It is usually obtained 
south of the bay and at the Farallones, but occurs at least as far 
north as Tomales. Its flesh is very good eating, so that if it 
devours our food fishes, we may console ourselves by devour- 
ing it. 

Genyanemus lineatus Gill, Scicsna lincata Gunthr., the king- 
fish. — This species was formerly common in the bay, but since 
its waters have been defiled with so much tar and drain refuse by 
our destructive and imperfect civilization, it has become scarce, 
and is now usually obtained outside. It is, in my opinion, one of 
the most delicate of our food fishes. 

Sarda lineolata Girard.— This, like all the Pacific coast Scom- 
bridae, is not very often brought to the markets of San Francisco, 
and is, therefore, a high-priced fish. Those that come here are 
caught in Monterey bay. 



304 Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. [May, 

Giinther (Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., n, 368) considers this species to 
be identical with the Pelamys chilensis of Cuv. and Val. It 
attains a considerable size, a series of four specimens lying on 
the stalls in November of this year measuring respectively two 
feet two and a quarter inches, two feet two and three-quarter 
inches and two feet three and a half inches, from tip of snout to 
fork of caudal fin. The caudal fin cannot be said to be crescentic, 
as stated by Girard, since its posterior margin forms two sides of an 
obtuse isosceles triangle. The sides and belly are silvery, becom- 
ing bluish-black towards and on the back, and five or six obliquely 
longitudinal bands of the darker tint run along the sides. 

Scomber colias, Spanish mackerel. — The Scomber die go de- 
scribed by Ayres (Proc. Cal. Ac, 1, 1857, 92) has been proved by 
Steindachner to be identical with the long-known S. colias or 
Spanish mackerel of the European seas. Steindachner states 
that it occurs frequently on the coasts of the Galapagos islands, 
and wanders in small shoals along the Californian coast as far as 
San Diego, also that single individuals occur near San Francisco. 
I have never seen this fish in the markets, but the fishmongers 
appear to be acquainted with it. Thus this species and Albula 
vulpes are among the few fishes which inhabit both the Atlantic 
and the Pacific oceans. 

Stromatens simillimus Ayres, pompano. — This species was first 
described by Dr. Ayres (Proc. Cal. Acad., Vol. 11, p. 84, fig. on p. 
85) in December, i860, and accompanied by a good outline 
figure. Dr. Ayres states that in the course of seven years he 
only saw three or four specimens ; but this year, at least, it is far 
more abundant, as I have seen as many as thirty or forty on the 
same stall on two or three occasions during October. As with 
the other Scomberoids, the examples brought to this market are 
caught in Monterey bay, which appears to form the northern 
limit of many species of fishes, Crustacea and echinoderms. 

As in the arrangement of the fishes in the Museum of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Science, we are, at present, following the clas- 
sification of Dr. A. Gunther, of the British Museum, the name of 
this species must be changed from Poronotus simillimus, the title 
given it by Dr. Ayres, to Stromatens simillimus ; as Dr. Gunther 
admits no such genus as Poronotus, and it agrees with Stromatens 
in the entire absence of the ventral fins, short elevated form of 
body, and single long dorsal and anal fins. 



1879] Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. 305 

The Italian fishermen call this species " pompino/' and this 
must be accepted, in the absence of any other, as its English name. 
I am informed that a fish called " pompino," on the Atlantic coast, 
is considered to be the most delicate of all fishes ; this is Tra- 
cJiynotus carohnus, a very different species. Our "pompino" is 
also highly prized as a delicate morsel, and is one of the dearest 
fishes in the market. 

Mr. B. B. Redding has given me an account of a little practical 
joke in which the New Orleans species of pompino is concerned. 
When, during the civil war, Dr. Russell was in this country as 
correspondent, I believe, of the Times, he was so anxious to taste 
the celebrated pompino that he obtained leave to pass through 
the lines and visit New Orleans for the purpose. It happened, 
however, that pompino was not in season, but a perch of some- 
what similar size and form, aided by the cookery of a clever 
negro cook, was passed off upon him as pompino. Dr. Russell 
ate, relished exceedingly, and wrote to his paper a glowing 
description of the gustatory delights of pompino, and it ,was not 
till some years after that it transpired that pompino was not then 
in season, and that he had been put off with perch. 

Mugil mexicanus (?) Steind. — Several specimens of a species of 
Mugil, evidently very close to the above species, if not identical 
with it, have found their way to our markets in the months of 
September and October. All of them were taken near Santa 
Cruz, in the bay of Monterey. 

The specimens examined agree with M. mexicanus in the num- 
ber of scales in the lateral line, and of rays in the vertical fins, in 
the length of the latter, in the produced upper caudal lobe, and in 
the proportions of the body and head, and I should not hesitate 
to pronounce them to be of that species were it not that Mr. B. B. 
Redding, one of the Fish Commissioners for the State of Cali- 
fornia, has informed me that about three years ago he placed 
several (I believe about forty) individuals of a Mugil from the 
Sandwich islands in the Sacramento river, and it is, therefore, 
possible that the specimens obtained may be some of these, or 
their young. I suspect this because the shad introduced from the 
East, finds its way in considerable numbers to Monterey bay, 
instead of dutifully returning to the place of its birth, and this 
Mugil may have acted in a similar way; also because the speci- 
mens agree tolerably well with the diagnosis of Mugil ccphalotiis. 



306 Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. [May, 

given by Giinther. The inter-mandibular space agrees pretty 
well with Giinther's figure of that of M. cephalotus, .but it is still 
nearer to Steindachner's figure of M. mexkanus. As this is a 
mullet, it is of course tolerably good eating, but it must be re- 
membered that it is not nearly related to those famous delicate 
fishes, the red mullet and the surmullet, which were so highly 
prized by the Romans that they fed them in aquaria, but to the 
gray mullet. The first-mentioned fishes belong to the Mullida, 
and are provided with a barbel, the latter and our Californian 
fish to the Mngilidce, which has no barbel and no teeth worth 
speaking of. 

Brosmophycis maiginatus Ay res. — This is a very rare species, 
so much so that although it is taken in the bay of San Francisco, 
I have as yet seen only a single specimen, and Mr. Johnson, of 
the California market, whose practical knowledge of fishes can be 
safely relied upon, informs me that in the three years that have 
elapsed since he first noticed it, he has only seen three indi- 
viduals. Marginatum is a very good name for the fish, as the 
long fin which encircles the greater half of the body, undivided 
into dorsal, anal and caudal fins, is of a vivid red in the fresh 
fish, and forms a most conspicuous margin. The exudation 
of mucus from the surface of the skin is most abundant, rapidly 
forming an epidermal covering, and it is therefore no wonder 
that my friend Mr. Johnson characterized it as a kind of eel. 
In thus naming it he was not so very far off after all, since the 
family Ophidiidce, to which it has been referred by Dr. Gunther, 
is in many respects intermediate between the Gadidce, or cod 
tribe, in which it was originally placed by Dr. Ayres (under the 
name of Brosmius marginatus), and the Munenidie, or eel tribe. 
As it has hitherto had no English name, I venture to call it the 
red-fin, on account of its most obvious peculiarity. The family 
Opftidiida contains some species of parasitic habits, vertebrates 
parasitic upon invertebrates, a strange inversion of our ordinary 
experience. 

Smelts.— Several species of fish are commonly sold in this city 
under the collective name of " smelt." The species usually met 
with are Aikerinopsis californunsis (Girard), A. affinis (Ayres), Hy- 
pomesus olidus (Pallas) Gill, and 0. smerus thaleichthys (Ayres). 

The two last of these are Salmonoids, and therefore have a 
right to the name of smelt, but the two former belong to a very 



1 879.] Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. 307 

different family, the Atherinidie, and are said to be much less deli- 
cate in flavor than the others. A third Atherinopsis, A. tennis, 
was described by Dr. Ayres (Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., 11, 75, fig. on p. 
76) but it is very rare, and I have not yet seen it. 

These fishes may be readily distinguished as follows: The two 
kinds of Atherinopsis have two dorsal fins, the first very small, 
placed about in the center of the length of the back, and formed 
of spines or stiff rays, the second rather larger, and separated by 
an interval from the first. Their prevailing color is light green. 

The two Salmonoids have a dorsal fin, formed of soft rays, in 
or near the center of the dorsal outline, and a fleshy fold, or 
" adipose fin," placed farther back near the tail. 

. \therinopsis calif or niensis is a larger fish than its congener, 
reaching a length of seventeen inches, and it may be distinguished 
by its larger head, more slender form of body, larger mouth and 
the central position of the first dorsal. 

In A. affinis the dorsal is nearly its own length further back, 
the form of the body is much stouter, the head proportionally 
smaller, the mouth smaller, the fins larger and the flesh firmer. 
Dr. Ayres states that this species never exceeds eight inches in 
length, and this size must be but rarely attained, as the specimens 
I have seen in our markets seldom pass six inches, while A. cali- 
forniensis usually exceeds twice that length. 

Osmems thaleichthys is really the nearest representative of the 
smelt of Europe, having the peculiar, pleasant smell that sug- 
gested the name in that species, which is also a kind of Osmems. 

It may readily be distinguished from the two previous species 
by the want of spinous rays on the back, by the adipose fin, by 
the absence of the bright green tint which is replaced on the back 
by a dull greenish-olive, on which a diamond pattern is traced by 
rows of minute dark dots that fringe each scale, and by its smaller 
size. From the other small Salmonoid it may easily be known 
by the comparatively large size of the mouth and less transparent 
appearance. It is usually from five to five and a half inches in 
length. Its form is stouter than that of Hypoviesns olidus, the flesh 
is soft in texture, and the pectoral fins reach very nearly to the 
origin of the ventrals. 

Hypomesns olidns (Pallas) Gill, is called "whitebait" by those 
who are familiar with the delicate fish known by that name in 
England, yet is not very nearly related to the real whitebait, 
which is asserted by Dr. Gunther to be the young of the common 



308 Notes on Some Fishes of the Coast of California. [May, 

herring of the Atlantic. Its dimensions are about the same as 
those of the preceding species, but the mouth is very small, the 
end of the maxillary bone reaching only level with the front of 
the eye, while in O. thaleichthys it reaches to the back of the 
orbit. The head also is somewhat smaller. But this fish, when 
fresh, can be most readily distinguished by the transparency of 
its flesh, which, of course, disappears entirely in preserved speci- 
mens. The silvery band along the sides, which is found in all 
the four species, and is probably the cause of their being grouped 
together as smelts, is particularly bright in this fish. 

I have not yet been able to ascertain at what season each of 
these species may be most common, but all are abundant in the 
markets throughout October, November and December. 

Albtda vulpes {Albula conorhynchus Gunthr., Cat. Fish. Brit. 
Mus., vii, 468).— This widely distributed species has been found 
at various points along the Pacific coast of North America. Giin- 
ther (Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus. vn, 469) mentions its occurrence on 
the coast of Central America; Steindachner (Sitz. Ak. Wiss. 
Wien., 1875, 61) incidentally states (in his description of Mugil 
brasUiensis) that it 1s found at San Diego ; in the same year I 
received two specimens from Lower California, probably from 
Magdalena bay, as the fishes accompanying it came from that 
place; and lastly, in September, 1878, several specimens were 
brought to the markets of San Francisco. The fishmongers 
could not tell the exact locality from which these individuals 
were brought ; but as few, if any, marine fishes find their way to 
our markets from points south of Monterey bay, and as that bay 
is frequented by many other fishes which are not found, except 
as stragglers, to the northward of it, I think it probable they 
came from thence. 

The specimens from Magdalena bay (Lockt. Proc. Cal. Ac, 
1876, 83) were most beautiful in their coloration, glowing with 
burnished silver below, deepening to gold upon the sides, and to 
darker metallic tints on the back ; but those found in the markets 
this year were uniform silvery, as described by Gunther. 

By a typographical error in my Notes on Californian Marine 
Fishes (loc. cit., p. 84), the length of the example from Lower 
California is given as i"jj instead of l'-?".?. Those brought to 
market this year were only partly grown. The question arises 
whether the metallic colors are confined to the adults, or are the 
result of peculiarities in the environment 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Report of the Committee of the House on Coins, Weights 
and Measures. — The late Congress has given the country abun- 
dant reasons for never wishing to see it again, but it remained for 
it to add as an appropriate headstone to mark its grave the above 
report. This committee was composed as follows : A. H. Stephens, 
Chairman; Levi Maish, Robt. B. Vance, J. B. Clark (Mo.), R. M. 
Knapp, H. L. Muldrow, J. B. Clarke (Ky.), M. S. Brewer, Thos. 
Ryan, J. W. Dwight, R. L. Gibson. To all appearance these 
gentlemen have embodied their views on the metrical system in a 
report of 234 pages. This report contains a collection of various 
works, reports, tables, &c, &c, from many sources, and in so far 
as the printing is accurate perhaps the labors of the committee 
have not been fruitless. But it is too evident that there has been 
no original thinking done by the committee on this important 
subject, nor do they seem to understand the contributions of 
others, while the form of the report is such as to make it appear 
that work done by others was done by the committee. 

The introductory lines, which are doubtless original with the 
compiler of this report, are not, either in literary or statistical 
merit, up to the standard of what he has scissored. Thus we read, 
p. 6, that " Phidon of Argos in Greece, nearly a thousand years be- 
fore the Christian era, gave the subject (?) his profound attention, 
but with no nearer approximation to what was wanting than any 
of his predecessors," &c. 

The picture of Pheidon (?) of Argos profoundly attentive while 
far, far away from the desirable but missing, is touching. Poor 
Pheidon would have been reveling in the closest propinquity (at 
least by comparison) could he have only survived long enough 
to be placed in possession of this report. 

The carelessness of this pot-pourri (or perhaps ragout would 
be more appropriate) is not only exhibited in the manner in 
which good pieces of work have been put together, but in the 
perpetuation of the radically wrong relation between the inch 
and the meter expressed by the number 39.370432, a num- 
ber accepted by no persons on the globe except those directly in- 
fluenced by the office of the United States Coast Survey. 

Page 8, we read that "Some writer has said that the adoption 
of the Metric System in solving mathematical problems (?) in our 
public and private schools would save one full year's hard study 
in a boy's or girl's collegiate course." 

Passing over the loose and only partly intelligible style of this 
statement, it is fair to presume that it grew out of "some writer's " 
ill remembrance of the following paragraph on the back of one of 
theJVIetric Bureau " Broadsides:" 
ates (an Eng 
. the schools and among those best able 1 



310 Recent Literature. [May, 

judge of the matter, reported that the complete adoption of the 
decimal, in place of the present English weights and measures, 
would save two full years in the school-life of every child edu- 
cated. In our country the saving would be something less, be- 
cause of our adoption of the decimal currency; but the most con- 
servative teachers acknowledge that something like this amount 
of time would be saved each child if our present confusion of 
measures were entirely replaced by the International or Metric 

It should be said in justice to the composer of this report that 
his English is no worse than that signed by seven distinguished 
names (p. 57), of which the following is a sample : " It is 
gratifying to know that the President of the United States, on 
having been consulted by Mr. Washburne upon the question of 
affixing his signature, was authorized by telegraph to do so, and 
signed the convention accordingly." 

It was no doubt very kind of Mr. Washburne to permit the 
President to sign the convention, but who did Mr. Washburne 
represent ? 

We must conclude this hasty summary of the Report of the 
Committee on Coins, Weights and Measures, by drawing atten- 
tion to the fact that the three tables published in Frazer's pam- 
phlet on the " Proposed Substitution of the Metric for our own 
Weights and Measures," appear on p. 229 and the unnumbered 
following page of the report are without the slightest acknowledg- 
ment of the source whence they were taken. 

This is the more remarkable in the table"" called " Distribution 
of English Units," because this is a photograph of a free hand dia- 
gram of Mr. Frazer, which was improved in the pamphlet above 
referred to. It contains a patent error (as here produced) in the 
line which leads up from the " Rod Pole or Perch " to a group 
with which this length has nothing to do. This error does not 
appear in the pamphlet printed in 1877. 

We would sum up this report by saying that it illustrates but 
too forcibly some of the gravest defects in the present system of 
doing the work of our Government. The object which the com- 
mittee endeavors to further is a good one, viz: the unification of 
weights and measures ; but the M. C. of the last Congress could not 
bestow the time upon this question of pure statesmanship which 
its proper understanding requires, and it is but too clear that some 
underpaid clerk has been delegated by the members to make an 
indigestible salmagundi of all that has been done, with orders not 
to stop short of the two hundredth page. Thus more copy is 
afforded our merry Government presses, more disjointed thinking 
supplied for trunk linings and lamp lighters, while the committee 
may have the satisfaction of knowing that their Report is as un- 
satisfactory in favor of a good cause, as in the goloid currency 
question it might have been fatally effective in a bad one. 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 3 1 1 

As Mr. Culver, clerk to this committee, furnishes a short preface 
in which he speaks of the report as " compendious" and a " con- 
venient book of reference," it is likely that he is responsible for it. 
None but the too partial eye of the editor could detect these 
qualities in a mosaic of which not a stone seems to have been 
fashioned to fit its place and all are put together without regard 

We have been informed that only 1200 copies of this report 
have been published, while 10,000 have been ordered by Con- 
gress. It is to be hoped that the other 8800 will not be issued 
until they have been completely revised and arranged so as to 
subserve some useful end, however small. At present the report 
may be compared to the last stanza in the "'House that Jack 
built." Mr. Adams' (J. Q.) first report on the metric system 
representing the malt said to have lain in that house. 

Coues's Birds of the Colorado Valley, Part I. 1 — Dr. 
Coues writings on ornithological matters have become so well 
known both to specialists and the public at large, that the prom- 
ised advent of a book from his pen is looked forward to with no 
ordinary degree of interest. 

The present volume, " Birds < 
regarded as complementary to tl 
when the work is finished, for we are promised a second volume 
in continuation, we shall have from our author what may be con- 
sidered, collectively, as a very complete treatise, both technically 
and biographically, of the birds of our western interior. 

The volume i- introduced with a prefatory note by Prof. Hay- 
den, in charge, in which is briefly given the scope of the work 
and a general description of the area treated of, with allusions to 
its ornithological facies in its broader aspects, together with a 
graceful mention of the several authors and workers in the same 
field whose writings and labors have been most largely drawn upon 
by the author. 

The volume is divided into convenient chapters, each treating 
of a single family and beginning' with a concise enumeration of 
the family characters. The genera or sub-genera are next charac- 
terized with sufficient amplitude for all practical purposes, when 
follows the treatment, in greater or less detail, of each species. 

If it be permissible to compare the method of handling the 
subject adopted here with that of the companion octavo, which 
was, at the time of its appearance, regarded as so admirable, the 
present volume loses nothing by the comparison. On the con- 
trary its literary execution appears to have received more care 

_ 1 Birds of the Colorado Valley. A Repository of Sciontitl.- an. I |\, P ul ir [nfnnii.i- 
' . ,,', . ' V; \\ Urn.;'. •> «. ■ .n ■ 
Survey of the Terri; 'r', -']-' \ I ; n-ch.irge. 



Recent Literature. [May, 

d even higher praise, while the descriptions of all 
troduced, with the generally more thorough man- 
:s to the present book a far wider sphere of 
usefulness. 

It is rarely given to one individual to wield the pen of the exact 
scientific writer and, in addition, to possess the light touch, the 
facility of expression, the graceful humorous fancy — in short, the 
happy way of putting things — that so preeminently characterizes 
Dr. Coues' writings. It is due to this more than anything else 
that our author enjoys such a widespread popularity, since not 
only do such books as the present have an acknowledged value 
to the working ornithologist, but their popular element renders 
them acceptable to a large circle to whom ordinary ornithological 
treatises possess little or no interest. 

We notice, in passing, in not a few instances that Dr. Coues has 
done good service in supplying vernacular names to birds 
hitherto christened in Latin, and in replacing inappropriate or 
positively objectionable appellations by others of his own coin- 
others they cannot be so strongly endorsed, as, for instance, 
when he imports the term " Accentor " from the continent and 
applies it to our water thrushes. Its original application was to 
a group of birds of very different character, and hence the same 
argument against it applies that has very properly been given 
weight in other instances, as the robin, quail, partridge and 
others, which names, as attached to our birds have no proper 
significance, to say nothing of the fact that our bird's familiar 
name of water thrush is sufficiently appropriate and descriptive. 

The use of Bartramian names in a number of instances will 
probably not find favor in the eyes of some ornithologists. But 
here there is ground for honest differences of opinion, and the 
discrimination for or against their use, at least in certain of them, 
must be left to the judgment of each writer. 

Dr. Coues has especially laid the student of North American 
ornithology under heavy debt in two particulars, first in the syn- 
onomy, and second in the bibliography of the present volume. 
Just how much is meant by the statement of a personal verifi- 
cation and settlement of synonomical points and references, and 
the amount of labor involved in such a work will probably be 
appreciated by the few workers in the same field — and the para- 
graphs, amounting in certain instances to pages of fine type, 
which precede each description, will probably be passed over by 
the general reader entirely unnoticed, or with a mere glance of 
wonder as to their purpose. 

The closet worker, however, will here find much matter to be 
grateful for, and in consequence of the thorough manner in which 
it is here presented, will be saved many an hour of painstaking 
search in musty and uninviting old volumes. The collection of 



1 879.] Recent Literature. 3 1 3 

synonomical lists involves many nice points in the settlement of 
which it is hardly to be expected there will be an unanimous 
opinion among naturalists, especially when a question of such 
prime importance as to what does or does not constitute a species 
is left practically to each author's own judgment, and hence, not 
infrequently, its settlement becomes simply a presentment of indi- 
vidual opinions, or merely an exponent of the amount of material 
on hand for comparison. Here our author's power of research 
and fine critical ability is well displayed, and we think that in the 
main his conclusions rest upon safe ground. 

In other cases we believe his views will bear scrutiny, and may 
cite, as a possible instance of hasty conclusion on the part of the 
author, his statement that the Petrochelidon fulva, of the West 
Indies, -is scarcely, if at all, distinct from our P. lunifrons. We 
are giad to notice that he has left the matter open for future 
investigation and final settlement, as we feel sure that direct com- 
parisons of specimens will show that the two are entirely distinct, 
even on the least conservative grounds. 

But most important of all must be deemed the bibliographical 
appendix which is simply a brief extract of the Universal Bibli- 
ography of Ornithology, which is now in the author's hands well 
advanced towards completion. 

The student must regret, of course, that within the present 
covers is not contained a full presentation of all North American 
titles, and that the present could not thus be made a monograph 
of this part of the subject. But if the line had to be drawn 
somewhere, he may congratulate himself that he has here access 
to so much as ninety-five per cent, of the whole amount, for so 
large a proportion as this, as the author states, is here represented. 
The missing five per cent, consist of all monographs, all general 
treatises on the birds of larger geographical areas, even if includ- 
ing North America, and all general works on ornithology. 

We miss a few titles that appear to us should be present, even 
under the limitations drawn for himself by the author. Thus we 
do not find Grinnell's List of the Birds of the Yellowstone 
National Park in Capt. Ludlow's Report of the Chief of Engineer's, 
1876, and Henshaw's Report on the Ornithological Specimens of 
the Wheeler Expedition for 1872, '71, '74, both quartos and of 
considerable importance, as well as some others. But these must 
be looked upon as omissions of but trifling importance when we 
consider the admirable fullness of this bibliography within its 
prescribed limits. ■ We should not omit to mention that a most 
excellent index, almost, in fact, a bibliography by itself, renders 
reference to any desired title an easy and expeditious matter. 
The bibliography if finished with the same painstaking care so 
evident in this extract, must stand as a monument of critical labor 
and as a model for all future work in the same direction. 

Glancing at the press-work it is evident that much care has 



314 Recent Literature. [May, 

been taken with the proof-reading with the result that very few 
typographical errors appear. The printing of the first eleven 
chapters (nearly) upon tinted paper in strong contrast to the white 
Of the remaining pages, from no fault of the printer as we under- 
stand, is to be regretted. The critical eye in search of faults 
might notice too, upon many pages, traces of old and worn type. 
But as a whole, and especially as regards its exterior dress, the 
appearance of the volume is neat and pleasing, and leaves little to 
be desired. 

A government report might be supposed to be the last place to 
which one would turn in search of matter to while away an idle 
hour, but our author contrives to introduce into his pages many 
a bit of pleasant philosophy and many a tale of birds and their 
doings that will prove to the appreciative reader anything else 
but dry reading. Like the skillful cook whose art. is shown by 
his power to serve a juicy dish, be the meat never so tough and 
unsavory, so the author's skill as a writer is seen in his ability to 
dress up bird histories, however commonplace the subjects, in a 
style that is sure to please. For a choice example of his pecu- 
liar knack, let us refer the reader to his story of the familiar cat- 
bird, where the author appears to us in his happiest vein of 

But space forbids even mention of all the good things that are 
brought together within these covers. Let each of our readers 
who loves a good book send for a copy, and we predict that few 
indeed will turn its leaves without finding something which will 
appeal to his or her interest.— #. W. H. 

Jensen's Turbellarian Worms of Norway. 1 — Our marine 
zoologists will be interested in the appearance of this valuable 
work on the marine flat-worms of the Norwegian coast. A num- 
ber of new forms are described in considerable detail, with excel- 
lent figures, while the descriptive portion is preceded by quite 
full anatomical details. The work is done in the careful, con- 
scientious manner characteristic of Scandinavian zoologists. The 
descriptions are both in Latin and Norwegian, so that the work is 
accessible to students in general. 

McCook's Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of 
Tr.xAS. 2 — For a number of years Rev. Mr. McCook, has been a 
diligent student of the habits of the ants of his own State, Penn- 
sylvania, his papers appearing in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. The present volume is devoted to a single 

1 Turbellaria ad Litora Nor^-gi.c ocidmtalia. Turhdl.iru-r red Norges Vest- 



1 879- J Recent Literature. 3 1 5 

species, the agricultural ant of Texas, to which the attention of 
naturalists had been drawn by the late Dr. Lincecum, of Texas. 
This ant is preeminent, as the author states, for its admirable 
social organization, its skill as a mason in excavating its vast 
and well ordered system of underground chambers ; its extensive 
surface operations in clearing out circular court-yards to its nests, 
and road-ways to its foraging grounds ; the striking variations in 
its surface architecture from cones to flat disks; its highly devel- 
oped stinging powers, which place it among the most formidable 
of the stinging ants ; while it is especially noteworthy from its 
harvesting habits. The results of the energy, skill and patience 
evinced in the study of this ant are most successful. There is an 
honesty of purpose, thoroughness in detail and general accuracy 
of statement, together with fullness of illustration in the cuts and 
the twenty-four lithographic plates, which will give a lasting 
value to the book as a biography of one of the most interesting 
of all animals. 

We wish the author had given us his impressions as to the 
nature of the instinctive and rational acts of the ant, but we have 
here a store-house of generally well observed facts, which will 
afford material for the future student of animal psychology. The 
drawings are mostly by the author, and add greatly to the interest 
and attractiveness of the book. 

Waterton's Wanderings in South America. 1 — This quaint, 
at times somewhat affected narrative, whatever its drawbacks 
when judged by the standard works of scientific travelers, has 
always had a hold upon general readers. It is the journal of an 
Knglish country gentleman possessed with a strong love of nature, 
a decided leaning to ornithology, a genius for taxidermy, and 
withal a patient and generally accurate observer. There are 
scattered through the volume sketches of animal nature which 
give it permanent value. While Waterton's adventures with the 
Cayman are credible, despite his contemporary critics, we have 
to thank him for the attractive and truthful pictures of tropical 
scenery and life. His sketches of the ant bear, the armadillo, the 
vampire, the ai or three-toed sloth, of certain birds, of the natives 
among whom he traveled, and his researches on wourali poison 
are all as valuable as they are entertaining. In his description of 
the sloth, Waterton makes a contribution to the subject of pro- 
tective resemblance. " I observed," he writes, " when he was 
climbing he never used his arms both together, but first one and 
then the other, and so on alternately. There is a singularity in 



Terton, Esq. New e 
>ndex, by the Rev. J. 
miUan & Co., 187S. 



316 Recent Literature. [May, 

his hair different from that of all other animals, and, I believe, 
hitherto unnoticed by naturalists ; his hair is thick and coarse at 
the extremity, and gradually tapers to the root, where it becomes 
fine as a spider's web. His fur has so much the hue of the moss 
which -rows on the branches of the trees, that it is very difficult 
to make him out when he is at rest." 

The biography of Waterton by Rev. J. G. Wood, with its 
attractive illustrations, brings out well the characteristics of the 
hero of the narrative. The explanatory index by the editor 
occupies about one hundred and fifty pages, and has frequent 
illustrations. Taken altogether this edition is most attractive, and 
is a companion volume to Macmillan's elegant edition of White's 
Selbourne. 



Recknt Books ax 


d Ram* 


HI.l-.TS.- 


-The Dev 


onian Brae 


hiopod 


a of the P 












st to. he Geolog 


lission of Brazil, Pre 


.f. C. I-'. 






rom the ] 






ociety of Natural H 










39- 




Evidences of Cann 


il.alism 


in an 


early race 


in Japan. 


By 


Edward : 


Reprinted from the 


Toki.) 


Tillies 


Jan. 18, 


1879.) Tokio, 


Japan, 1.8 


P phryganiden-Studien. Vo, 


n Fritz 


und Hermann Mull 




Kosmos 1 


















Morse 


an.] Lis 




etc. ByB 


• J.K< 


•ndall. C 




H'. S.j. 




















Porcupine' 






tiuns. My the Rev. 


A. M. 


\nnn:u 


.. (From 


, ami 




1 History, Jan, .879 




.pp. '<) 










On Loxosoma and ' 


IVitieell 


a.genei 


ra of semi- 


parasitic 1' 


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in the Mr 



Geologi. 


,! Sur 


year 1878. 


8vo, 


Fourteer 








8vo, pp. 8c 




,Arz [ ;^ 


i 7 , 1877.) 




The Floi 





Annual Report of the State Geologist f. 
Trenton, N. J., " " 



8. From the 

nirt of Rutgers Seientitie School, th 



{Abies Link). By Dr. George Enj 



1 879.] Botany. 317 

Inscribed St-.n ,f Grave r'rocl Mound Report on— In M C Reid, of Hudson, 



oak. By Persifor Fra/er. Jr., Philadelphia. (Ext. from Trans. 
Engineers Vol. v., read at the Wilkesbarre meeting May, 
t.on, .S79. From the author. 



Fossil Forests of th. Vol, mi, l\rt v I v, • f the Yellowstone Nat 

Park. By W. H. Holme. (Ext. fr.mi the Hull, of the L. S. Geol. and Geog. 
vey, Vol. V, No. 1). 8vo, pp. 125-132. (Washington, Feb. 28, 1879. Fron 

On the Association of Dwarf Crocodiles (JVannosucAus and Theriosuchm j 
lus, e. g.), with the Diminutne M minub of the 1'urheck Shales. Bv Prof. Ric 
Owen, C.B., F.R.S., F.G.S. (Kxf from Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' London, j 

1 of Official Reports upon C 



t iu: Mini-, collected in Martinique, by Mr. Fred. A. Ober, for the 
eum.) 8vo, pp. 349-360. From the author. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Part III, 1878. 
ivo, pp. 329-475, plf. m_vi. ' Philadelphia, 1S79. And the same, pp. 9-24, of the 



)ec. 21, 1878. From the editor. 

:rio de Fomento de la Republica Mexicana. Folio (Dailj 

eb. 20, 1S79. From the Director of the Central Meteorogic 



Sur les Repti 

Rendu. <le V: 



il Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Univi 
Session of 1878. t [une 24th to Au: 
t Murphy & Co., 1879. From the Uni 



GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Instinct and Reason, by F. C. Clark.—" Wonders of the 
vegetable world " never cease. Some of them are brought to 
hght m the pages of the February number of the American Natu- 
ralist. " Leaves often change to roots, and roots in favorable 



318 General Notes. [May, 

circumstances become leaves." " The plant * * * for repro- 
ductive purposes has nettles, thorns, elastic films, as in the seed 
vessels of the squirting cucumber." " If the well-known sensi- 
tive plant be touched never so lightly, its flowers and leaves 
close." " The ' resurrection plant,' generally known as the Rose 
of Jericho * * * * to all appearance a mass of dry, dead vege- 
table fibre * * * when sufficient moisture is applied it revives, 
its leaves expand, it is clothed in new verdure, and as its blossoms 
unfold, the reanimated plant is clothed in all its former beauty." 
" When night approaches* flowers close their petals ***** 
some plants, however, only flower at night. The beautiful Yuccas 
a species of wild lily, only blossom when the moon is out." The 
small leaflets of Desmodium gyrans " move up and down in alter- 
nate jerks, at the rate of sixty a minute. * * * This motion is 
continued during all the seasons of the year, and during the 
whole life-time of the plant." 

For aft but one of these wonders the authority cited is " Won- 
ders of the Vegetable World, by Scheie DeVere." This book 
we believe to be a second edition of one entitled A Salad for the 
Solitary, which was noticed in the American Journal of Science 
and the Arts a good many years ago. It was then remarked that 
" Ignorance is not a sin per se, its heinousness depends on the use 
that is made of it." The following wonders, like that of the 
blooming of the Yuccas in moonlight, are more original, or at 
least more modern. In Dai /,>,,< , >liforniia "beautiful red 
wattles within the brim of its pitcher offer irresistible attractions 
to insects, especially to flies. These alight first upon the' wat- 
tles,' then flying upward strike the pitcher, and owing to the 
peculiar twist of its walls falls to the bottom of the receptacle, 
where many another thoughtless fly has, too late, found its sepul- 
chre." Why too late ? 

" Mrs. Treat has studied the habits of this plant (bladder wort, 
Utriadaria neglectd), and learned that it allures animalcules by 
means of its bright flowers and leaves glistening with dew." 

Some sentences are wondrous in other ways: e. gr, "For the 
removal of obstacles the plant has two courses, to disintegrate 
the object opposed to its progress, absorbing it if it be a suitable 
nutritive element, as are all animal and vegetable substances, and 
some minerals, or pass around it ; or still again, as in extreme 
cases, to bury it up in its own substance, as are stones, bayonets, 
nails and the like." 

Now a popular article, when it touches upon subjects of which 
the writer knows little or nothing, should be judged forbearingly 
when it goes wildly astray. In an ordinary magazine it 'would 
matter little, but in the pages of the American Naturalist 
these statements gain an importance and a currency which is not 
altogther pleasant. The undersigned does his duty in simply 
calling attention to the matter. — Asa Gray. 



1 879.] ^ Zoology. 319 

Henslow on the S elf-Fertilization of Plants. — The Rev. 
George Henslow concludes from his studies on the structure of 
plants, that the prevailing views as to the necessity of cross-fertil- 
ization are too extreme. He claims that " Mr. Darwin's works 
have gone too far to strengthen the belief that intercrossing is 
absolutely necessary for plants ; and that if self-fertilization be 
continued for lengthened periods the plants tend to degenerate 
and thence to ultimate extinction. This I believe to be absolutely 
false." Mr. Henslow arrives at the following conclusions in his 
article in the Popular Science Review: " I. The majority of flow- 
ering plants can, and possibly do, fertilize themselves. 2. Very- 
few plants are known to be physiologically self-sterile when the 
pollen of a flower is placed on the stigma of the same flower. 3. 
Several plants are known to be morphologically self-sterile in that 
the pollen cannot, without aid, reach the stigma, but is effective 
on that of the same flower. 4. Self-sterile plants from both the 
above causes can become self-fertile. 5. Highly self-fertile forms 
may arise under cultivation. 6. Special adaptations occur for 
self-fertilization." 

Contraction of Leaves of Sensitive Plants.— In Sir J. D. 
Hooker's recent address as President of the Royal Society, it is 
stated that Dr. Burdon Sanderson has for two years past been 
studying the true relations between the electrical disturbances fol- 
lowed by the shutting of the leaf valves of Dionzea, and the latent 
change of protoplasm which precedes this operation. He has 
found that* though the mechanism of the change of form of the 
excitable parenchyma which causes the contraction is entirely 
different from that of muscular contraction, yet that the corres- 
pondence between the exciting process in the anim tl tissues and 
what represents this in the plant tissues appears to be more com- 
plete the more carefully the comparison is made; and that whether 
the stimulus be mechanical, thermal, or electrical, its effects cor- 
respond in each case. Again, the excitation is propagated from 
the point of excitation to distant points in the order of their re- 
moteness, and the degree to which the structure is excited depends 
upon its temperature. Notwithstanding, however, the striking 
analogies between the electrical properties of the cells of Dionaea 
and of muscle-cylinders, Dr. Burdon Sanderson is wholly unable 
to admit with Prof. Munk that these structures are in this respect 
comparable. 

ZOOLOGY. 1 
Discovery of Male Eels.— We are glad to state that finally 
what we believe to be genuine male eels -have been discovered. 
In the January number of this journal it was announced by 
Prof. Packard that he had discovered male eels. A number of 
the supposed males were afterward again examined, by Prof. 



320 General Notes. [May, 

Packard and Dr. C. S. Minot, who were then led to conclude 
that the so-called male eels were immature females, and the mis- 
take was corrected by Prof. Packard in the February Naturalist. 
A large number of living eels were then examined by Messrs. 
Packard, Kingsley, Pierce and Minot without success, until at 
Prof. Packard's request Mr. Kingsley spent a few days at Wood's 
Holl, at the laboratory of the U. S. Fish Commission, in the last 
of February, examining living eels supplied by Mr. Vinal N. 
Edwards, by favor of Prof. Baird, U. S. Fish Commissioner. One 
hundred and ninety-three eels were there examined, and of these, 
three were found by Mr. Kingsley to be, in his opinion, males. 
His observations made on these living individuals, which were 
speared in a pond through the ice, are as follows: 

"On February 18, 19 and 20, I examined one hundred and 
ninety-three eels, at Wood's Holl, and found three males, the 
testes of which agreed closely with Syrski's figures as reproduced 
in the U. S. Fish Commission Report for 1873-4 and 1874-5, p. 
719. Although I made careful examination I could find no 
external characters to separate the sexes. The three males were 
each about seventeen inches long, while the females examined 
varied from about twelve inches to nearly three feet. This average 
length of males agrees closely with Syrski's (430 mm. in length). 
The principal criticisms I would make of his figures, or rather 
points of difference that I found, are that his enlarged figure 
showing the lobulation of the testis has the lobes far more 
crowded than they were in the specimens I examined. His draw- 
ing of the histological structure was greatly larger than what I 
supposed to be the same. His cells measure, according to the 
explanation, about ¥ £ v of an inch on their major axis, while I saw 
nothing that could have been over ?TJ W of an inch. The struc- 
ture of the testis was similar to that which I have seen in the tes- 
tes of the cod, perch, smelt, cat, deer, rooster, monkey* dog and 
man. On teasing it out under a Tolles one-fifth, I saw what I am 
confident were spermatozoa, although I could not distinguish the 
tails. The heads were oval and from one-half to one-third the 
size of those of the smelt, or about ^foro of an inch in length ; 
they had an independent motion, changing their position on the 
slide without reference to any current in the water in which the 
tissue was placed, and this motion was wholly different in its 
character from the vibrations of the Brownian movement." 

Prof. Packard examined independently of and in company with 
Mr. Kingsley, preparations made by himself, and found scattered 
through the tissues, nucleated and nucleolated testis cells, of the 
same appearance as those of the animals above named, which were 
kindly obtained by Prof. Pierce. Moreover, Prof. Packard found 
two mother-cells, containing several immature nucleated sperma- 
tozoa. So that after the examination of about five hundred 
female eels and three males, we are glad to be able to affirm 



1 879.] Zoology. 321 

the entire accuracy of Syrski's ol ires, he being 

the first observer, so far as we are aware, who has discovered the 
male sex of the Italian eel. Which species of eel it was that Sy rski 
examined is not stated. In making these investigations we have 
to acknowledge the aid of Prof. John Pierce, of Providence, in 
the use of a fine series of mounted histological specimens and 
lenses of high powers. He has worked jointly with us and is of 
our opinion as to the sex of the three males. Dr. Minot exam- 
ined one of the three males, preserved in alcohol, and found as 
Freud and Brock had done previously, a folliclular structure, the 
follicles being filled with small spherical cells, which Dr. Minot 
considered to be probably immature spermatozoa, although the 
development could not be traced. — A. S. Packard, Jr., and J. S. 
Kingsley. 

Breeding Habits of the Dace. — In the early part of June, 
1878, an excellent opportunity offered itself for observing the 
breeding habits of the dace \Rh Standing 

one afternoon upon one of the bridges crossing the river in this 
city, a nest of this fish was discovered in the stream below, it was 
about two feet in diameter, situated in running water from twelve 
to fifteen inches deep, and protected upon the upper side by a 
small root by which the current of the water was broken. The 
female would pass over the pebbles and deposit her spawn, while 
the male stood ready for an attack, and on the approach of an 
enemy would dart off like a flash in pursuit of the intruder. 
When no danger was near, and after the bed had been covered 
with spawn, the female would stand sentry until the male had . 
passed over the eggs, and then both would proceed up the stream 
from four to ten feet or more, and taking a small pebble in their 
mouths, would quickly return and deposit them on the fecundated 
eggs, sometimes but one fish would go for pebbles, the other lin- 
gering near, thus layer after layer of impregnated eggs and peb- 
bles were deposited one upon the other. These movements were 
watched for two days, when the water became muddy from the 
spring rains, and further observation was impossible. The wis- 
dom displayed in these operations, and the wonderful exhibition 
of the instinct for the preservation of species is readily seen. The 
covering of the eggs retained them in their place, and at the 
same time protected them from being destroyed by other fishes 
who were constantly hovering about, like vultures watching an 
opportunity to devour them, while the interstices between the 
pebbles gave sufficient space to harbor the little fry, as soon as 
hatched, and to protect them until they, by their own instincts or 
by the assistance of the parent fish, were able to seek shelter 
beyond the reach of their enemies. I have no doubt in this man- 
nei ill fresh-watei >, f>a < fish deposi th< r spawn in // t/'O/n 
the pebble heaps we call their nests.— IV. H. Gregg, M.D., Elmira, 



322 General Notes. [May, 

Large Rattlesnakes.— Col. ' 
N. J., writes us under date of Au_ 
very numerous with us just now, on account of the large amount 
of cedar swamp which is being cut. I obtained one which was 
six feet two inches long, with fourteen rattles and a button. 
Within the ensuing five days seven were offered, none, however, 
as long as the above mentioned, but one was five feet nine inches, 
and had fifteen rattles and a button." 

Sound-producing Organs of the Cricket. — During some 
researches among the order of Orthopters, made by me the past 
fall, I made it a point to carefully investigate the means by which 
the stridulous calls of the family Saltatoria were produced. La- 
treille, in the " Animal Kingdom " of Cuvier, says of this family 
of leapers: " The males call their females by making a chirping 
noise, which is sometimes produced by rubbing an inner part of 
the wing-covers like a talc-like mirror, against each other with 
rapidity, and sometimes by a similar alternate motion of the hind 
thighs against the wings and wing covers, the thighs acting the 
part of the bow of a violin." This description may be considered 




as relating more especially to the group in general, but in the case 
of the genus Grylhts {Arhcta of English authors), of which I pro- 
pose to speak, there is a special arrangement, a singular adapta- 
tion of means to ends. 

It must be evident to all who are familiar with the notes pro- 
duced by the cricket, that the extreme shrillness and penetrating 
power of their call could with difficulty be produced by the sim- 
ple frictional movement of one unctuous " talc-like " surface over 
another. There are many different species the calls of which can 
be heard at the distance of several hundred feet, and one species, 
inhabiting Sicily (G. / call has been distin- 

guished at the distance of a mile. 

This power to produce a penetrating tone, calls for a special 



i8; 9 .] 



From a protuberance i 

wing-case, about one-third the AN^l 

length ofthe case from its anterior . jHaffiE9Hfii|MA 

extremity, and situated on the H0HH^^Rflfi 

inner or sutural edge, there is a XflH 

large tracheal tube which ex- , V 

tends out laterally, thence for- V. 

ward and terminates at the junc- (£^X ""^ 

ture of the wing-case with the ^-~ ^"^ 

thorax. This tracheal tube forms, T a tf',mort enlarged viowof the n- 
or extends through a ridge on bral rfitng .- - ■ i i likem i 

the inferior surface of the case, bran e. 

which is in the form of a quadrant or crescent. On the ridge is 
situated a series of minute transverse vibratory flanges, resting 
upon edge and resembling, to a certain extent, the scales of a fish 
when scraped so as to cause them to stand erect. The base of 
each flange is thickened, the upper edge slightly blunted and re- 
curved. The upper surface of the wing-case is squamous, so that 
when either case is drawn over the other, the series of vibratory 
flanges on the under side of one is made to pass rapidly over the 
scaly upper surface of the underlying case, in this manner pro- 
ducing the harsh creaking sound so familiar. By a greater or 
less rapidity of motion the insect can produce the variations of 
tone which are often observed. As the cases do not unite in the 
center of the back but each passes nearly to the opposite side of 
the body, the chain of vibratory flanges can be utilized to nearly 
its full length, before it becomes necessary to re-commence tin- 
When the ring-cases are at rest the two crescent shaped ridges 
are united so as to inclose a semicircular space in the center of 
the anterior portion of the cases. The leathery covering of this 
space is slightly elevated, forming a chamber underneath, which 
prevents the sound from being smothered in the folds ofthe second 
pair of wings, which lie directly beneath. The insect when 
about to produce its call usually assumes a fixed, statue-! ike posi- 
tion, with head lowered and posterior extremities slightly elevated, 
the cases forming an angle of twenty or thirty degrees with the 
abdomen. 

The call is formed during the outward stroke ofthe cases, they 
being slightly separated when returning to the first position. I 
noticed that the field species, when calling from the mouth of its 
abode, stood with the head in the burrow and the extremities of 
the wings protruding from the opening, thus seeming to compre- 
hend that their call could be heard to a greater distance if stand- 
ing in this position than if in the reversed. 



I have examined the wing-cases of a number of species and 
find that they all have a like arrangement to the one here de- 
scribed, although the shape of the flanges may vary, to a certain 
extent. — Newton B. Pierce. 

The Lecanium of the Tulip Tree. — On page 218 of the 
" Revised Manual," in speaking of other sources than flowers 
from which bees collect sweets, I remark that I have seen the bees 
thick about a large bark-louse, which attacks and often destroys 
one of our best honey-trees. This is an undescribed species of 
the genus Lecanium. 

In the summer of 1870 this louse, which, so far as I know, has 
never yet been described, and for which I propose the name 
Lecanium tulipiftra — the Lecanium of the tulip tree — was very 
common on the tulip trees about the lawns of the Michican Agri- 
cultural College, at Lansing. So destructive were they that some 
of the trees were killed outright, others were much injured, and 
had not the lice, for some unknown reason, ceased to thrive, we 
should soon have missed from our grounds one of our most 

Since the date above given, I have received these insects from 
many of the States, especially those bordering the Ohio river. 
In Tennessee they seem very common, as they are often noticed 
in abundance on the fine stately tulip trees of that goodly State. 
In the South this tulip tree is called the poplar, which is very 
incorrect, as it is in no way related to the latter. The poplar 
belongs to the willow family ; the tulip to the magnolia, which 
families are wide apart. 

Wherever the tulip-tree lice have been observed, sucking the 
sap and vitality from the trees, there the bees have also been seen, 
lapping up a sweet juicy exudation which is secreted by the lice. 
In 1870 I observed that our tulip trees were alive with bees and 
wasps, even as late as August, though the trees are in blossom 
only in June. Examination showed that the exuding sweets from 
these lice were what attracted the bees. This was observed with 
some anxiety, as the secretion gives off a very nauseating odor. 

The oozing secretions from this and other lice, not only of the 
bark-louse family (Coccidae), but of the plant-louse family 
(Aphidae), are often referred to as honey-dew. Would it not be 
better to speak of these as insect secretions, and reserve the name 
honey-dew for sweet secretions from plants, other than those 
which come from the flowers? 

The fully developed insect, like all bark lice, is in the form of 
a scale (Fig. 1), closely applied to the limb or twig on which it 
works. This insect, like most of its genus, is brown, very convex 
above (Fig. 1), and concave beneath (Fig. 2). On the under side 
is a cotton-like secretion, common to all of the genus Lecanium, 
which serves to enfold the eggs. Underneath the species in 
question are two transverse parallel lines of this white down (Fig. 



1 879.] 



Zoology. 



2). One of them, probably the anterior, is nearly marginal, and 
is interrupted in the middle, while the other is nearly central, and 
in place of the interruption at the middle, it has a V-shaped pro- 
jection back or away from the other line. The form of the scale 
is quadrangular, and not unlike that of a turtle (Fig. 1). When 
fully developed it is a little more than three-sixteenths of an inch 
long, and a little more than two-thirds as wide. 

Here at Lansing, the small, yellow, oval eggs appear late in 
August. In Tennessee they would be found under the scales in 
their cotton wrappings many days earlier. The eggs are one- 
fortieth of an inch long, and one-sixty-fifth of an inch wide. 
These eggs, which are very numerous, hatch in the locality of 




their development, and the young or larval lice, quite in contrast 
with their dried, inert, motionless parents, are spry and active. 
They are oval (Figs. 3 and 4), yellow, and one twenty-third of an 
inch long, and one-fortieth of an inch wide. The eyes, antenna: 
(Fig. 5) and legs (Fig. 6) are plainly visible when magnified 
thirty or forty diameters. The nine-jointed abdomen is deeply 
emarginate, or cut into posteriorly (Fig. 3), and on each side of 
this slit is a projecting stylet or hair (Figs. 3 and 4), while from 
between the eyes, on the under side of the head, extends the long 
recurved beak (Fig. 4). The larvae soon leave the scales, craw! 
about the tree, and finally fasten by inserting their long slender 
beaks, when they so pump up the sap that they grow with sur- 
prising rapidity. In a few weeks their legs and antenna- disap- 
pear, and the scale-like form is assumed. In the following sum- 
full-formed and the eggs are developed. Soon 



the scale, 






' the . 



» tiv 



young 1 






from the tree, and the work of destruction is lef 
a responsibility which they seem quite ready t 

In my observations I have detected no males. Judging from 
others of the bark-lice, these probably possess wings, and will 
never assume the scale form, though Prof. P. R. Uhler writes me 



326 General Notes. [May, 

that apterous males are found among the Coccidae, and that in all 
cases the males are very important in the determination of 

Remedies.— \{ valued shade or honey trees are attacked by 
these insatiate destroyers, they could probably be saved by dis- 
crete pruning — cutting off the infected branches before serious 
injury was done, or by syringing the trees with a solution of 
whale-oil soap — or even common soft-soap would do — just as the 
young lice are leaving the scales. It would be still better to have 
the solution hot. Whitman's Fountain Pump is admirable for 
making such applications. 

Fig. 1 is slightly magnified ; the others are largely magnified. 
The drawings were made from the objects by VV. S. Holdsworth, 
a senior of the Michigan Agricultural College.— A J. Cook. 

Molting of the Horned Toad {Phrynosoma douglassi Gray). 
—This well-known species of horned lizard, or horned toad 
as it is more commonly known, is very widely distributed over 
the north-western portion of the United States. It appears espe- 
cially abundant throughout the Bad Lands, and over the dry 
country between the Yellowstone and Musselshell rivers. During 
my visit to those regions with the Yellowstone Expedition of 
1873, about fifty specimens were collected for the purpose of 
studying some of their habits. The first were met with in the 
Bad Lands during the first week in July, where a number of 
young were obtained, having probably been born about the mid- 
dle of June, as indicated by their size and condition. After the 
main body of the expedition had crossed the Yellowstone river, 
a temporary camp was established, when quite a number of adult 
specimens were obtained upon which we discovered the first 
signs of molting. Those which had been collected a few days 
before now began to show similar evidences of shedding the skm. 
At first, small dry vesicles made their appearance over the back 
and sides, running along the horizontal rows of pyramidal scales 
forming the margins of the abdomen. In a day or two the vesi- 
cles would break and desquamation began, which continued over 
a period of about eight or ten days, the cephalic spines and the 
claws being the last to adhere. Immediately after the old skin 
had been removed, the process of which I assisted in several in- 
stances as far as possible, the new surface presented quite a bril- 
liant appearance when closely viewed. The darker markings upon 
the dorsum appeared minutely sprinkled with black and brick red, 
while the lighter portions remained a pure olive of various shades. 

After molting, the intensity of coloration is gradually lost, as 
the skin becomes more ashy or dusky, returning to the natural 
hue which the specimen bore previous to molting. 

The specimens as far as observed, went through the process of 
molting from three to four weeks after the birth of the young. 
Mr. H. W. Henshaw (Surveys west of 100th meridian) has 



1 879.] Anthropology. 327 

observed the change, but from his observation he thought it 
occurred during the breeding season. 

The specimens found on the prairie region flanking the Yellow- 
stone river, were very light in color; those from the Bad Lands 
somewhat darker, while those obtained near, and on the Mussel- 
shell river were extremely dark, and one specimen was nearly 
black. In this individual the abdomen was darker than the backs 
of the specimens from the prairie districts. The abdominal 
scales were densely covered with black spray, sufficiently so as 
to give some of them a uniform color. 

Dr. Yarrow 1 and Mr. Henshaw both say the coloration of the 
animal depends greatly upon the color of the soil where found, 
and this has been the result of my observations in Dakota and 
Montana, as well as in Arizona among other species of the same 
genus. 

Dr. Yarrow 2 in speaking of the time that these reptiles may be 
kept alive without food, says he has never been able to keep them 
alive over four months. Of the total number collected in 1873, 
I brought sixteen to Pennsylvania, five of which survived until 
the following May. The state of torpidity which began in 
December may account for this to some extent, but at various 
times during the winter of 1873-4, I placed them near the heater 
to revive them temporarily for the purpose of showing them to 
inquisitive visitors ; still this did not apparently affect them. In 
May, 1874, I placed them in the garden, and soon after being 
exposed to the sun they showed signs of exhaustion, difficulty of 
respiration, and finally died. They were considerably emaciated, 
and probably the state of debility, in addition to a humid atmos- 
phere and sudden exposure to the hot rays of*the sun was too 
much for them— W. J. Hoffman, M.D. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 

Perforated Skulls. — Rev. Stephen Bowers, Ph.D., recently 
discovered a burial place near Santa Barbara. Cal., which he 
explored in part. It yielded thirty or forty skeletons, serpentine 
bowls, a pipe, arrow-head, shell and bone ornaments, beads, etc. But 
the most singular feature was a nest of six skulls entirely sepa- 
rated from the other portions of the body, and buried under 
bowlders and fragmental rocks; five of these skulls were per- 
forated near the apex (with one exception) ; the perforations were 
about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and were doubtless 
made at death. He found other perforated skulls in the same 
cemeteries, but they were in too friable a condition for preser- 

Ethnologv of Southern California. — Dr. Bowers spent 
several months during the year 1878 in ethnological explorations 

1 Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey, IV, 1878, p. 286. ' 

3 Edited by Prof. Otis T. Mason, Columbian College, Washington, D. C. 



328 General Notes. [May, 

in Southern California. His work was chiefly confined to Santa 
Barbara county and portions of San Luis Obispo and Ventura 
counties. The regions of the Santa Inez, Santa Maria, Arroyo 
Grande, Ventura and Santa Clara rivers, and some of their tribu- 
taries, were examined, and the sites of old pueblos mapped. In 
the collections made, and the study of the remains of the nearly 
or quite extinct Santa Barbara stock, much additional light has 
been thrown on their hitherto scanty history. A remarkable 
feature, of Mr. Bower's discoveries in the burial places of this 
race is that he has found exact duplicates of the stone imple- 
ments figured in Dr. Schliemann's Mycenae. Mr. Bowers is pre- 
paring an exhaustive monograph of his interesting discoveries, 
which will be published by the Department of the Interior. 

Crania as Cinerary Urns in the Mounds of Ohio. — An arti- 
cle in the Naturalist for November, 1878, by Mr. Henry Gil- 
man, on the utilization of crania as cinerary urns, calls to mind 
what is probably a parallel case, which recently came under the 
writer's observation in this vicinity. 

In this instance the mound, which was opened under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Charles L. Metz, of Madisonville, was composed of a 
light sandy loam like the surrounding soil, but had received an 
additional layer of yellow clay, ranging from* six to twelve inches 
in thickness. Its measurements are, approximately, as follows : 
Circumference 200 feet, height 7 feet. It is situated on the " sec- 
ond bottom " or plateau of the Little Miami river, about one 
hundred and fifty feet above the water line, and distant about one- 
third of a mile from the river. A trench four feet in width and 
as deep, apparently, as tin original surface, was carried to its cen- 
ter from opposite sides, but without at first finding anything to 
indicate the former presence of man. Continuing a little deeper, 
however, almost directly in the center, there was found a small, 
circumscribed deposit of ashes mixed with fragments of char- 
coal and charred bones, about three or four handsful in all ; with 
these were mingled pieces of a human skull in perfectly sound 
condition so far as the action of fire was concerned, but very soft 
and friable through decay. They regained their hardness to some 
extent after being dried by exposure to the air. 1 — Frank W. Lang- 
don, Madisonville, Ohio. 

Anthropological News. — The Journal of the Anthropologi- 
cal Institute, Vol. vm, No. 2, for November, 1878, contains a clus- 
ter of very important papers. Mr. W. Flinders Petrie discusses the 
vexed question of Metrology and Geometry in Ancient Remains. 
Two things seem to be certain upon this subject : all builders of 

v . " ■ 

M.D. Journal of the ( in I story, Vol. 1, No. 3, October, 

1878. The mound here mentioned is No. 6, Group A, and has been opened since 



1 879.] Anthropology. 329 

permanent works have had a standard, and it is very difficult to 
ascertain what that standard was. Mr. Petrie finds a strong 
resemblance between the unit of the North American mound- 
builders and some of the old world standards. 

The next paper on the game of Patolli, in Ancient Mexico, 
and its probable Asiatic origin, by Mr. E. B. Tylor, has already 
appeared in the Popular Science Monthly. The paper by Mr. 
Francis Galton on Composite Portraits was read last summer 
before the British Association, and was fully noticed at the time. 
The next communication, on the Origin of the classificatory sys- 
tem of relationship used among primitive peoples, by Mr. C. 
Staniland Wake, occupies 36 pages, and is chiefly a review of Mr. 
Lewis H. Morgan, Sir John Lubbock and Mr. McLennan, and op- 
poses Mr. Morgan's hypothesis of the consanguine family and pro- 
miscuity as the starting point of his system. Mr. Wake affirms that 
" the consanguine family has not existed as a recognized social 
institution," and that " the Punaluan group can be accounted for 
satisfactorily without assuming the prior existence of the con- 
sanguine family." Against Sir John Lubbock's theory that 
" Children were not in the earliest times regarded as equally 
related to their father and their mother, but that the natural pro- 
gress of ideas is, first, that a child is related to his tribe generally, 
secondly, to his mother and not to his father, thirdly, to his father 
and not to his mother, lastly, and lastly only, that he is related to 
both," Mr. Wake offers the opposing statements of Mr. Mor- 
gan with reference to our own American tribes. Mr. McLennan's 
system of polyandry is dismissed with a few words. 

The number closes with two papers, by Mr. Alfred Simson, on 
South American tribes, entitled: "Notes on the Piojes of the 
Putumayo," and "Vocabulary of the Zaparo language." 

All lovers of excellent work will be delighted with a new serial 
whose first number appeared Jan. 31, 1879, bearing the following 
title, Index Mediats, a Monthly classified record of the Current 
Medical Literature of the World. Compiled under the super- 
vision of Dr. John S. Billings, Surgeon U. S. Army, and Dr. Rob- 
ert Fletcher, M.R.C.S., Eng. New York, F. Leypoldt, 37 Park 
Row. We take the liberty to quote from page 31 the following 

Busch (H.) Grosse, Gewicht und Brustumfang von Soldaten. 
Studien iiber ihre Entwickelung und ihren Einfluss auf die mili- 
tarische Tauglichkeit. Berlin, 1878, A. Hirschwald. 85 pp., 8vo. 

Cassanova (A.) Ibridismo in ispecie fra l'uonio e parccchi 
aninuli, facendo punto sulla transformazione delle razze scimio- 
tiche di primo ordine nelle infime selvaggie umane, e sui metodi 
per ottenere migliori tipi umani, equini, bovine, ovine, ecc. 
Milano, 1878. Zanaboni, 228 pp., 8vo, 5I. 

Von Lenhossek (Jos.) Des deformations artificielles du crane 
en general, de celles de deux cranes macrocephales trouves en 



330 General Notes. [May, 

Hongrie et d'un crane provenant des temps barbares du meme 
pays. Avec 1 1 fig. phototyp. sur 3 planches, 1 1 fig. xylogr. et 5 
fig. zincogr. intercalees dans le texte. Budapest, 1878, Kilian, 
134 pp. gr. 4- m. 18. 

Montano. Etude sur les cranes boughis et dayaks du Museum 
d'histoire naturelle. Avec projections au diagraphe intercalees 
dans le texte. Paris, 1878, G. Masson. 71 pp., 8vo. 

Schoebel (C). L'ame humaine au point de vue de la science 
ethnographique; suivi d'une note sur Claude Bernard et son 
principe du criterium ethnographique. Paris, 1878, De Rosny. 
24 pp., 8vo. 

Bouchut (E.). Peso de los recien nacedos. Rev. de med. y 
cir. pract., Madrid, 1878, 11, 289-300. 

Davreux. Un cas remarkable de microcephalic Ann. Soc. 
Med.— Chir. de Liege 1879, xvn, 329-331. 

Dupouy. De 1'heredite et des manages consanguins. Medecin, 
Par., 1878, iv (No. 40). 

Whitley (N.). Is " palaeolithic man " a reality of the past, or 
a myth of the present? Jour, of Psych. Med., London, 1878, 
n. s. iv, 256-275. 

In addition to the foregoing valuable list from Index Medicus, 
the following brief references are given with the hope that they 
may be of service to some of our readers : 

A review of non-Biblical Semitic literature for 1878, by A. 

Neubauer, in Athene -um, Jan. El. The Aryan Household: an 

Introduction to comparative jurisprudence, by William E. Hearn, 

reviewed in Athenmtm, Jan. 25. The History of Afghanistan 

from the earliest period to the outbreak of the war in 1878, by 

Col. G. B. Matteson, reviewed in Academy, Jan. ii. Russian 

and Turk, from a geographical, ethnological and historical point 
of view, by R. G. Latham, reviewed in Academy, Jan. 18th, by 

M. Elie Reclus. Discoveries of Antiquities in Italy in 1878, by 

F. Barnabei, reviewed in Academy, Jan. 18, 1879. Prehistoric 

Copper Implements. An open letter to the Historical Society of 
Wisconsin, by Rev. E. F. b later, New England Hist, and Gen. 

Register, Jan. 9, 9 pp. Ancient Artificial Mounds, B. Shipp, 

Louisville Magazine, Jan., 7 pp. Peruvian Antiquities, Dr. E. 

R. Heath, Quarterly Journal of Sac are, Jan. Fairy Lore of 

Savages, J. A. Farrer, Saturday Magazine, Jan. 4, 8 pp. The 

Indian as a coming citi/.en, by E. B., Lippincotts Magazine, 
Jan., 2 pp. 

GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. 

Geological Survey of New -Zealand. — The following dis- 
tricts of New Zealand have been geologized during the season 
1877-8 : The Hokanui mountains in Southland, by Mr. Cox, from 
October to January, assisted by Mr. McKay, who continued the 
work of collecting fossils until the end of February. In January 
Mr. Cox visited and reported on the copper lode at Dusky sound. 



1 879.] Geology and Paleontology. 331 

He was then occupied until March in the examination of the Te 
Anau Lake district, after which he made the required inspection 
of the various coal mines. Mr. McKay was employed on the 
east coast of the Wellington district during September, in the 
Mount Potts district of Canterbury in October, and in the Wairoa 
and Dun Mountain district of Nelson in May. Lastly, the 
D'Lrvillc island copper lodes were examined by Mr. Cox in 
August. 

During the year twenty-six out of the thirty-two collieries now 
in work in the Colony were inspected and surveyed, and all the 
working plans brought up to date. The underground surveys 
were made in the first instance by Mr. Denniston, the govern- 
ment coal viewer, and afterwards, in most cases, inspected and 
passed by Mr. Cox, who holds the position of inspector under 
the " Regulation of Mines Act, 1874." 

The following is a list of the collieries, with the date of the last 
inspection of each, and the yield of each year, for the year end- 
ing on 30th June : 



...20th OctoU-r. 



.nth :m,l id'h't.uui.m. rs;S., 
.iCHh Dec, 1877, an.i uth Ja, 
.5th Dec, 1877. 
27th November, 1877........ 

■June, 1S77, 



;Eli£ 






General Notes. 



The Amyzon Tertiary Beds. — In Vol. i of the Report of the 
United States Geological Survey of the Fortieth parallel, page 
393, the able author, Mr. King, has described an extensive series 
of beds, including many laminated shales, which are found in the 
northern part of Nevada, as constituting an extension of the 
Green river formation west of the Wasatch mountains. 1 He states 
that they contain the same species of fossil fishes as those of the 
Green river epoch. I published the first notice of this formation, 
which I examined at Osino and at Elko, Nevada, 2 and described 
from it two species of fishes, which were referred to genera previous- 
ly unknown, vi/: Ann ;o,v ;unl Tri L 7 s //" cs. These genera have not 
been found represented in the fish fauna preserved in the Green river 
shales, which embraces eight genera and twenty-four species. But 
they occur in several species and specimens in the South park of the 
Rocky mountains of Colorado, associated with the genera Rhin- 
eastes and Amia, neither of which has yet been found in the 
Green river formation. The first named is common in the Bridger, 
but in a different form, and the generic identity is not yet fully 
established. The Amia is represented in the Bridger by Papp- 
icthys, but in the former the characteristic parts have not yet 
been seen in the South park specimens, so that here also the 
determination of the genus is not final. It, however remains, that 
this fish fauna is different from that of the Green river beds, and 
the modern aspect of the genera points to an age even later than 
the Bridger. It is evident that the pertinence of this series of 
rocks to the Green river formation, asserted by King, cannot be 
maintained. I have named this epoch that of the Amyzon beds, 
from the characteristic genus which it includes, and refer it to the 
later Eocene or early Miocene eras. Its fish fauna includes ten 
species, distributed as follows: Trichophancs Cope, 3 sp.; Amy- 
zon Cope, 4 sp. ; Rhineastes Cope, 1 sp. ; Amia L., 2 sp. — E. D. 
Cope. 

Gaudry on Permian Vertebrata. — Prof. Gaudry recently 
brought before the Academy of Science descriptions of several 
interesting types of Batrachia and Reptilia from the Permian of 
the Department of the Saone et Loire. Among these was Actin- 
odon Gaudry, whose vertebrae are segmented so as to closely 
resemble those of Rachitomus (this journal, 1878). Another form 
allied to Protriton, was probably a terrestrial animal, and possessed 



- i'l'H ....' '_'- A I 



1S79.] Geology and Paleontology. 333 

a large tail ; it was termed PUuronura pellati. The third type 
was represented by a humerus which resembles that of the Dime- 
trodon of Texas, and similar forms from the Ural and South Af- 
rica, in presenting some Mammalian features. He referred it to 
a new genus, under the mine of Eitchyrosaunts, which is probably 
Pelycosaurian. 

A Sting Ray from the Green river Shales of Wyoming.— 
Leslie A. Lee, of Bowdoin College, Me., recently lent me for exam- 
ination an interesting fossil from the above formation, from the 
locality which has recently furnished such fine specimens of 
Mioflnsus, I)iploi>iystns,eXc. It is a species of sting ray nearly 
allied to the genus Trygon, but so far different as to be referable 
to another genus which I propose to name Xiphotrygon. Its 
characters are : teeth with produced triangular crowns as in Raja. 
Caudal spines compressed, with a single serrate-edge, which is 
dorsal. No caudal fins discoverable. The species has a rather 
long acuminate snout without superficial ossification, from whose 
apex the pectoral fin borders diverge. The latter do not extend pos- 
terior to the ventrals. Tail very long and slender, nearly twice as 
long as head and abdomen. Caudal spines (three present in the 
specimen) with a shallow lateral groove, but otherwise smooth. 
Pectoral rays 31 + 10 + 41. Total length m. .515; width at 
middle of abdomen .230; length of head .100; length of tail 
.351 ; length of spine .040. The species may be called Xiphotry- 
gon acutidens. The Trygon muricata, of Monte Bolca, has the 
typical form of spine, according to Gazzola — E. D. Cope. 

American Aceratheria. — Four species of rhinoceroses have 
been found within the limits of the United States, which may be 
referred to the above genus. They are, commencing with the 
smallest, A. mite Cope, A. occidental Leidy, A. pacificnm Leidy 
{—A. ? hesperius Leidy, from Oregon) and A. tniqiuanum Cope, 
n. sp., from the John Day river deposit of Oregon. The last 
named is the largest American species, nearly equaling the 
Aphelops megalodus of the Loup River formation. It is only 
known from an incomplete mandible, which supports molar, 
canine and incisor teeth. The former have the usual form. The 
crowns of the canines are considerably wider than those of the 
incisors, but do not project very far beyond them. They are sub- 
triangular in outline, having a prominent shoulder at the base on 
the inner side. There is but one incisor on each side, which has 
a transverse crown. Diastema long; ascending ramus vertical, 
flat in front. Depth of ramus at last molar. 065 ; length of last 
molar .045 ; width of do. .029 ; length of crown of canine .027 ; 
width do. at base .024. 

From beds of the Truckee epoch of the White River forma- 
tion. This name, introduced by King, has priority of publication 
over the term Oregon beds introduced by me, hence the latter 
must be abandoned. 



334 General Notes. [May, 

I add that the genus Aphelops differs from Aceratherium in the 
presence of but three toes on the anterior foot, and from Rhinoce- 
ros in the absence of horn. — E. D. Cope. 

The Lower Jaw of Loxolophodon — Messrs. Speir and Os- 
born contributed to the April number of the American 'journal 
of Science and Art, a very interesting account of the mandible of 
Loxolophodon cormttus, which has been hitherto unknown. It pre- 
sents characters as curious as those of the cranium. The incisors 
and canines are similar, and have remarkable bilobate crowns, and 
there is a slight expansion of the lower margin of the ramus to 
represent the wide phlange of Uintatherinm. The authors of the 
paper have not consulted the literature as carefully as they might 
have done, and have thus been led into error in several points. 
They think that the mandible of Loxolophodon had been already 
described by me, and that erroneously ; whereas the description 
to which they refer, is that of another species, probably of another 
genus, found in a different Bridger basin. It was not identified, 
and was described only as " resembling that of Umtatktrium." 
They confirm my description of the furcate character of the pre- 
maxillary bones, while seeming to disapprove of it. They also 
appear to suppose that the question of the possession of a pro- 
boscis is identical with the question of Proboscidian affinity, 
which are really dissimilar propositions. — E. D. Cope, 
GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 1 

African Exploration. — Dr. Rohlfs left Tripolis about Christ- 
mas. Letters dated January 27, 1879, at Sokna, some 250 miles 
south of Tripolis, have been received, from him, at Berlin. They 
include a valuable zoological report by Dr. Stocker and a num- 
ber of astronomical observations. Sultan Ali of Wadai, who 
treated Dr. Nachtigal so hospitably, is dead, but his brother, Jou- 
souf, who succeeded him, is said to be equally well disposed 
towards foreigners. 

Capt. Roudaire reports favorably on the experimental borings 
made by him along the neck of land separating the gulf of Gabes 
from the Saharan depression. Nothing but sand and soft soil were 
encountered down to a depth of one hundred feet. There are no 
rocks, and M. de Lesseps expresses himself satisfied that the con- 
struction of a canal will meet with no difficulties. The scheme, 
however, of converting this portion of the Southern Sahara into 
an inland sea is severely criticized ; it is said that, if successful, it 
would destroy the date-culture, and owing to the prevalence of 
northerly winds would not exercise any favorable influence upon 
the climate of Algeria. 

Mr. Mackenzie, the African traveler, sailed from England 
recently for Cape Juby, on the north-west coast of Africa, in a 
1 Edited by Ellis H. Yarnall, Philadelphia. 



1879] Geography and Travels. 335 

specially chartered steamer, for the purpose of opening that 

M. Paul Soleillet, according to the last intelligence received in 
Paris, had reached Sego and was proceeding onwards. 

One of the most important explorations recently accomplished 
is that of the river Ogowe, the largest river in the French colony 
of the Gaboon. This expedition, commanded by M. Savorgnan 
de Brazza assisted by Dr. Ballay, has now returned after three 
years of hardship and danger, having had to struggle against the 
ill-will and cupidity, and eventually the open hostility, of the 
natives. The Ogowe may be divided into three almost equal 
parts, the upper, middle and lower. The middle portion follows 
the equator as nearly as possible, and the other two incline about 
a degree and a half southwards, the one towards the source and 
the other towards the mouth. MM. de Brazza and Ballay started 
from Lambarene.'the extreme limit of the European factories, in 
August, 1875. They halted first at Lope, a large village on the 
middle course of the river, whence M. de Brazza went by land 
into the country of the Fans, who were friendly, and from thence 
to Doume, much higher up the river, where he was rejoined by 
Dr. Ballay. Above the Poubara falls the Ogowe becomes an 
insignificant stream. Having ascertained that it did not commu- 
nicate with the great lakes in the interior, they left the basin of 
the stream, which evidently has its source from a high plateau 
not very distant from the coast. They now suffered much from 
want of food and water, but continuing on reached the N'yambo, 
a stream flowing eastward, and which brought them to the Alima, 
a large river not indicated upon any map. It was here 165 yards 
broad and sixteen feet deep, and is thought to be one of the afflu- 
ents of the Congo. They followed it for some distance partly on 
foot, partly in canoes, but owing to the attacks of the savages 
were finally obliged to abandon the stream, which continued to 
run eastward. The country was here a vast swamp, the houses 
of the natives being built on piles. Turning towards the north 
the tribes proved less inhospitable, but provisions were procured 
with difficulty, and they were frequently from twenty-four to 
thirty hours without food. After crossing several streams, all of 
which flowed eastward, the expedition was obliged to separate ; 
M. de Brazza pursuing his journey beyond the equatorial line, 
while Dr. Ballay awaited him at the falls of Poubara. The rainy 
season drawing near, the former rejoined his companions, and 
descending the Ogowe the expedition arrived at Gaboon on 
November 30, 1878. During the last five months they had to 
march barefooted. About 800 miles of ground were covered, 
nearly all of which was previously unknown. M. de Brazza con- 
templates renewing his attempt during this year and exploring 
some of the other affluents of the Ogowe, which may prove of 
greater importance than the branch now made known. A cor- 



336 General Notes. [May, 

respondent of the Atlienceum (February 22, 1879) says: "The 
experience of M. de Brazza confirms Mr. Stanley's description of 
the warlike character of the tribes on and near the Congo, and 
we may fairly infer that no exploration of these regions can be 
successfully carried out except by a strong party, and by the 
occasional resort to force, in order to overcome the opposition of 
the hostile tribes." MM. de Brazza and Ballay are now in Paris, 
where they have received many honors, including the bestowal 
of the great gold medal of the Paris Geographical Society. 

Herr von Koppen&ls has recently been exploring the country 
inland from Gerisco bay, in West Africa, a little to the north of 
the Gaboon. He ascended the river Muni as far as the rapids of 
the Tampuni, and traveled thence by land, apparently following 
Du Chaillu's track. In the Crystal mountains he fell in with 
tribes absolutely unknown to Europeans. They are weak, poor 
and very inoffensive. Their country abounds in elephants and 
gorillas whose depredations are much dreaded, as the people 
appear to have no means of protecting plantations or gardens 
from their incursions. The tribes dwelling further inland are 
described as peaceable. 

Herr Schutt, who has been sent by the German African Society 
to explore the interior of West Africa, from Loanda, has been 
attacked and robbed by the Bengala tribe on the Quango river, 
and been obliged to turn back to M'Banza Muango, on the river 
Lui (9 S. lat.). He has prepared a tolerably correct map of the 
entire plateau between 8° and io° S. lat. with all the numerous 
streams that flow from it. He was determined to continue his 
work, and was, when last heard from (August, 1878) preparing to 
cross the Quango and open up the direct way to the north. 

Major Serpa Pinto has arrived at Pretoria, in the Transvaal, 
with eight followers, the remnant of four hundred. In the Jan- 
uary number of the Naturalist we mentioned his intended 
departure from Bihe for the Upper Zambesi on the 18th of May, 
1878. He telegraphs to the Portuguese government, " In con- 
cluding myjourney across Africa, I struggled with hunger, thirst, the 
natives, floods and drought. I have saved all my papers — twenty 
geographical charts, many topographical maps, meteorological 
studies, drawings and a diary of the complete exploration of the 
Upper Zambesi, with its seventy-two cataracts." He says, accord- 
ing to the Nature, " he has discovered the secret of the Cubango, 
by which he seems to mean the river which under various names 
was for a time taken by some to be the upper course of the 
Congo." Major Pinto's companions, Capello and Ivens, who sep- 
arated from their leader at Bihe, have not as yet been heard from. 

The (English) Baptist Missionary Society have, according to 
the Academy, decided to despatch an expedition under Mr. T. I. 
Comber, with instructions to make San Salvador, to the south of 
Yellala falls, the base of operations, and if possible to occupy 



effort untried lo reach the Upper Congo river near Stanley 
l(abPit 4 S. 1&L 1 7 E. long). It is contemplated to send c 

diiK 



I879-] W Microscopy. 337 

Makouta, to the rtorth-east of that place ; they are further to leave 

no effi 

Pool(al 

; for the navigation of the Upper Congo. 
San Salvador dis^^t is much more healthy t" 
the country is very productive. The people are described as very 

MICROSCOPY. 1 

On a Standard for Micrometry. 2 — When the subject of a 
standard for micrometry came before this society at the sugges- 
tion of the late National Microscopical Congress, we found our- 
selves unable to vote satisfactorily upon it; not for want of any 
definite desire in respect to it, but because it seemed evident that 
a mere affirmative or negative answer to the proposals of the con- 
gress would not accomplish any desired result. For a few indi- 
viduals or societies to commit themselves positively either for or 
1 against the proposals might even render valuable progress on this 
important subject more difficult. The differences of opinion wereso 
strong and so reasonable, and the other interests involved were so 
diverse and wide spread, as to call for a thorough conference 
before adopting any definite policy. We therefore proposed a 
national committee to investigate the subject, confer with persons 
wishing to be heard or likely to give valuable information in 
respect to it, and place the data thus obtained at the service of all 
parties interested. As yet we have heard of no opposition to the 
appointment of the proposed committee. The whole spirit of the 
world's science at the present day calls for the highest possible 
precision in determining questions of the form and size of objects. 
It is well known that such precision has not yet been attained in 
micrometry; and it is difficult to believe that any one who 
desires to give a respectful hearing to the wishes of his fellow 
students, could seriously object to submitting this manifestly im- 
portant subject to the consideration of a suitable committee. 
Whether in favor of one action, or of another, or of none, we 
should certainly be willing that all opinions and preferences be 
heard before making our final decision. 

As to the course which should be adopted by the committee, 
or recommended to the country, there is, however, the greatest 
room for reasonable differences of opinion. And the same 
reasons which make a committee necessary, should require us to 
submit our views with candor and plainness, but without demand- 
ing or expecting that they shall be adopted as a whole. A fair 
hearing and a respectful consideration is all that can be asked by 
any one in such a case. And for the same reasons, any action 



33 8 General Notes. [May, 

by any society or grc 
and not positive 
believe that nothii 



advisory and not positive or dictoto 



be accomplished in this field; but a second |^ught may show 
that much good can be effected, without doingwything of doubt- 
ful expediency. It seems unfortunate that in the suggestions of 
the congress more prominence was given to those points in re- 
gard to which there is greatest difference of opinion, and most 
intelligent doubt as to what ought to be done, than to the more 
important want underlying them. What we need is precision, 
first, and afterwards uniformity of nomenclature if we can get it. 
The essential part, on which all should agree, is that statements 
of size and distance should have a definite meaning; that when 
an author mentions, for instance, the i-iooo of an inch, or the 
i-ioo of a centimetre or of a millimetre, that statement should 
mean one and the same thing to him, the writer, and to all intel- 
ligent readers. This certainly is not true in regard to the mea- 
surements made and recorded with the microscope in the past or < 
at the present time. The best stage micrometers in use, as a 
basis for measurements, are well known to differ among them- 
selves by various and easily measurable discrepancies 
represent errors on one side or both. In comparing 1 
from different sources, differences of two per cent, have been often 
noticed, and sometimes as high as six per cent. Far less errors 
than these, and as are quite generally present, must greatly im- 
pair the scientific value of all measurements; and it may be safely 
said that the exact degree of accuracy of the instruments used, 
and therefore of the measurements recorded, by observers with 
the microscope, is seldom known to the authors themselves, and 
scarcely ever to the readers of their papers. Nor can individual 
care and labor overcome this difficulty. A student can reject 
conspicuously bad rulings, and take the average of the best 
within reach ; but cannot know, at last, exactly how well his best 
scale represents its nominal value. To determine how nearly the 
i-iooth of an inch on our glass plate corresponds to the 
i~36ooth of the standard yard in London or of our national copy 
of that standard in Washington, is a most valuable result which 
can be attained only by concerted action, and is well worthy the 
labor of any committee or of any society. We need a tangible 
inch, whether called a "standard" or not, which should be, as 
nearly as can be detected by the modern microscope, or by any 
other known means, the i~36th part of the standard yard ; or a 
centimetre corresponding equally well with the i-iooth of the 
standard metre; or some other equally determined unit, which 
should be officially recognized as authority for all who desire the 
greatest attainable accuracy. If so accurate a subdivision exists 
among the national standards at Washington, it might be verified 
by the committee, and arrangements sought from those having it 



1 879.] Microscopy. 339 

in charge by which it could be made practically useful to the 
microscopists of the country. If such a standard does not exist, 
one should be made; or if it is not within the power of our pres- 
ent art to give results in which the microscope cannot find a fault, 
then the end could be attained, measurably well, by selecting a 
standard as perfect as possible, and attaching to it a statement of 
its carefully determined error. 

This standard, if it be proper to call it a standard at all, should 
be selected by, or made for, the committee, should be the prop- 
erty of the nation, and should have no mercantile relations what- 
ever. By means of a limited number of very carefully verified 
copies, which could also be used as a means of reconstruction in 
case of accidental destruction of the original, it could be rendered 
available to all persons who make or use micrometers. The 
cheapest commercial scales, even, could without increase of price 
be accompanied by a statement as to how closely the work of the 
screw which ruled them has been found to correspond with the 
standard; and all plates claiming a high degree of accuracy 
could be carefully compared, space for space, and accompanied by 
a statement of the ascertained error of each individual space. 
Persons of really scientific training would gladly incur the extra 
expense of such a corrected scale. Even a series of microscopi- 
cal measurements already completed and published might, in 
some cases, receive additional value by a note, added in later edi- 
tions, stating how nearly the apparatus used by the author has 
been found to correspond with the standard afterwards adopted. 

Of course this standard would deserve the name only in a limi- 
ted sense, and not in the same sense as the standard yard in Lon- 
don and the standard metre in Paris ; but it would be an offi- 
cially recognized representative of some unit practicable in micro- 
scopy, and it might be made to add greatly to the uniformity and 
value of our work. 

The material of which the standard should be made, the form 
it should take, the manner in which the spaces should be indi- 
cated, the temperature at which it should be standard, and the 
manner in which it should be made available to the public, and in 
which its safety could be best secured, could only be determined 
after careful consideration of the world's recent experience in re- 
spect to the care and use of precise measures of length. It has 
even been debated whether the practical standard should be a 
ruled plate or a spacing screw for use in ruling plates. But as 
the work of a screw is known to vary considerably according to 
the conditions of its use, some of which conditions are not easily 
controlled, the adoption of a screw, however accurate it might be, 
would be likely to result in the dissemination of a number of 
ruled plates possessing equal authority as standards, but differing 
measurably from each other. Whether the micrometric standard 
should be taken from our national standard, at Washington, 



340 Scientific News. [May, 

which is itself a copy, or from the world's standard in Europe, 
and whether cooperation with other countries is feasible in this 
work, are important questions for consideration. 

Whether the standard secured should be a fraction of the 
yard or of the metre, and how large a fraction, I, for one, 
should scarcely have an opinion until the committee should 
ascertain how generally each system is used by the workers of 
the country, and how freely those workers would be willing to 
adopt the new system by general agreement. Whichever system 
is adopted, many microscopists would be glad to have a conveni- 
ent unit in the other system, verified by comparison ; a standard cen- 
timetre divided into one hundred parts, for instance, being accom- 
panied by an inch similarly divided and having, microscopically, 
the same relation to it that it has mathematically. This method, 
of possessing a practical standard in each system while technically 
improper, would be a convenience, and would give a great im- 
provement in our micrometry. Nor would the objection that it 
might hinder the universal adoption of the scientific (metric) 
system be a serious difficulty to my mind. The adoption and 
rejection of systems is a matter of evolution, not artifice, and the 
world will move at a rate that depends upon its average interests, 
without being much affected by special efforts to advance or 
retard its progress. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
— The President nominated Clarence King for the directorship 
of the U. S. Geological Survey recently created by act of Con- 
gress, and the newspapers state that the Senate has confirmed the 
appointment. Of Mr. King's merits as a geologist we need not 
speak, as the Report of the Survey of the Fortieth parallel is an 
enduring monument to his ability. We shall hope that the fullest 
measure of success may attend the new Bureau and its distin- 



— It is with great regret that we learn that Frank A. Bradley, 
the well-known geologist, was recently crushed to death by the 
caving of the wall of a gold mine in Georgia. Mr. Bradley had 
at different times filled positions on the geological surveys of 
various States, including New York, Illinois, Tennessee and 
Georgia. He wrote many reports, and is the author of a geologi- 
cal map of the United States. 

— Prof. George B. Wood, president of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, and formerly professor of the Institutes of Medi- 
cine in the University of Pennsylvania, recently deceased at the 
age of eighty-two years. He is well known as the author of 
Wood an i Bache's Dispensatory, the standard work on the sub- 
ject in this country. He left important legacies to the University 



I8/9-] Scientific Nezvs. 341 

of Pennsylvania, including an endowment for several chairs in 
connection with the medical department; to the American Philo- 
sophical Society, etc. 

— Prof. Samuel T. Sadtler has recently been elected to the 
chair of chemistry in the Department of Arts of the University 
of Pennsylvania. Prof. Sadtler is a native of Pennsylvania, and 
is well known as an expert in the analyses of mineral oils, etc. 

— The Buenos Ayrean collection of vertebrate fossils, exhib- 
ited at the Paris Exposition arrived at Philadelphia by the Indi tn . 
It is to be exhibited in the biological department of the Perma- 
nent Exposition. 

— B. Waterhouse Hawkins has been lecturing on vertebrate 
palaeontology, in London, this winter. 

— It appears by a paper communicated to the Geographical 
Society of Paris, by M. Jules Gamier, that in the island of New 
Caledonia the usual vegetable productions of the tropics grow 
well on the island, but excepting coffee and tobacco they were 
subject to periodical destruction by invasions of grasshoppers. 

— We have received the Constitution and Record of Organi- 
zation of the State Natural History Society of Illinois, with a list 
of original members, which number fifty-two. This is one of the 
most active scientific organizations of the West. 

— In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
lately received Mr. T. J. Parker publishes a note confirmatory of 
Prof. Moebius' account of the stridulating organs of the spiny 
lobster (Falinitn/s vulgaris). The noise or stridulation is almost 
equally audible in water and air. Moebius compared it to the 
sound produced by pressing the upper leather of a boot against 
a table leg. 

— A valuable paper by Prof. Vogt on the adaptation of Cope- 
podous Crustacea to parasitism, appears in the last received num- 
ber of Actes de la Societe Helvetique des Sciences Naturelles. 
Bex, 1878. The author believes that evolution should be 
studied from an examination of parasitic and blind animals, as 
showing the influence of a change in the environment on the 
structure of the animal. 

— At a recent meeting of the London Entomological Society 
the Rev. A. Eaton exhibited a piece of " Kungu cake " from 
Lake Nyassa district, where, according to Livingstone and others, 
it is used extensively as food by the natives, who manufacture it 
from large quantities of a minute insect, conjectured to be a 
species of Ephcmeriihc. From an exhaustive ex imir.ation,howcv< r. 
Mr. Eaton found it to be a minute representative of the Culici- 
dae, or mosquito family, pi - ; > bly belong ng to the genus Core- 
thra. In connection with the subject of insect-food as used by 



342 Scientific News. [May, 

man, Mr. Distant remarked that he had learned from Mr. Chennell 
that Erthesina fullo, a very common eastern hemipterous insect 
was largely eaten by the Naga Hill tribes of North-eastern India. 
Mr. Meldola remarked that chitine, which comprised the crust of 
insects had been shown by analysis to contain about six per cent, 
of nitrogen, and as regards phosphates, Mr. Wm. Cole had burned 
some insects and found phosphoric acid in the ash. 

— A laborious work, redounding to the credit of both parties, 
is Mr. Samuel Henshaw's list of the entomological writings of 
John L. LeConte. It forms a pamphlet of eleven pages, edited 
by George Dimmock, and is No. I of Dimmock's Special Bibli- 
ographies. Dr. LeConte has thus far published 250 papers and 
works. We hope to record the publication of many more from 
his pen. The second number comprises the entomological writings 
of George H. Horn, compiled by Samuel Henshaw, edited by- 
George Dimmock. The titles number 80. The third part is in 
preparation, giving a list of the writings of Samuel Hubbard 
Scudder; compiled and edited by George Dimmock. Mr. Scud- 
dcr's writings number over 250 titles. These have, or will appear 
in the Advertiser of Psyche, the organ of the Psyche Entomologi- 
cal Club, Cambridge. These bibliographies are done with unex- 
ampled faithfulness and care, and can be purchased of the editors 
of Psyche, Cambridge, Mass. This journal desires and needs 
more subscribers. The subscription is $r.oo a year. It is doing 
a good work for the progress of entomology in this country, and 
contains matter of much general interest; the bibliographical 
portion being a valuable feature. We would only make one criti- 
cism, i. e., in the use of lower case initial letters of names of 
genera and higher groups ; this is an innovation which we should 
not desire to see followed. 

— The fourth volume of the Transactions of the Wisconsin 
Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, just received, among a 
number of comparatively worthless papers, contains besides Prof. 
Birge's notes on Cladocera, already noticed in this journal, a paper 
by Dr. E. Andrews on discoveries illustrating the literature and 
religion of the Mound-builders. Dr. P. R. Hoy contributes two 
papers entitled, How did the Aborigines of this country fabricate 
copper implements ? and Why are there no upper incisors in the 
Ruminantia ? Dr. J. N. de Hart writes on the antiquities and 
platycnemism of the Mound-builders of Wisconsin, while Prof. 
T. C. Chamberlain publishes an essay on the extent and signifi- 
cance of the Wisconsin kettle moraine. 

— At its last session Congress appropriated $10,000 for the 
completion of the investigation of the Rocky Mountain locust 
by the United States Entomological Commission. The work 
during the coming season will be carried on in Colorado and the 
Western Territories, particularly Utah and Eastern Idaho, where 
the locust abounds each summer, doing more or less damage. 



iS7Q.] Scientific News. 343 

Parties will also be sent into Montana, the main breeding place 
of the destructive swarms periodically visiting the Western Mis- 
sissippi States. 

— The cryptogamous division of the Herbarium of the Boston 
Society of Natural History has been enriched by the discovery 
of a valuable collection of lichens. This was formerly the lichen- 
herbarium of Dr. Thomas Taylor, an Irish botanist, to whom Sir 
W. J. and Sir Joseph Hooker communicated the whole of their 
extensive collections of lichens, gathered during many exploring 
expeditions. Dr. Taylor published descriptions of these plants 
in the London Journal of Botany, 1 844-46, and many of the speci- 
mens are the originals of the descriptions. In 1850, Mr. John A. 
Lowell purchased the collection from Dr. Taylor's heirs, and it 
formed a part of the herbarium subsequently presented by him 
to the Society. The knowledge of the structure of lichens has 
been greatly advanced since Dr. Taylor's day, by the use of the 
microscope, and the nomenclature has undergone extensive 
changes. This herbarium, though consisting of over a thousand 
species, might have remained comparatively useless to the Ameri- 
can student, had it not been for the voluntary services of Prof. 
Edward T. Tuckerman. He has examined and named very 
nearly the entire collection, a work which no one else in this 
country could have done, and has given it an authentic value 
otherwise unattainable. 

— The French Academy of Science has elected M. Marey, 
Professor of Animal Mechanics in the College de France, to M. 
Claude Bernard's vacant chair. 

— In a recent report to Parliament, it seems that last year 
21,682 fatal cases from the attacks of wild animals had occurred 
in ten provinces of India, the largest number being in Bengal, 
namely, 10,062. The deaths from snake bites alone in the Pun- 
jaub last year, were 828 against 979 in the preceding year. 

— As our readers are aware, the three great geological surveys 
under Hayden, Powell and Lt. Wheeler are, by Act of Congress, to 
be discontinued after the 30th of June, and to be replaced by a new 
U. S. Geological Survey in charge of Mr. Clarence King, late 
geologist of the Survey of the Fortieth Parallel. It was as far as 
we are aware the original understanding when the matter was re- 
ferred by Congress to the National Academy of Sciences to sim- 
ply consolidate the existing geological surveys, but the report of 
the Committee was so worded that these surveys were abolished 
outright instead of being consolidated. The amount appropri- 
ated for the new geological survey is $100,000, a little more than 
each of the other surveys have formerly received. Thus the work 
is apparently to be greatly curtailed', and science and the best 
interests of the western people will, in a corresponding degree. 



344 Scientific News, [May, 

It is greatly to be regretted that the work is in the future appar- 
ently to be conducted on so narrow and limited a scale, for which 
the scientific world may thank the two or three naturalists who 
have been conspicuous in shaping legislation in this whole mat- 
ter. It has even been strongly intimated that hereafter no zoology 
and botany is to be connected with the future geological work. 
This is to be deprecated by biologists throughout the country, 
who are probably unaware how much has been done to influence 
those in authority at Washington, and to prejudice them against 
giving national aid to these sciences. All this is a new feature in 
the history of science in this country, and has been, we are led to 
believe, the result of narrow, local private jealousies, rather than 
from any generous, catholic, scientific spirit. Since the time of 
Lewis and Clark's Expedition, naturalists have been sent out with 
the national scientific expeditions, at little expense to the general 
government; with nearly all su 
geological ; the reports of the i 
Expedition, of the Pacific Railway Surveys, of the r 
have prepared the botanical and zoological reports of Hayden's 
Survey, have added immensely to the prestige of American biologi- 
cal science ; it has been done at little extra expense, most of the 
cost of printing not having been paid for out of the funds appro- 
priated for the surveys themselves. No richer results in biology 
and palaeontology and physical geology combined have been elic- 
ited in this country than the researches carried on by Pourtales, 
the two Agassizs and those associated with these scientists, in the 
dredgings made in deep water from Florida to Maine on the ves- 
sels of the U. S. Coast Survey ; and yet it has been urged on 
legislators and those in authority at Washington, with singular 
inconsistency, by certain of those who have and are even now en- 
joying the results of the biological work thus inexpensively 
carried on with the U. S. Coast Survey, that no zoology or bot- 
any should be connected with the geological surveys ! 

From the very fact that the largest, best known survey in this 
country and in Europe, one which more than any other survey in 
this country, unless we except the New York State Survey, has 
won the warmest sympathy and interest from the leading geol- 
ogists and palaeontologists of Europe — from the very fact, we say, 
that the survey in charge of Professor Hayden has been con- 
ducted in a liberal, catholic way, and so as to promote and diffuse 
among the people who are paying for the work done, a knowl- 
edge of the natural resources of the Far West, we had hoped that 
after more than twenty years of service in the field, he would 
have been allowed to extend and complete the work in the 
manner already begun. We would see no curtailment of the 
work, and in voting in the meeting of the National Academy for 
consolidation, we supposed that with the moral support of the 
Academy, Congress would vote still larger supplies, and have the 
work done in a liberal, broad, comprehensive spirit consistent with 



1 879.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 345 

the magnitude of the interests involved, and especially that no 
grave injustice would be done in selecting those who should haw 
charge of the work. There was room for the employment of all 
who were engaged in the work now going on, and we firmly 
believe that had Prof. Henry, the lamented promoter of Amer- 
ican science in its broadest spirit, presided over the councils of the 
National Academy, the result would have been far different. 

Mr. King has our congratulations and best wishes, and we trust 
he will liberally construe the recent Act of Congress, and con- 
duct the surveys to be under his charge in the liberal spirit already- 
shown in the series of elaborate reports of the Fortieth Parallel, 
one of the most expensive of which treats of the botany of the 
Survey.—^. S. Packard, Jr. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, Jan. 22.— President Ruschenberger in the Chair. 
Mr. Meehan called attention to some specimens of SoUdago odora, 
which was used in some parts of Pennsylvania as tea. Mr. Ash- 
burner exhibited some charts intended to illustrate the geological 
faults in Jack's mountain, Pa. Mr. Potts exhibited some silk- 
worm cocoons in which the skin cast off from the trachea within 
was shown, and also that two worms spun a single cocoon in 
co-partnership. Mr. John Ford exhibited an oyster, the shell of 
which was almost destroyed by the common boring sponge. 

Jan. 28.— The President in the Chair. A paper entitled. Fur- 
ther Notes on the Mechanical Genesis of Tooth-forms, by John 
A. Ryder. Dr. Leidy exhibited a mass of worms from Cecil 
county, Md., supposed to be Gordius robustus, also the liver of a 
rat much infested with Cysticcrcus. 

Feb. 4. — The President in the Chair. Dr. Leidy described the 
fossil jaws and teeth of a deer from Muscatine, Iowa, for which 
he proposed the name Cervus nutscaiiiioisis. Dr. H. C. Chap- 
man made a communication on the chimpanzee which recently 
died at the Zoological Garden, arriving at the conclusion, and 
agreeing with Prof. Owen, that the cerebrum did not fully cover 
the cerebellum, as held by Huxley and others. Detailed com- 
parisons were also made in regard to the arrangement of the 

Middlesex Scientific Field Club, Maiden, Mass., organized 
March, 1878.— The Club held its first annual meeting March 5. 
1879, and elected the following officers: President, Henry L. 
Moody ; vice-presidents, Rev. Geo. P. Huntington, Frank S. 
Collins, Mrs. P. D. Richards ; corresponding secretary, Geo. E. 
Davenport ; recording secretary and treasurer, F. W. Morandi ; 
custodian, Miss Hattie Silvester; Exec. Com., L. L. Dame, Geo. 
E. Davenport. Mrs. Annie- U. Moodv, Miss Martha Silvester, F. 
W. Morandi. 



346 Selected Articles in Scientific Serials. [May, 1879. 

The Club propose to investigate, and, if possible, establish a 
museum illustrating the natural history of Middlesex county. 

For this purpose special departments in the different branches 
of natural science have been organized, under the direction of the 
Executive committee, and the botanical department has been 
divided into sections for the better prosecution of that portion 
of the Club's work. 

Mr. Dame, assisted by Mr. Huntington and Mr. Roscoe Fro- 
hoch. will have charge of the Phaenogamous sections, Mr. Daven- 
port of the vascular Cryptogams, and Mr. Collins of the Algae. 

The entomological department will be in charge of Mr. Moody, 
and the ornithological department conducted by Mr. Wm. B. 
Gibbs. Communication with the Club maybe had by addressing 
the corresponding secretary, at Medford, Mass. 

New York Academy of Sciences, March 17.— Mr. A. A. 

ology, and Prof. T. Egleston read a paper on pre-historic mining 
at Lake Superior. 

American Geographical Society, New York, April 8. — Mr. 
William I. Marshall read a paper on the Yellowstone National 
Park, with a description of the wonders of that region. 

Appalachian Mountain Club, Boston, April 9. — The Coun- 
cillor.-, presented their spring reports, and a paper was read by 
Prof. F. W. Clarke, entitled a trip to North Carolina, describing 
the mountains of that State. 

April 16. — Mr. Justin Winsor delivered an illustrated lecture 
on the earliest maps of the American continent. 

Boston Society 6f Natural History, April 2. — Rev G. F. 
Wright made a communication on the medial and terminal 
moraines of New England. Mr. Warren Upham read a paper on 
the glacial drift in Boston and vicinity, and Dr. C. S. Minot 
remarked on histological differentiation. 

SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 



Zoo loo if..— March 13. The Anatomy of Amblystoma weis- 
manni, by R. Wiedersheim. On pelagic Annelidans from the 
shores of the Canary islands, by R. Greef. The motions of our 
land snails In 11 Simroth. 

American Journal op Science and Arts. — The Vertebra: <>t 
recent birds, by O. C. Marsh. The lower jaw of Loxolophodon, 
by H. F. Osborn and F. Speir, Jr. Notice of recent additions to 
the marine fauna of the eastern coast of North America, bv A. 
E. Verrill. 

The Canadian Naturalist.— March 22. Remarks on recent 
papers on the geology of Nova Scotia, by J. W. Dawson. Notes 
on the glaciation of British Columbia, by G. M. Dawson. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xiii. — JUNE, 1879. — No. 6. 



PROF. HARTT ON THE BRAZILIAN SANDSTONE 
REEFS. 



yHE sea-coast of Brazil, from the mouth of the Amazonas to 
A near Victoria, is generally low and of quite uniform character, 
being everywhere faced with broad, open beaches of sand that 
extend for miles and miles without interruption. A less inviting 
region than this to the explorer can scarcely be imagined, and it 
stands in marked contrast with the more tempting inland districts, 
especially those in the Amazonian valley, which have always 
caused Brazil to be considered a sort of naturalists' paradise. It 
was little suspected, until a kw years ago, that this unattractive 
coast harbored very extensive and curious coral reefs, and dis- 
played, in connection with its beaches, interesting phenomena 
whose true character had been entirely misunderstood. 

Some of the earlier writers on Brazil endeavored to describe 
this region, relying either on their own imperfect observations, or 
on what others had seen, and adding, apparently, here and there, 
numerous details, the products of their own fertile brains, per- 
haps, to smooth over and complete the sketch. 

These very inaccurate accounts gave credence to the existence 
of a long bar or reef of stone, bordering the entire - coast from 
north of Cape St. Roque to the southward of Bahia. Piso, in 
his work published in 1648, described this reef, and he has been 
copied over and over again by nearly every author who has 
written on this subject since his time, no one ever having 
taken the trouble to test the accuracy of his statements. Even 
Staff-Commander Penn, in the " South American Coast Pilot," 



34-8 Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. [June, 

treats of " the recife, a singular ridge of coral rock," bordering 
the coast, at a distance from it of about half a mile to three miles 
or more, and extending from the north-east part of Brazil to south 
of Bahia. According to his accounts, the reef is about sixteen 
feet broad at the top, forming a natural breakwater, with smooth 
and shallow water inside, affording a channel for coasters. " It is 
broken occasionally, and forms, by the openings, entrances to the 
greater part of the ports, rivers and creeks on the coast." 

Gardner describes the mythical reef in nearly the same terms, 
and there can be no doubting the fact that these two writers have 
reproduced Piso's old description, with many additional details 
thrown in gratuitously. 

It is needless to state that these accounts of a continuous reef 
were without foundation, but they served, more or less, to mould 
the world's ideas of the character of that coast up to the time 
when the late Prof. Ch. Fred. Hartt published the results of his 
careful and painstaking explorations of that region. Whether 
this observer was the first to rightly interpret the structure of the 
Central Brazilian coast or not, he, at least, has given the only 
extended and intelligible account of it. He has shown that 
although stone reefs occur at many localities, they are far from 
being universal, or even continuous over any great distance. 

Quite distinct from these are a series of coral reefs, often lying 
near the shore, but much more developed farther out, rising up- 
ward from the surface of the submerged border of the conti- 

As a member of the Thayer Expedition in 1865, Prof. Hartt 
examined two quite perfect stone reefs, at Porto Seguro and 
Santa Cruz, in the province of Bahia, and at several places in the 
province of Espirito Santo he also found traces of the same 
structure, lying near the beach, however, and not forming true 
reefs. On his second trip, in 1867, he was able to study the 
larger and more perfect stone reef of Pernambuco, and to detect 
a similar formation on the beaches about Bahia. A full state- 
ment of these investigations, and of his theory of the origin of 
the reefs, is given in his " Geology and Physical Geography of 
Brazil," published in 1870. Darwin, who touched at Pernambuco 
on his memorable voyage, arrived at nearly the same conclusions 
regarding the mode of formation of the reef at that place, as did 
Prof. Hartt, but his description of it is very brief. 



1 879.] Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. 349 

Immediately upon the organization of the Geological Commis- 
sion of Brazil, in 1875, under the leadership of Prof. Hartt, active 
field operations were commenced in the province of Pernambuco, 
and another opportunity was thus afforded the late chief to exam- 
ine that most noted of all these natural breakwaters. With the 
larger force and more perfect appliances now at his command, he 
proceeded to carefully map out the reef and its surroundings, and 
to study in detail every feature connected with it. This extended 
investigation did not materially alter his previously-formed ideas 
as to the true character and mode of growth of the reef, but there 
were added many facts not before observed. 

Other stone reefs, at Cape Sto-Agostinho, Parahyba do Norte, 
etc., were explored by the Commission, and the conclusions 
arrived at, after comparing the results of all these studies, are of 
great interest and importance, demonstrating that on the coast of 
Brazil conditions obtain for the united working of a set of simple 
forces which, apparently, are not perfectly combined, at least with 
the same results, in any other part of the world. As we can best 
understand these phenomena after becoming acquainted with the 
structure and appearance of a single reef, we will first describe 
the one at Pernambuco, partly in the very words of Prof. Hartt, 
and then discuss the subject as a whole. 

Just to the south of the city of Pernambuco, a little river 
breaks through the land, and would open directly into the sea 
were it not that a narrow wall of stone, running in a general way 
parallel to the shore, carries its course some distance farther 
north, to beyond the limits of the city. Another small river, near 
its mouth flowing parallel with the sea, and separated from it by 
only a narrow strip of land, runs through the city of Pernam- 
buco, and opens also behind the reef. 

There is thus formed a small and very shallow bay, which is con- 
tinued northward past the city, as a rather narrow channel, having 
a width of only a hundred rods or less, and a depth of but a few 
fathoms. The outlet to this channel is close to the northern end 
of the reef, and is so shallow as to admit only coasting steamers 
and vessels of ordinary draught. It is, however, the protecting 
reef and not the narrow harbor that interests us now. 

Standing upon some prominent point near the shore, in Per- 
nambuco, we can plainly trace this narrow strip of stone from 
its commencement, about opposite the ancient fortaleza do Brum, 



350 Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. [June, 

situated to the north of the city, to the Ilha dos Pinhos, at the 
south. Its course is south, a few degrees west, and it runs in 
a nearly straight and unbroken line to near the latter place, where, 
however, it is cut through so as to afford a passage-way for small 
boats and jangadas. From this point to its southern end it is 
much broken up and generally irregular. 

But to examine it the more closely we must land upon it at 
low tide, and walk along its nearly level surface, stopping at times 
to investigate any unusual appearance that may attract our 

The reef rock is a sandstone, of a light brownish tint when 
wet by the waves, and is formed of siliceous sand and rounded 
pebbles, mingled with which are many perfect and broken shells, 
all firmly cemented together by carbonate of lime. The most 
abundant shell in the sandstone is a species of Venus, still very 
common on the neighboring shores, and preserving in the rock 
its natural colors. 

At its northern end the reef is very narrow and has, apparently, 
been much undermined and worn by the waves, for it is lower 
here than to the south, and the sandstone lies in immense blocks, 
inclined toward the sea. To increase its height and better pro- 
tect the harbor at this place, an artificial wall, partly of brick and 
mortar, partly of reef stone clamped together, has been con- 
structed. That the reef formerly extended much farther north- 
ward is evident from the existence of an isolated mass of reef 
rock just off the northern end, and of a stretch of submerged 
reef beyond the channel. Upon the extreme point of the reef 
stands the Pernambuco light-house, and a short distance from it 
is a little old octagonal fort, called Picao, built of reef stone, and 
occupying the entire width of the reef. 

Following southward, the reef becomes broader and more level 
on top, but is still very irregular at the sides. In front of the 
city it has an average width of about two hundred and fifty feet, 
and a height equal to about that of high tide, though on account 
of the great commotion made by the waves at such times, it is 
impossible to exactly determine this fact. As to the thickness of 
the reef, it must reach down to below the level of low tide, 
because the rock is never entirely uncovered by the water. 

The highest part of the reef forms a broad belt of varying 
width, whose axis lies a little to the inside of that of the reef. 



1 879.] Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sainistonc Reefs. 35 1 

From this belt the surface slopes more or less strongly on both 
sides, but presents quite different characters, resulting from 
differences in exposure. The outer side of the reef has become 
very irregular from the constant beating of the surf, and is pierced 
with innumerable cavities of sea-urchins and thickly overgrown 
with sea-weeds and calcareous incrustations. The inner side, 
after a more or less rapid landward slope, breaks down abruptly 
and irregularly, and often presents an overhanging edge. 

The reef is cut up into large blocks by joints or cracks, which, 
though quite variable in their courses, may be reduced to two 
general series, one parallel to the axis of the reef, the other trans- 
verse to it ; but many run obliquely or radiate from a common 
center, as though the reef at that point had settled down upon a 
hard underlying spot ; sometimes they form a tangled maze. 
These joints are vertical or highly inclined, and the angular 
masses resulting from them are likely to be detached, on the 
outer side of the reef by the force of the waves, and on the inner 
side by the undermining action of the currents in the harbor. In 
this manner the margins of the reef have been made very jagged, 
the outer being the most irregular. On the upper surface of the 
reef, where there has been no dislocation, the joints tend to widen 
by the action of the surf and by chemical decomposition. There 
are thus formed open passages, a foot to a yard or more in width, 
and with a considerable depth of water. In these we always find 



a rich collect] 


ion of marine animals, corals and other polyps pi 


dominating. 




Now let us 


inspect more minutely the character of the surfac 


and the mam 


/ foreign objects living or growing upon it, whi. 


tend either tl 


) protect it from wear, or to gradually and sure 


effect its destr 


uction. As stated above, sea-urchins are burrowir 


into its outer t 


;dge. There is only a single species on the Brazil i; 


coast that is a 


ble to excavate in the solid rock ; it is the Echin 


metra subangi 


(fan's, everywhere abundant, and possessed of stoi 


sharply-poink 


:d spines. On abrupt slopes of the reef, this di 


gent worker f 


>rms rounded holes, having only a slight depth, b 


where the sbj 


)e is gradual, the holes are much longer, runnit 


other directl) 


r inwards, or in a more or less winding way, beir 


sometimes cui 


rved or bent upon themselves. They have often 


length of four 


or five feet, and a width of three or four inches, tl 


urchin appart 


:ntly occupying the lower end of the elonga 



352 Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. [June, 

Whether the pr'ocess by which the boring is accomplished, in 
this special case, is chemical or mechanical, it is very certain that 
this sea-urchin is able to resort to the latter means at times, for 
its excavations are common in the trap and gneiss rocks of many 
parts of the coast. 

The sea-urchin holes, enlarged by the action of the surf, give 
rise to cavities and irregular pools on the surface of the reef, and 
these are deepened and widened by the dissolving action of the 
water left stagnant in them at low tide. But nullipores, barnacles 
and tube-building worms also live upon the surface, in immense 
numbers, and construct a very hard and durable substance which, 
to a certain extent, compensates for the loss of material caused 
by the sea-urchins. The barnacles and worms build up little 
walls of limestone around the mouths of the holes and between 
them, keeping them for a time more or less separated and per- 
fect; but these walls are being constantly broken away, to- 
gether with much of the surrounding material, resulting in the 
formation, over most of the outer slope of the surface, of a mul- 
titude of irregular, shallow pools, whose edges are protected by 
the same growth of barnacles and worm tubes. Many project- 
ing masses, also capped with the hard limestone coating, are left 
standing in the pools, and wearing most rapidly below, they pro- 
duce mushroom-like structures, which are very characteristic of 
the outer surface. They reach to the same height as the margins 
of the pools. 

Ordinary sea-weeds grow luxuriantly on the outer edge of the 
reef, but they are of slight importance compared with the calca- 
reous nullipores, which live in the full face of the surf and form, 
over large areas, a crust of a foot or more in thickness. Thus 
the barnacles, worm-tubes and nullipores combined, aid very 
materially in protecting the reef from wear, but the good they 
do is more than counterbalanced by the harmful action of the 
waves and sea-urchins, and, unless the latter are in some way 
exterminated, they will eventually work much mischief to the 
harbor of Pernambuco. 

The inner slope of the surface of the reef differs from the 
outer, in not possessing those features which result from the 
actions of the sea-urchins, and also in being without the nullipore 
crust. It is generally characterized by a series of shallow basins, 
lying one below the other along the slope, the rim of each being 



1 879.] Prof. Hartt on the Bra:,. efs. 353 

protected by barnacles or worm-tubes. These basins are some- 
times several feet in diameter and a foot or more deep, and are 
often very irregular. Prof. Hartt has compared them in appear- 
ance to the basins formed by the hot springs of the Yellowstone 
valley; but while the latter have been formed by deposition, the 
former result from wear. 

Having now finished our rather detailed study of the reef 
where it is most perfect, we must proceed farther south and see 
how it terminates. Nearly opposite the mouth of the river 
described in the first part of this paper, we find a small channel 
running underneath the sandstone of the reef, and through this 
there is a constant movement of water. At the sides large 
blocks have been dislodged, and, tumbling down, have reduced 
the width of the upper surface to about thirty or thirty-five feet. 
It thus becomes evident, as has been otherwise proven, that the 
sandstone reef rests on a very insecure foundation of soft mate- 
rial, which the water has washed out in places, forming covered 
passage-ways through which there is a strong current, varying in 
direction according to the time of the tide. Engineers, in boring 
through the rock, came to loose sand underneath, demonstrating 
that the structure we are dealing with is only the consolidated 
capping of a long bar of sand. 

To the south of the channel just described, the reef has been 
much excavated, not only by the waves but by quarrying ; this 
unwarranted destruction of the only object that gives to Pernam- 
buco its prominence as a commercial city has, however, been 
stopped, and a breakwater has been constructed at this point, 
but it is now much out of repair. Around the Ilha dos Pinhos 
the reef curves slightly outwards, and then, bending westward; 
approaches gradually to the shore, which it skirts for some dis- 
tance as a narrow line of rocks, almost lying upon the beach. 
Another small reef begins to the south, and running obliquely, 
finally joins the beach. 

This closes our imperfect description of the reef as it appears 
at low water; at high tide, on account of the shallow water with- 
out, it is played upon by a very heavy surf, which sometimes 
rolls completely over it, and wave after wave, rising above the 
outer edge, bursts high into air on striking the artificial wall at 
the north. During spring tides the water is much agitated within 
the reef, but not enough to endanger the shipping. 



354 Prof. Hartt on the Bra 7.V. [June, 

As a result of his careful study of the Pernambuco reef, and of 
many others of similar character, some of which we will men- 
tion farther on, Prof. Hartt has given us the following conclu- 
sions regarding the mode of formation of this class of structures : 

It is very evident that they are not the out-cropping edges of 
beds of sandstone, extending out from the shore, as some have 
supposed, but only narrow strips of stone of slight thickness, 
formed in exactly the same position in which we see them to- 
day, that is, just below the level of high tide. They have resulted 
from the solidification of beach materials, or sea beaches, by car- 
bonate of lime carried into them by the percolating waters. This 
action goes on from the level of mean high tide to a variable, but 
only slight, distance below low tide mark, and has only a limited 
horizontal extension. By the after encroachment of the sea, 
aided by rivers flowing behind them, these consolidated beaches 
have often been separated from the main shore as distinct reefs ; 
but sometimes this latter action has not taken place, and the har- 
dened layer retains its normal position upon the beach. 

The agencies concerned in the formation of these hardened 
beach deposits are mostly very simple ones, many of which can 
be witnessed by any person visiting the sea-shore. The slope of 
a sand-beach varies according to the size and character of the 
sand-grains composing it, the exposure of the coast and the 
height of the tides. When a wave strikes upon a beach it rushes 
up the slope in a sheet of foam, carrying with it a quantity of 
sand. As it returns the sand is spread out over the surface in a 
thin layer. In this manner a regular lamination, dipping at a 
more or less even angle, is produced in the material composing 
the beach. But this regularity is often much disturbed by 
storms, when the beach may be broken into by the waves and 
much of its material redeposited at quite different angles. 

If the land back of the shore be very low, the beach may form 
a simple narrow ridge, over which the waves completely break at 
high water, carrying and depositing sand on the inner side of the 
beach, where the dip of the laminae will of course be landward. 
Ordinarily, however, a ridge of sand is formed behind the sea- 
beach, above the reach of the tides, being partly due to the 
action of the surf during storms, but mostly to the winds. Such 
a beach-ridge as this accompanies most of the Brazilian beaches, 
which latter, on account of the exposed character of the coast, 
are formed of quite clean sand, consisting mainly of rounded 



1 879.] Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. 3 5 5 

siliceous grains, with broken or perfect shells and finer calcareous 
particles, derived from shells, corals, stony sea-weeds, etc. 

The action of the tides is not limited to the surface of the 
beach, but this, from its porous character, absorbs a certain 
amount of the water. At low tide the beach just below high 
tide level is wet but not soaked with water ; going downwards, 
however, we find the beach becoming gradually wetter and wetter 
until it is completely saturated, producing little rills which run 
down the surface. With the rise of the tide the level of com- 
plete saturation also rises, and when the tide is high the upper 
part of the beach, for some distance above high tide mark, is com- 
pletely charged with water, thrown upon it by the waves. A 
constant movement of water is thus produced in the interior of a 
beach, but on account of the friction against the grains of sand, 
this movement can only extend over a comparatively slight 
width, at least in the upper portions of the beach, which are 
under the water for only a few hours each day. 

Now sea-water, in many parts of the world, and especially 
within the tropics, is very highly impregnated with bi-carbonate 
of lime, and this solution, from evaporation or other causes may 
deposit its lime in the form of a carbonate, which acts as a cement. 
Where evaporation goes on over a beach wet with sea-water of 
this character, the surface materials may become consolidated, as 
occurs at the Abrolhos islands, on the coast of Brazil, and else- 
where. Not only, however, may the upper sands be soldered to- 
gether, but the hardening may even go on below the level of the sea. 

On the Brazilian coast, the surfaces of the beaches are seldom 
hardened during the ebbing of the tide ; but under the hot tropi- 
cal sun and strong prevailing winds, there must be, in the upper 
part of the beaches, a concentration of the calcareous solution, 
which, on sinking downwards to the level of complete saturation, 

grains of sand. The water from rains, percolating through the 
beaches, may also bring lime, arising from the dissolving of 
shells and corals in the upper layers, and lagoons, which freqnently 
lie back of the beach ridge, may contribute to the same result. 
It is evident, however, that the work is mostly done by the sea- 
water, and that this agent, under certain conditions, has the power 
of solidifying sea-beaches to a variable distance 






. few feet below low 



356 Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. [June, 

If a beach be growing rapidly, or if it is being rapidly worn 
away, solidification cannot take place, because it is only over a 
stationary shore, that is neither receiving new accumulations of 
sand nor parting with its old, that enough time is granted for the 
accomplishment of this result. Therefore, consolidated beaches 
must be the exception and not the rule on the Brazilian coast, 
where the shore is undergoing much change nearly everywhere, 
and as sandstone reefs seem to be confined to that single country, 
it must be that there alone are the proper conditions attained for 
their formation. The hardening appears to extend from the outer 
side of the beach inwards, and from below upwards, as new reefs 
usually lie on the lower and outer part of the beach ; the younger 
reefs are also softer in texture than the older, more-finished ones. 

It is probable that many of the ordinary Brazilian beaches are 
solidified below the surface, but until something happens to 
uncover them, it is impossible to determine the fact. Reefs in 
process of formation are to be seen on the coasts of both Per- 
nambuco and Bahia, and at Porto Seguro ; in the latter province, 
there is a double reef, the outer one being the wreck of an unfin- 
ished structure, the inner still undergoing solidification. 

Prof. Hartt was led to believe, from his earlier studies of the 
Brazilian stone reefs, that a slight elevation of the land was 
necessary to account for their present position ; but his later 
studies proved to him that such an hypothesis was wholly 
uncalled for, and that none of the reefs reach above high tide 
level, or at the most above the level to which a beach is saturated 
with water at high tide. 

Statements have been published that a certain amount of 
upheaval must have occurred to produce the supposed strong 
seaward dip of the laminae of the sandstone; but nowhere, 
excepting on edges where blocks have been undermined and 
tilted up, is the inclination greater than might obtain on a sand- 
beach. To suppose an upheaval to have effected these narrow 
lines of reef, tilting the strata evenly in one direction, and no part 
of the neighboring coast, is a geological absurdity. The reefs 
follow the general trend of the shore, and are more or less 
curved, but generally straighter than the beaches immediately 
back of them. 

Having shown that the curious reef at Pernambuco, which for 
many years was a complete puzzle to explorers, has been formed 
through the agency of very simple forces, in part working upon 



l8 79-] Prof. Hartt on tJie Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. 357 

every sand-beach in the world, we will hastily glance at the other 
evidences of the same phenomena on the Brazilian coast. 

The northern-most consolidated beach examined by the Geo- 
logical Commission, is near the mouth of the Rio Parahyba do 
Norte, where, to the south of a fringing coral reef, there are traces 
of a short and imperfect stone reef lying upon the shore. Stone 
reefs have, however, been recorded from north of this point by 
other observers, but they have never been described ; one is situ- 
ted at the mouth of a small river, about eighteen miles north of 
the Parahyba do Norte, and another lies in front of the Rio 
Potengy, in the province of Rio Grande do Norte. 

Directly to the south of Cape Sto. Agostinho, in Pernambuco, 
is the most perfect stone reef discovered; it is almost absolutely 
straight, its northern end being separated from the cape by only 
a narrow break or bar, encumbered by loose blocks of reef rock. 
The land back of the reef, being very low, has been swept deeply 
away, forming a broad and very shallow bay. The inner edge of 
the reef is honeycombed and as irregular as that of a coral reef, 
while the shallow basins of the median and inner portions of the 
surface are much developed, forming regularly terraced plateaux. 

At Rio Formoso, in the same province, there is another stone 
reef, reaching only about three feet above mean low tide, and not 
having a great length. The joints dividing the reef-rock are often 
filled in with sand, which has sometimes been solidified. On the 
island of Santo Aleixo, not far distant from Rio Formoso, is a 
small reef of soft texture, lying alongside the beach, and other 
imperfect reefs also occur in this vicinity on the main shore. 

Nowhere near the city of Bahia do we find perfect sandstone 
reefs; but at the mouth of the bay of Bahia, close to the light- 
house on the outer shore, and on some of the inner shores of the 
bay, layers of consolidated material occur, capping the beaches 
and at times covering quite extended areas. They are often com- 
posed of very coarse materials and contain many shells, and illus- 
trate beautifully, in many cases, the irregularities of beach bedding. 

On the western side of the same bay, at Porto Santo, there is 
a curious example of consolidated beach structure, the only 
instance of the elevation of such material of which we are aware. 
At this place we find a cliff back of the beach, having a length 
of about 1,100 feet, and a greatest height of about thirteen feet, 
and composed almost entirely of sand and gravel, cemented by 
lime into a sandstone. The lower part of the cliff is very hard 



353 Prof. Hartt on the Brazilian Sandstone Reefs. [June, 

in texture, and contains numerous fragments of corals and shells, 
the latter being frequently found entire. Many of the species of 
both exist in abundance throughout the bay. The upper part of 
the cliff is of almost pure sand, and has been so incompletely hard- 
ened as to crumble readily between the fingers. The amount of 
calcareous material in the lower portion is very great, and it is 
said to yield a good quality of lime on burning. 

Whether this cliff belongs to the same class of structures as 
the reefs or not, it is, at least, composed of the same materials, 
and must have been formed in about the same way. Its present 
elevated position — for high water reaches only slightly above its 
base — indicates that the shore has been raised at this point to a 
height nearly equaling that of the cliff. What gives an increased 
interest to this locality is the presence of a low kitchen-midden, 
only two or three feet thick, which overlies the entire cliff. It is 
composed of a dark-colored, sandy earth, packed full of the 
shells of the edible mollusks of the bay, with a few scattered 
bones, and occasionally a human skeleton. 

The stone reefs of the southern part of the province of Bahia, 
have been very fully described by Prof. Hartt, in the " Geology 
and Physical Geography of Brazil." The principal ones are those 
of Porto Seguro and Santa Cruz, both being similarly situated 
and of about the same character. The former is the larger, and, 
beginning in front of a small bay formed at the mouth of a river, 
runs southward, skirting the shore for a long distance. In gen- 
eral structure it is like the Pernambuco reef; the outer edge has 
become very jagged, from the undermining and falling down of 
blocks. But below the level of low water, the reef-rock extends 
seaward a hundred feet or more, forming a very shallow tract, 
over which one may wade when the tide is out. The inner edge 
is much thinner than the outer, being often overhanging, and it 
is flanked by a sloping bank of mud. The surface is of very 
uniform height, but quite rough, and interrupted by cracks and 
pools, which teem with marine life. From fractures at the end, it 
is apparent that the hardening has taken place to a depth of sev- 
eral feet below low tide. 

At Gaurapary and Barra Secca, in Espirito Santo, and in their 
vicinity, are several imperfect reef formations, similar to many 
already described ; and at the Abrolhos islands, as before stated, 
the sand and shingle beaches are often firmly consolidated by a 



1879-1 Rob: A Bird Biography. 359 

ROB: A BIRD BIOGRAPHY. 

BY REV. SAMUEL I.OCKWOOD, PH.D. 

IN the clearer light of these latter days, a higher value has set- 
tled on the so-called small things of nature. To-day the 
student thinks he finds in the lower realms of animate beings a 
psychology, perhaps also a morality, and a self consciousness, 
which he asserts are the "baby figures" of better things that 
were ordained to come. It may be that Mrs. Partington spoke 
wiser than she knew when she said ; " Human nature is human 
nature, if you do find it in a cow." And though so lowly, how 
educable are these emotional and sensitive creatures ! Could one 
know all about them, perhaps each would be found to have an 
interesting biography. Let us attempt to tell the story of a tame 
robin, Turdus migratorious. 

Rob, for so we shall call him, was taken from a nest on Long 
Island. Though passed the callow stage, he was not fairly 
fledged. His pap was meal mixed with fresh milk, a point which 
he insisted on ever after. He was turned a year old when he 
became one of our pets, and very soon he had established him- 
self in our affections. He was very exacting of attention— so 
demonstrative and familiar. In the very pertness of its humor 
the conduct of the bird seemed paradoxical ; for though in its way 
almost beseeching your notice, it would, on your approach, assume 
a repellant attitude, with wings striking and bill snapping. But 
to witness the " high-jinks" of his fury, it was only necessary to 
intrude a hand into the cage, keeping the back upwards, and Rob 
would seem wild with savage gladness, for he would settle on it 
and peck away with his sharp bill at the knuckles ; 



picking into a big bonanza. 



pasted about 



keeping birds in confinement. Does it not generally come from 
such as are intolerant of pets ? " It is a deprivation of natural 
freedom." So thought the horse in the meadow, as he beheld 
the ass roaming in the unfenced sand lots. Even birds may have 
"hard times." Yes, I have known the free wild birds to be 
starved to death within the sound of a canary's song. But per- 
haps Rob was unsentimental, for it was plain that prison or not 
he liked his cage. In it he was at home, and well to do— away from 
it he was a-drift and unsettled. The door of the cage was some- 
times left open for a little while, a proceeding which usually called 



360 Rob : A Bird Biography. [June, 

for large consideration on the part of the occupant. At such 
times he would look as quizzical as a knowing young barrister : 
" Want to get me out, hey? Ah, but possession is nine-tenths of 
the law !" Still, even wise folks may be inquisitive, and Rob was 
not above that weakness. He would stand on the door-sill of the 
cage and with those pretty hazel eyes take in the outlook. This 
done, with a gravity fitting the act he would step in again, and 
resume his uppermost seat — the top perch. Sometimes Rob would 
come out for a little while. 

As a rule, excess of freedom is pretty sure to cause our pets to 
come to grief. The real giant grim of the birdies is Grimalkin ; 
and he is everywhere. We had got lengthening Rob's parole 
with bad effect on his circumspection. In fact there was a slack- 
ing up of the usual bird prudence. One day found him missing. 
So Rob had run his parole ! No-, he had not. The pear tree was 
white with bloom, and he thought to enjoy himself in its 
branches. Alas, Grimalkin was hidden there, and the catastrophe 
was serious. We found the poor bird half dead, with a gory 
laceration of the breast. How he got himself out of the mouth 
of the carnivore seemed a mystery. But Rob had gone through 
life so far on his cheek, and my belief is that his escape was due 
to his plucky impudence. In his case the proverb had been 
emphatically true : " Familiarity breeds contempt." I had often 
taken him pettingly into my hands, when, not from terror but 
sheer temper, he would bite and scream like a vixen. He seemed 
to fear nothing. As for the cat and the dog they were nobodies 
whom he saw every day. Now, I have seen the wild robin when 
caught by the cat, and the victim was as resistless as a clod, in 
sooth, it was paralyzed with terror. With Rob the case, I think, 
stood thus: The cat had a hold on his breast with her mouth, 
but owing to the smallness of the branch which supported her, 
she had to use all her feet to keep her position although needing 
the fore ones to help retain her prey, for Rob, though badly 
frightened, kept his senses, and doubtless used his wings and bill 
to good purpose on the face and eyes of his grim captor, thus 
accomplishing his release. It was a long while before the bird 
got over that wound, which left an ugly though not dishonorable 

The bird had its own amusements. Is there not an instinct in 
whose manifestations our little girls are strangely like the birds ? 



1 879.] Rob: A Bird Biography. 361 

In their plays how our children anticipate the cares and ways of 
motherhood — the nursing and the dressing of the doll, the make- 
believe keeping house, etc. A hundred times have I seen cage 
birds go through a " dumb show " of mimic nesting, fussing with 
laborious concern over a feather, or stick, or straw, or hair. I 
have seen Rob running about his cage with a bit of straw in his 

earnest, and saying to a supposable partner in the business: 
" Here, Mrs. Rob, is just the thing you want." 

If one wanted to get Rob on a string, it was enough to give 
him, in technical parlance, the proximal end of a bit of grocer's 
cord, reserving to one's self a hold on the distal end. How per- 
severingly the bird would draw the cord into the cage, and with 
system too. Seizing it with its bill an inch or two would be 
drawn in, and a foot put on it, then a little more pulled in and 
held in place in like manner, and so on until the other end was 
reached. Now the fun began. Gently the coil was drawn from 
under the bird's foot ; this would bother Rob, for though he was 
pretty fair on practical reasoning, he could not take a step in the 
abstract. With quickened energy he would go the thing all over 
again ; and again he would find his labor slipping from under his 
feet. This at last would excite a spurt of temper, and the thing 
would be given up in disgust. 

Owners of cage pets do not always reflect that birds of the 
Passerine group are the most delicately organized ; hence they 
are often irritable. Coues has well called them fast livers, they 
so freely consume oxygen. Rob had a high temper. A trick, 
perhaps unwise but really amusing, was sometimes played on the 
bird. A bit of rubber or elastic cord was tied to one of the wires 
of the cage. Rob would seize it in his bill and pull, though but 
an inch long, the bird's efforts would stretch it to a number of 
inches, when just as he was pulling the hardest, it would fly back 
again, and Rob, to his dismay, would be set back too, with a 
recoil that fairly lifted him off his legs, and over his tail back- 
ward. In the matter of experience the bird never learned at the 
first lesson, but would keep on meeting the same mishaps, until 
badly beaten with his own petard, he would give it up as a 
bad job. 

There may not be much dignity in it, but the boy does find 
some enjoyment in running backwards and forwards by a picket 



362 Rob: A Bird Biography. [June, 

fence, teasing the testy dog which keeps up with him on the other 
side. Often Rob had his disposition tried by some one rasping a 
finger along the wires of the cage. He would pursue the 
obnoxious digit, snapping his bill furiously, as only a bird can do. 
By and by would be heard a sharp involuntary " Oh !" telling 
that Rob had got in a good point on his tormentor, and thus 
closed the game. 

Our robin often afforded matter for study and delight in those 
expressive attitudes of which birds only are capable, and which 
too effectually elude the artist's pencil. What high-wrought 
excitability and poetic expression appear in these movements. 
What barbaric defiance in the cresting of the crown feathers of 
the head, that queer furring up, or puflfiness of the cheeks, indi- 
cating that the hearing is keyed to a strain ; that jaunty setting 
of the head, and saucy cocking of the eye, for a bird never looks 
so knowing as when he looks sidewise — all this fills a hiatus 
where speech cannot get in. Even the tail adds to the action. 
Now comes a decisive chirp. A conclusion has been reached in 
the bird mind. Next is a series of rapid chirps, making a whirr 
of sound. This is the call-note of his tribe, for he has detected 
a turdite in yonder grove, and hark ! the call is answered. 

But what does Rob know of his clan? Well, some knowledge 
he has of inheritance, for there is both with birds and men a 
knowledge which cometh not with observation ; some of their 
ways have come to him by descent. It is now March, and Rob 
has the spring fever badly, that migratory phrenzy which has set 
the whole tribe moving north. While the spell lasts he is impa- 
tient of home, and is as mad as a March hare. Some robins in 
that cherry tree have set him fairly wild ; and even when there is 
neither sight nor sound of bird, that migratory impulse, that 
mystic call to move and mate, keeps the poor bird uneasy. 
Happily it does not last many days. By April he does some- 
thing better than chirp, for he gets into a strain like the conjugal 
song of the robins. Through several days it is so low, soft and 
silvery, so tender and sweet ; but this over the melody is set on 
a higher key, and becomes a volume of exultant rapture. He has 
now taken up an octave flute. In his dumpy moods he has been 
talked to pettingly so much, that he knows the words like a book: 
" Wake up, pretty boy ! Wake up ! Wake up !" The boys sing 
the words, again, and again. Then they whistle them. The bird 



I8/9-] Rob : A Bird Biography. 363 

catches this little snatch of "melody, and executes it in a clear 
distinct enunciation. This is Rob's best role. Pity that sweet- 
ness should ever cloy, but Rob did give us too much of a good 
thing. Through the summer months, an hour before daylight, 
on the highest key possible, came that piccolo strain, "Wake up, 
pretty boy! Wake up ! Wake up !" Bob's cage was inside the 
window-blinds, and by the time the twilight was breaking up, 
generally several robins had visited the cherry tree near the house,, 
attracted by the singer whom they could not see. 

The prince of the mimics is the mocking-bird. But to some 
degree are not all the thrushes mimics. The cat-bird is realty 



clever in this directi 


on. Ho 


wever 


I own to a surprise 


on hearing 


that Rob had gone : 


into the 


mimic 


art. Whenever our 


black-and- 


tan, Dick, heard his 




master 


whistle an invitatic 


m to take a 


walk with him, the « 


iffection; 


ite bru 


ite would almost lose his head 


in yelping gladness. 


It wa 


5 a beautiful day in June 


, and Dick 



was seen acting as if half dazed, running up and down the yard 
looking for his master but unable to find him. Rob had learned 
the dog-call, and from behind the window-blinds was practicing 
his new accomplishment. The dog soon saw the trick and slunk 
away not a little abashed. We all felt that though funny, it was 
really mean of Rob. Our neighbor's fine hunter was bothered in 
the same way. Rob tried his hand on the call used by Madame 
to her poultry at feeding-time. The attempt did him no credit, 
perhaps for the reason alleged by one of my sons, that "the 
chickens didn't know enough to get sold." But with some folks 
failures are simply the preludes to success. Our mimic had 
grander things in reserve. 

Rob's successful play upon Dick was not his only attempt at 
imposition. On one occasion the good lady of the house being 

cry of distress among the young chickens, " Peep ! peep! peep !" 
in rapid plaint smote her gentle ear. To reach them she had to 
pass Rob's cage. Here she stopped short, and gave vent to an 
outburst of laughing indignation, for it was Rob, the rascally 
mocker, who was doing his best to set all the maternal hens at 
ears about their babies. Though somewhat perplexed, these 
elderly birds were not very 'badly taken in. At another effort 
Rob achieved a marked success ; he imitated the cry of the 
mother-hen when the hawk is overhead — that low whirring note 



364 Rob : A Bird Biography. [June, 

of danger. All was consternation in the barn-yard. Away sped 
each callow brood to their own particular mamma, who, though 
unable to see any danger in the air, yet supposing the alarm to 
come from some watchful mother that did, instantly took her 
own charge under her wings. Rob's mimicries were generally 
perfect. In executing some of them he was so loud-voiced as to 
be heard a long way off. Persons at quite a distance have been 
^attracted by these notes, and have called to see our " mocking- 
bird," and been much surprised to learn that it was "only a robin." 

The senses of birds must be very acute. I would instance 
in Rob's case that of scent. H 
beef, and though in a different r 
butcher's boy in the kitchen, when he would scream with impa- 
tience. Little strips of raw beef were fed him. If when receiving 
one morsel he saw another in the fingers of his mistress, he would 
drop it on the floor of his cage and wait for the next bit with 
nervous impatience; and so would he do until he had secured all 
that his sharp eyes saw, which done, he ate these delicacies in a 
perfectly orderly way. How unlike a dog which swallows as fast 
as he can the meat given it. But Rob was particular, the meat 
so providently put on the floor of his cage was thus rendered 
dirty ; the knowing bird would take it piece by piece and wash it 
in his water tub. This conduct showed the nearest approach to 
abstract reasoning that I ever saw the bird make. Many of the 
birds like this condiment of leisure with their food. How often 
have I seen a fowl pick up a grain of corn, then drop it and look 
at it, then pick it up, drop and inspect again several times, then 
swallow it, and all with no other logic in the matter that I could 
see, than to make the most of one's blessings. So with Rob, 
having got his store before him, he enjoyed it in a leisurely and 
sensible way. He was very fond of the larvse which we used to 
find in chestnuts. Even these he could smell afar off, and would 
go into ecstacies, making a lively chattering talk, as one was 
brought to his cage. The presentation of a spider was a grand 
event. But as to earth-worms, he had a soul above all such. So 
far as Rob was concerned, the early bird was entirely welcome to 
them. 

I think our pet must have been five years old when he had a 
hard time molting, and the result, too, was quite notable. When 
the large feathers began to come, two white ones appeared in the 



1 879.] Rob: A Bird Biography. 365 

tail. Oh, tell it not among his kith that Rob, the plucky and the 
impudent, shews the white feather! But leaving figure and 
corning to fact, the truth is, the poor bird was greatly distressed 
about it, so much so that he made up his mind he would not 
stand it, but would extract the offensive things, and at it he went. 
The tail was deflected so as to meet the head, itself turned under 
the perch ; the bill then seized one of the craven feathers and 
pulled desperately. As if the perch were a trapeze, the bird 
swung fairly round, going over backwards and falling on the floor 
of the cage. But the feather had not come out. At it again he 
went in the same way, and with the same result. And this was 
kept up nearly an hour, by which time the tail had become all 
dyed with blood. At last the odious feathers were removed, and 
the poor bird, weak, bleeding and suffering, put its head under a 
wing and took rest. What shall be said to this ? Was it pride, 
a .certain proper self-respect? We cannot say. But this matter 
caused us a good deal of solicitude, for it was kept up some 
weeks, as the feathers would come in white. So at length the 
bird submitted in sheer despair. When the feathers came to the 
full there were two white ones in the tail, and as many in each 
wing. At the next molt the number of white" feathers increased. 
When he was eight years old all the primaries of both wings were 
of a snowy whiteness, also the retrices, or large tail feathers, 
except the central pair which kept their normal dark color in bold 
contrast as lying on a bed of white. This certainly was a strange 
costume for a robin; in good sooth, his own mother would never 
have known him. In our eyes Rob, though in an eccentric cos- 
tume, seemed a gay and elegant fellow. 

This partial albinism, we believe, is occasionally found among 
the robins. But what is its meaning? Attacking the largest 
feathers of the tail and wings, it might indicate inability of the 
pigment cells to furnish, color any longer at those parts of the 
plumage where the demand was the greatest. It is doubtless due 
to an exceptional atrophy of the secreting color-glands. 

Our pets were usually divided round in the family. Rob was 
claimed by my daughter. It was a tender parting when with her 
husband she left for a new home in a great western city. And even 
Rob had no small share of our good-byes when taken to the car 
with the bridal pair. In his western home he was allowed 
enlarged freedom, his cage with open door being often set in the 



366 On the Morphology of ' t!i- als, [June, 

garden. When his cage was hung under a tree by the side-walk, 
the pedestrians would stop and wonder what bird that could be 
with so strange a plumage and so novel a song. When free in 
the garden Rob would have a good time of it, occasionally find- 
ing a dainty insect. But the dear fellow was getting old. Nine 
years is rather high for Tardus migratorious, and his appetite was 
becoming a little unnatural. He found a piece of twine, and by 
persevering succeeded in swallowing it. That was the worst 
string ever Rob got on. That western investment was the death 



ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE SEMICIRCULAR 
CANALS. 1 



|N b 



BY FRANCIS DERCUM, M.D., PH.D. 

biology we meet, at every step, new and interesting ques- 
this or that structure arose, what this or that fact 
means, are the problems which continually present themselves. 
The data are few and scattered, yet the attempt to arrange them in 
some logical manner is at least justifiable, and though our success 
may be doubtful, we at least take a step in the right direction. 

Such an attempt let us make in regard to the semicircular 
canals. Under the idea that these structures, like all others, were 
formed for a special purpose — were designedly made to meet 
certain ends — a great variety of functions have been assigned to 
them. Viewed in the light, however, that every organ is the 
resultant of certain definite and interacting forces, the mere 
question of actual or present use becomes a secondary one. Let 
us see what the various facts I have collected seem to point out. 

Before we attempt to understand such a complex organ as the 
ear, it would be well to look over the field of zoology to see 
whether we cannot find other and simpler organs of sense, which 
may perhaps give us the right clue. Such organs I believe to be 
the so-called mucous canals or lateral lines of fishes and amphib- 
ians. These structures, I need hardly say, have been ably demon- 
strated by Leydig, F. E. Schulze and others to be sensory. They 
consist essentially of small areas of nerve-epithelium arranged 
in linear series along the sides of the head and body, having hair- 
cells continuous with nerves and being in every way comparable 

sity of Pennsylvania, March 28, 1879. 



1 879.] On the Morphology of the Semicircular Canals. & 

to the maculae acusticae of the ampullae and vestibule. They 
have received as yet no specific name. Leydig simply uses the 
expression "nerve-buttons" (nervenknopf), and F. E. Schulze 
"nerve-hills" (nervenhuegel). In the adult forms of almost all 
fishes, these structures are inclosed in a continuous canal formed 
in the epithelium. To this fact we will return again. 

The function of these organs appears to be to appreciate mass 
movements of the water, and more particularly vibrations which 
have longer periods than those appreciated by the ear. 1 

Besides the similarity in the structure of the Maculae of the 
lateral lines and the maculae acusticae, the following facts indicate 
a close relation between the two sets of organs. In the first place, 
in accordance with the general law of the development of sensory 
structures, 2 both the ear and the mucous canals are developed 
from the epithelial layer of the embryo, namely, the cpiblast. 
Secondly, the side organs of the head are supplied by the fifth 
pair of nerves, while those on the body are supplied by the lateral 
nerves, which in turn are made up to a greater or less extent of 
the fifth. Now, a fact, the significance of which can never be 
over-estimated, is, that in the skate the auditory nerve is a primary 
branch of the fifth. 3 

Again, the organ of hearing is surrounded by bone really 
belonging to the ectoskeleton, but usually becoming incorporated 
with the bones of the cranium. In the same manner the side 
organs of the head are surrounded by bones belonging to the 
ectoskeleton, and likewise becoming more or less incorporated 
with bones of the skull and face. The supratemporals, suborbitals 
and lachrymals are examples of these. Even in the side organs 
of the body the same tendency to the persistence of bone is 
manifested by the occasional presence of bone corpuscles and 
even of cartilaginous or osseous grooves or canals. Now, while 
I recognize in this comparison only a very general fact, I still 
think that the parallelism between the bony support of the ear 
and the bony supports of the side organs is far greater than 
between the petrosal and the sclerotal. 

Let us now turn to the development of the mucous canals, 



368 On the Morphology of ' //. a/s. [June, 

and see how much of general application can be gleaned from 
the facts. In teleost fishes the side organs first exist as mere cel- 
lular elevations 1 projecting into the water and having the percipient 
structures, the hairs, protected (generally, not always) by means of 
a delicate hyaline cylinder open at its distal end. In most cases 
this stage is transitory. Above and below the elevations, the 
epithelium of the surrounding skin becomes raised, forming a 
groove which is finally converted into a canal. Thus these eleva- 
tions or maculae of the side organs become enclosed by a process 
somewhat analogous to the involution of the ear. 

In Elasmobranch fishes, however, another method is pursued. 
The lateral line appears already in the embryo as a fully formed 
canal, and, instead of being produced by an inflexion of the 
epiblast, is formed directly by being hollowed out in the substance 
of the same. 2 This departure from the general method of the 
development of sensory structures is an illustration of an import- 
ant fact dwelt on by Herbert Spencer, namely, that the processes 
pursued in the development of the embryo are by no means the 
exact repetition of those which occurred in the evolution of the 
race. In many respects the processes of embryology are short- 
ened. The integral parts or molecules of many structures tend 
to assume directly the relations which they occupy in the adult 
form, without passing through those intermediate stages which 
were successively traversed by the ancestors of the races. 

This marked difference between the development of the lateral 
lines of Elasmobranchs and Teleosts is in harmony with several 
other interesting facts. We would naturally suppose that an or- 
ganism in which a comparatively complex structure is produced 
by the direct method, is relatively both older and higher than one 
in which the same organ is produced by the indirect method. In 
the present instance this is the case. The Elasmobranchs consti- 
tute an order of fishes of vast antiquity, making their appearance 
already in the Upper Silurian, and being, therefore, among the 
oldest fishes known. Again, they constitute a very high order 
being perhaps, with the exception of the Dipnoi, the highest. 
They are even related in some respects to amphibians. The 
Teleosts, on the other hand, are ordinarily regarded as the repre- 
sentatives of the piscine type ; that is, as presenting preeminently 
those characters which constitute a fish. Secondly, the Teleosts 



iS77- 



i879-] On the Morphology of the Semicircular Canals. 369 

are an order which is comparatively very young, not making its 
appearance until the Cretaceous period. Observe how these facts 
accord with the development of the lateral line. In Teleosts the 
involution of the maculae or nervehills of the lateral system and 
the consequent formation of a canal, does not take place for days 
and even weeks after the young fish has left the egg. In one 
instance, Gobius minutus} it does not take place at all. In Elas- 
mobranchs, however, as stated, the canal is already formed in the 
embryo. 

Surely such a harmony of facts must be of significance, and 
they must open our eyes very widely with regard to the relation 
between embryological and race development, or, to use the words 
of Prof. Haeckel, between ontogeny and phylogeny. Doubtless 
in the primitive Elasmobranchs, or in their ancestors, the develop- 
ment of the mucous canals was similar to that of the Teleosts of 
the present day, but, in the countless repetitions during countless 
ages, the process was shortened and made, as we find it, imme- 
diate and direct. 

Now, what bearing have such facts as these on the correct 
understanding of the embryology of the ear ? Let us see. 

Can we suppose that a structure as old as must be the organ of 
hearing, is still formed in the embryo by repeating the various 
stages once traversed by our remote ancestors ? Would it not be 
more philosophical to expect that this organ is now produced by 
a process more or less direct? To this latter view I think we 
must, by necessity, incline. 

The embryology of the ear may be briefly stated, as follows : 
It first makes its appearance as a depression of the epiblast in the 
neighborhood of the hind-brain. This depression gradually deepens 
until, by the coalescence of its edges, it is converted into a closed 
cavity. This cavity then rapidly enlarges and certain dilations 
or protrusions of its surface into the surrounding mesoblast take 
place. These protrusions arc severally converted into the semi- 
circular canals and cochlea. In the case of the semicircular 
canals each dilatation becomes flattened, and, by the meeting 
and coalescence of its opposite walls in the middle, its peripheral 
portion is converted into a tube, both ends of which remain per- 
manently in communication with the primitive vesicle. The 
cochlear protrusion undergoes no such transformation but is sim- 
ply prolonged, forming the true membranous cochlea or scala 

1 See F. E. Schulze, loc. cit. 



370 On the Morphology of the Semicircular Canals. [June, 

media of mammals; but with this we have at present nothing 
to do. 

Evidently the first stage of the development of the car, the 
process of inflexion, belongs to the indirect method, but the fact 
that this process is still so pronounced, and the fact that the otic 
vesicle when once shut off from the epiblast rapidly enlarges, so 
that the area of the enclosed surface is relatively very great, would 
indicate to my mind that in our remote ancestors, this process of 
inflexion was very marked — that it was extensive, involving a 
a comparatively large area, and bringing about great modifica- 
tions of structure. The tendency in the constant repetition of 
this process would be to diminish its relative importance, i. e., to 
make it constantly less and less pronounced. Probably, there- 
fore, the amount of surface actually inflected in the embryo is 
small compared with the area inflected in the process of ancestral 
development. To this we will presently return. 

The special parts of the labyrinth appear to be formed by a 
direct method. This would, of course, as we have seen reason 
to believe, not exclude the possibility of an indirect method 
having obtained in our remote progenitors. 

Having now compared the various methods pursued in the 
development of the mucous canals and the ear, let us recall a 
fact which has not yet been brought into sufficient prominence, 
namely, that the structure of the mucous canals and that of the 
semicircular canals is very similar. In 1850 Leydig 1 already 
noticed this fact, for he compares a semicircular canal and its 
ampulla with a mucous canal and its " nervebutton." Both struc- 
tures consist of connective tissue lined with epithelium, and the 
" nervebutton " of one corresponds to the macula acustica of the 
other. The analogy seems complete. 

Would it now be too hazardous to suggest that two organs 
which are so closely related in structure, which present such sig- 
nificant facts, as regards nerve supply and embryological develop- 
ment, are related genetically ? Such a supposition would evi- 
dently not be inconsistent. Let us see how it may have been 
brought about. In an organism provided with a general apparatus 
for the perception of vibrations, evidently the first thing that 
would take place would be a specialization of certain portions for 
certain classes of vibrations. This is what may have been the 
case with the lateral canals and the ear, each being a specializa- 
" Mueller's Archiv.— Schleimkan. d. Knochenfische. 



1 879.] On the Morphology of the Semicircular Canals. 3 ; 1 

tion in its own peculiar direction. 1 The fact that the involution of 
the side organs in Teleosts does not take place until the organism 
is already far advanced towards the completion of its develop- 
ment, and the fact that the mucous canal in the embryo of Elas- 
mobranchs does not appear until the epiblast has been differen- 
tiated into its two layers, both imply that the side organs had for 
ages existed as mere " nerve-hills," or nerve epithelium, projecting 
into the water, and this renders our idea not only possible but 
probable. In the course of the evolution of the ear the first 
differentiation of structure that occurred may have been as fol- 
lows : Certain of these areas of nerve-epithelium or sensory 
maculae, may, for functional specialization, have become enclosed 
in canals. (The great functional advantage of this form of involu- 
tion over the closed vesicle, we shall presently see.) Now, for still 
greater specialization, the whole area containing the canal- with 
perhaps one or two maculae not yet enclosed, may have under- 
gone a general process of involution and thus given rise to the 
vestibule and semicircular canals. 

This view of the evolution of the ear is favored by the fact that 
the semicircular canals are constant structures in all vertebrates! 
Again, their number is always the same, namely, three, with but 
two exceptions, which may be easily explained. I refer to the 
Myxines which have but one, and the lampreys which have but 
two. Probably no naturalist who accepts the theory of evolution, 
looks upon the selachians or any other existing order of fishes 
as ancestrally related to the other vertebrates, and even the 
structure of the Marsipobranchs indicates that they belong to an 
early differentiated and highly aberrant type. 

In studying the gradual development of the ear, palaeontologi- 

fragmentary. The very first vertebrates that we find are already 
fishes of a high degree of development. 

Let us now see to what views of the functional value of the 
semicircular canals, the above discussion leads. The first ques- 
tion that arises in our minds is, what is gained by the involution 
of the sensory maculae? And secondly, why should this process 
have resulted in the formation of canals ? Why did not each 
macula become enclosed in a separate cavity? Probably the 
benefit derived by a delicate sensory structure from the formation 



372 On the Morphology of the St micm tlar Canals. [June, 

of a wall about it, is at first of a protective character, and the final 
formation of a cavity is the further attainment of the same end. 
This, however, would entail a greater or less modification of func- 
tion. The exposed sensory macula would probably perceive 
vibrations clearly and distinctly. As soon, however, as enclosure 
in a cavity takes place, interference of the vibrations by their con- 
tinued reflection from the walls of the cavity must necessarily 
occur. Such a condition of affairs is probably present in sensory 
structures like the " mucous " ampullae of sharks and rays and 
the Savian vesicles. This difficulty is overcome if, instead of 
there being a cavity closed on all sides, the macula is situated in 
a tube. Then interference would either not result at all, or be 
greatly diminished, for the vibrations would be dispersed in one 
or two definite directions. The formation of such a structure 
may have been the first step in the evolution of the ear. Indeed, 
its parallel is presented to us in the lateral lines. The very same 
conditions obtain. 

The question now arises, when the area containing the struc- 
tures about to form the ear became involuted, in what way was 
the function of the tubes converted into the semicircular canals 
modified? In other words, what is the function of the semicir- 
cular canals ? The fact that both ends of each canal communicate 
with the utriculus, probably lessens their use as dispersing vibra- 
tions, but at the same time another and very important condition 
obtains. The utriculus, a comparatively small cavity, has the 
area of its enclosed surface materially diminished by the presence 
of five openings, three of which are comparatively large. In this 
way the capacity of its walls for reflecting vibrations must be con^- 
siderably lessened, and interference of vibration consequently 
much diminished. Thus one function of the semicircular canals 
is probably to assist clearness of perception, 1 and in this respect 
their function would be intrinsically the same as that of the canals 
of the side organs. It has at various times been argued that the 
semicircular canals prevent interference of vibrations by the sound 
waves entering the same canal at opposite ends, and then meeting 
in opposite phases, thus mutually destroying each other. How 
this could occur I cannot imagine ; there is no special contrivance 
at either end of a canal by which the vibrations would be retarded 
just half of a wave-length, and there is no reason why such an 
assumption should be made. On the contrary, I cannot see any- 

iThis was the idea of Prof. Jackson, formerly of the University of Pennsylvania. 



1 879.] On the Morphology of the Semicircular duals. W$ 

thing to prevent the waves from meeting in exactly the same 
phases. If so, the effect of the semicircular canals would be to 
increase the intensity of sounds. 

Various other uses have, at times, been assigned to the semi- 
circular canals, such as the estimation of the direction of sound, 
or even the appreciation of pitch, besides which, conclusions have 
been drawn based on vivisection. Theories concerning pitch were 
held prior to the understanding of the structure of the cochlea, 
and may be dismissed without discussion. Those concerning the 
direction of sound are not borne out by fact. In the first place, 
as the contradictory results of inve- $tors show, the power 
among animals of distinguishing the direction of sound is not 
well marked, and even if it were it would be no proof that this 
power lies in the semicircular canals. Again, it is self-evident 
that the direction of sound cannot be maintained while passing 
through the auditory meatus and tympanum, and if we are told 
that the semicircular canals appreciate vibrations transmitted by 
the skull, the conditions are singularly unfavorable, for just in 
those animals in which an appreciation of the direction of sound 
would seem the most important, *. e., birds and mammals, the head 
is generally covered by a non-conducting material, feathers or hair. 

The power of distinguishing the direction of sound seems to 
me rather to be connected with the degree of development of the 
auricle and the degree of its movability, or the power the animal 
has of quickly adapting the head to various positions, so that it 
can determine that position in which the impression is received 
the most strongly, and thence infer the direction of the sound. 

The theories based on the vivisection of the semicircular canals, 
involve a method of reasoning that to me is not logical. To say 
that the results of a terrible mutilation of one of the most highly 
specialized parts of the body, namely, the head, are due to the 
destruction of any one organ or part contained in it, is certainly 
reasoning from incorrect premises — is certainly leaving out a 
large class of the facts. Secondly, to predicate that the function 
of an organ is the inverse of certain phenomena obtaining by its 
mutilation, is less logical still. To my mind the experiments of 
Flourens, Goltz and others, do not demonstrate that the results 
were due only to the mutilation of the semicircular canals, or 
that even if this were the case, anything could be predicated con- 
cerning their function. To use an apt illustration, let us take a 
watch and let us imagine that it was to us a new and strange 



374 On the Morphology of ill :a!s. [June, 

machine, the various functions of which we wished to determine. 
Now, what would we think of a man who would plunge a knife 
through crystal, dial, mainspring and all, to find out how the 
thing worked. Is the proceeding in the case of an animal any- 
less absurd ? Is it more encouraging to know that the machine 
with which we are dealing is infinitely more complex, and of the 
fundamental truths of whose construction we can only gain vague 
and fragmentary ideas ? 

In order to understand a complex organ — if, indeed, the attain- 
ment of such an end be possible — I believe that we must cast 
about for the most widely scattered facts, and then view these in 
the broadest possible light. I believe, therefore, that the only 
way to understand an organ for the perception of sound vibra- 
tions, is also to study organs for the perception of allied vibra- 
tions, and then to compare the various principles involved in the 
development, structure and function of each. By the pursuance 
of such a method in the present instance, the conclusions which 
seem to be pointed out, are, first, that the chief significance of the 
semicircular canals is morphological, and secondly, that their 
functional importance, though considerable, is secondary. If, in 
the above discussion, I have merely raised this view of their 
nature to the degree of a probability — which is the most that cir- 
cumstances allow — my object is accomplished. 

Addendum. — After the reading of the above paper, Dr. A. J. 
Parker offered a suggestion with regard to the function of the 
semicircular canals which makes the parallelism between these 
structures even more apparent. His view, which he permitted 
me to append, is as follows : 

He says that the maculae acusticae are very probably situated in 
just those parts of the labyrinth on which the sound waves 
impinge with the greatest intensity. This being the case with the 
maculae of the ampullae, the sound-waves probably enter the 
ampullar ends of the canals with much greater force than they 
enter the non-specialized ends. Consequently, when interference 
takes place, it occurs in or near these non-specialized ends, /. e., 
where there are no acoustic spots ! Dr. Parker looks upon the 
semicircular canals as so many conduits to carry offvibrations after 
they have impinged on the maculae of the ampullae. This would 
make their function exactly analogous to that of the lateral canals. 

Dr. Parker's view also explains why each semicircular canal 
has but one ampulla, and why-this should be situated at the end, 
instead of other parts of the tube. 



Gi agnostic and . \g) {cultural Aspcc, 



BY J. BOLL. 

TJAVING resided for several years in Texas, during which 
AA time I have constantly been engaged in scientific researches, 
I shall, in this article, aim not so much at a geological and geog- 
nostic .description of the country, as attempt to present results 
already made known by others, and to give a slight view of 
my own observations in the same field. I shall not undertake a 
description of rocks and minerals heretofore found in Texas, nor 
enumerate animals already known as extinct or as still existing ; 
but rather from the nature of the soil and the constitution of the 
mineral kingdom, draw my conclusions as to the fertility and 
products of the different parts of the State. 

Of the various publications by other persons on the geologic 
and geognostic conditions of Texas, the following are known 



2. The Chalk-fonmtinns ,,f Texas ami their organic contents, by Dr. Ferdinand 

Roemer. Bonn, 1852. 

3. Exploration of the Red river, in 1852, by Rani. !!. M.ucy. in which the north- 

western part w,b geologically described, by Geo. B. Shumard. 

4- The Annual Reports of State Geologist Buckley. 

5- The Map of Texas, by A. R. Rossler. 1874. 

The geographical character of Texas, as Roemer correctly 
remarks, divides it into three districts, more or less sharply 
defined. These are: 

1. The Lowlands, along the whole coast, from the Sabine to 
the Rio Grande. They vary in width from thirty to a hundred 
miles, rising from three to a hundred feet above the sea, and are 
really only a continuation of the coast-lands of Lousiana, Missis- 
sippi and Alabama, and therefore belong to the same diluvial and 
alluvial formations, being almost wholly composed of clayey and 
sandy deposits. However, it is not alone the rivers coming from 
the interior which collect and bring down this material, for the 
sea also contributes its part. As proof of this, we find in the 
soil, not only the remains of marine animals, but the animal mk\ 
vegetable world still extant gives evidence thereof. Here, not 



376 Texas in its Gcognostic an, I . /-/■/, ,//, nnl . Ispect. [June, 

only on the coast but in the whole region, we find those plants 
and insects living near salt-water only. The long narrow islands 
lying along the coast of Texas must necessarily, on account of 
their situation and physical condition, be considered as parts of 
the Lowlands. 

2. The Hill country, or Uplands. This consists of the pre- 
vailing level and hilly region between the lower coast-range and 
the higher and partly rocky highlands beyond. Its width is from 
a hundred and fifty to three hundred miles, about one hundred to 
one thousand feet above the sea. According to its geological 
composition, it partakes in equal parts of the tertiary and 
secondary formations. The fertility of its soil is exclusively due 
to the composition of these formations, hence within it are embraced 
the fairest and most prolific portions of the State. Large, exten- 
sive prairies are situated in the west, with strips of timber along 
the creeks and rivers, also large and small forests diffused here 
and there, but composed wholly of post-oak. The eastern por 
tion is almost entirely covered with forests of a great diversity o 

3. The Highlands. These arise behind the rolling hill-land 
beginning in the west on the Rio Grande, where, at its confluenc< 
with the San Pedro, it suddenly turns its eastern into a south 
eastern course. Thence the boundary extends due east to the 
great sources of the San Antonio ; thence north-east to Austin 
and thence due north it reaches the Red river near the mouth o 
the Little Wichita. 

From the Rio Grande to Austin, the boundary between the 
Hill country and the Highlands is well marked and sharp ; while 
from the latter point to Red river the transition is more gradual 
and more difficult to define. The highest places in it rise scarcely 
2500 feet above the sea, excepting the Guadalupe mountain, west 
of the Pecos river. In the north-west part of the State, towards 
New Mexico, the elevation slowly increases towards the Rocky 
mountains. No higher mountain chains are at all to be seen, and 
this region has rather the character of a high table-land. The 
inequalities arise more from the excavations of valleys and 
ravines, while the elevations generally maintain the same level. 
In its geological character it is greatly diversified, belonging, as 
it does, to the tertiary, secondary and primary formations. In very 
many places the soil is very dry, sterile and rocky, especially the 



1 879.] Texas in its Geognostic and Agricultural Aspect. 277 

valleys in the south, presenting steep and rocky entrances, rarely 
widening into fertile plains. All the principal rivers of Texas rise 
in this division, which is but sparsely settled and but imperfectly 
explored and known. 

If now we take under review the formation and composition of 
the soil of these different parts of the State, the following will be 
the result as to their fertility and products : 

In general we distinguish three different kind of soils — sand, 
clay and limestone— in the first, sand or silica predominates, in 
the second, clay, in the third, carbonate of lime. Neither of these 
constituents alone is sufficient to produce a vigorous growth of 
plants ; that this is the case with sand is proved by the great des- 
erts of Asia and Africa. When sand constitutes more than nine- 
tenths of the soil, vegetation cannot flourish ; yet all soils require 
a certain proportion of sand, because every plant needs some sand 
for its growth ; for cereals especially this element is indispen- 
sable. The clay soil has also its defect, it is too tenacious, so 
that the roots cannot spread out ; it retains water too long, and 
when it dries it hardens into tough lumps; it has, therefore, pre- 
cisely the opposite faults of sand, wherefore a proper intermix- 
ture of the two proves advantageous. A soil consisting solely of 
lime varies too violently in moisture and dryness; lime is, how- 
ever, as indispensable for the nutriment of plants as sand, so 
that mixed in proper proportions with sand and clay, it proves 
itself highly advantageous in every respect; hence soils com- 
posed of .sand, clay and lime are, without doubt, the most fertile. 

Now, as regards Texas particularly, its sandy soil was mainiy 
derived from the sandstone of the tertiary period, whilst its clay 
and lime soil deposits came from the tertiary and Mesozoic ages. 

The soil of the Lowlands is, through the accumulation of 
sand, clay and lime, brought into a mixture very beneficial to 
cultivation, but owing to the presence of salt, and still more 
to its level surface, which hinders the discharge of water, it is 
not adapted to every kind of cultivation, wherefore wheat can- 
not be raised, whilst Indian corn, .sugar-cane and cotton suc- 
ceed admirably. The entire Lowlands are not yet extensive')' cul- 
tivated, and its more general culture depends upon a thorough sys- 
tem of drainage. The condition of the soil is everywhere the 
same, neither stones nor rocks are to be seen. 

In the Hill-country we find the sandstone, and the sand and 



378 Texas in its Geognostic a*. ; \rt. [June, 

clay deposits of the tertiary formation in vast extent, and the 
peculiarity of it is that these places are, throughout, covered with 
forests, indeed we may safely conclude that wherever extensive 
forests are found in elevated positions, they arise from a tertiary 
foundation. Thus the whole forest- clad parts of Eastern Texas, 
from Red river down to the sea-coast, consist of these formations, 
the upper and lower cross timbers of North-western Texas, like 
the post-oak forests situated in the middle and southern, rest 
throughout upon tertiary formations. Since now the soil there, 
mainly through the influence of the glacial era, was derived from 
sandstone and sandy-clay deposits, it is, therefore, less adapted to 
the cultivation of plants, having obtained a large share at the 
same time through a considerable proportion of iron, as we 
shall see later; yet along creeks and rivers are found here and 
there places fit for cultivation. In the first years of culture, 
plants flourish generally quite well ; but the strength of the soil 
is soon exhausted, which has strikingly exhibited itself in parts 
of Louisiana bordering on Texas, this side of Red river. This 
region has been for a long time thoroughly cultivated, and at this 
time has only two-thirds of its former extent under culture. 
Wheat does not succeed in this soil, and cotton is mostly only 
one to two feet high ; corn is weak in the stalk and the ears are 
small; fruit-trees alone flourish there, viz: peaches and apples, 
since these trees are enabled to send their roots deep into the 
ground. Pines, which grow best in sandy regions, diffuse them- 
selves to a great extent through the forests. Since then, by 
means of forests, we can decide the tertiary foundation of the soil, 
so in the same way we may state that open prairies and places 
covered with mesquite trees, indicate that the soil rests upon 
secondary formations. There again the soil is formed of sand, 
clay and lime, through the operation of the glacial era, and min- 
gled together in so advantageous a manner that it presents all 
those conditions on which depends the perfect development of all 
cultivated plants. This division embraces that part of Texas 
which promises to become so large a source of food such as 
no other State of the Union possesses, even such as can be found 
in few portions of any continent. Again, in this same division is 
that region of peculiar importance in which naked rocks appear 
on the surface, neither to a small nor great extent immediately 
after the tillable ground has been broken up by other causes. 



1 879-] Texas in its Geognostic a ipect. 379 

Such a wholly continuous area, more than one hundred and twenty 
miles wide, and over two hundred miles long, lies in the northern 
part of the Hill-country of Texas. It forms a long rectangle, of 
which Dallas county is nearly the center, and this is the reason 
why this division, and especially the city of Dallas, have so rap- 
idly grown in importance, and this proves at the same time with 
what keen foresight railroad magnates have stretched their iron 
roads through this section. 

This division is, however, penetrated in its north-western part 
by the so-called Cross Timbers, two strips of forests from eight 
to ten miles wide, the soil of which consists of the tertiary 
elements, but their intermixture through the physical influences 
of the glacial period, since the extent was not very great, became 
much superior to that in Eastern Texas. Besides, it constitutes 
only a very small part of the division under consideration, and 
supplies at the same time, to the adjacent prairies, convenient and 
adequate material for fencing and fuel, which only in few places 
has to be procured from considerable distances. 

In the southern and south-western portion of the Hill-country, 
as far as the Rio Grande, the soil is also composed of sand, clay 
and lime, yet, as in the northern part, it is more frequently inter- 
rupted by tertiary clay and sand, but much more, and more 
injuriously to agriculture, is the ground filled with hard, reddish 
flint stones, from the size of a pigeon-egg to that of the fist. 
These originate in the Highlands north of it, on one side of the 

sive chalk hills. This chalk formation of the Highlands is of a 
sandy character, hard, and enclosing a great number of sand and 
flint concretions. After the drift period they remained .scattered in 
every direction, and this readily explains why these concretions 
are found not only in river beds but also on those higher localities 
surrounding the valleys, and particularly on hills. The soil of 
this part of the Hill-country is here and there so filled with these 
stones that it is useless to undertake a thorough culture of it. 
Although these places often interrupt the fertile soil, yet the lat- 
ter comprises a considerable area, and it is especially the river- 
bottoms which in the southern part of the Hill-country possess 
an immense productive power. In the valley of the San Antonio 
river, almost the entire bottom of the valley can be irrigated for 
a great distance, yet this system of irrigation, constructed by the 



380 Texas in its Gt agnostic and Agricultural Aspect. [June, 

Spaniards many centuries ago, has already so exhausted the soil 
of loose, light mineral material, that a rich crop can no longer be 
reckoned upon excepting here and there. 

In this connection the following points may be mentioned. 
Till now it has always been a problem where the great sources of 
the San Antonio river, as also of the Comal and San Marcos, 
have their origin, and why these throughout the whole year con- 
tinue to break forth from under the rocks with the same force and 
temperature as well as with unvarying clearness. 

Roemer, in his work on the chalk formations of Texas, says, 
that the chalk of the Highlands is proven by its organic remains 
to belong to a somewhat deeper geognostic horizon than that of 
the Hill-country, and is therefore older, although it lies higher. 
It is suddenly separated, steep and sharp, from the latter. He 
says, furthermore, it is possible that through a fault not appa- 
rent on the surface, the chalk of the Highlands near New 
Braunfels was forced back to the higher level, and he believes that 
such transposition and also the sudden and steep upheaval of the 
Highland, explains the remarkable change in the character of 
the rocks, and that the abrupt breaking forth of the sources of 
the Comal at the foot of the table-land has a close connection 
'with it. 

Northward and located somewhat higher there appears in a 
singular manner, almost wholly surrounded by the chalk forma- 
tion of the Highlands, an entirely isolated tract of primitive 
mountain formation, and it is well to observe that this piece was 
lifted up through terrestrial forces after the chalk formations had 
already detached themselves. On this granite are found here 
and there isolated remains of chalk. Before the glacial era the 
entire mass was entirely covered with it, and it was almost com- 
pletely destroyed during this long period, and I might therein 
discover not only a proof of its later upheaval, but also of the 
existence of the glacial era ; so also other and not yet solved 
problems may here find a solution. Through the upheaval, the 
volcanic force extended also to the chalk surrounding the granite. 

As already remarked, the chalk of the Highlands is much 
harder than that of the Hill-country; as a collective mass it 
resisted the upheaval, and was therefore lifted up at once with 
the granite : hence the steep declivity at the foot. By the 
upheaval considerable cavities would be formed in and under the 



1 879.] Texas in its Geognostic and \ cult 1 1 Aspect. 381 

chalk, for it is everywhere much cleft, and the rain falling on the 
ground finds its way slowly, therefore, partly through the rocks, 
into the cavities. It can accumulate in large quantities in these 
hollows ; the water must necessarily find an outlet again, and thus 
it is probable that the above-named rivers come from one or more 
subterranean lakes, and hence their uniform force, temperature 
and clearness. The water of these springs holds a great deal of 
carbonate of lime in solution, which shows that in the course of 
time the cavities are more and more enlarged ; this view opposes 
at the same time the opinion that the water takes its origin in the 
Staked Plains of North-western Texas ; if this were the case they 
must contain not only the carbonate but also the sulphate of lime 
in considerable quantities, since gypsum is extensively diffused 

Passing now to the Highlands, which embrace the whole re- . 
maining part of Texas ; it is the largest but the least satisfactorily 
known. The tertiary formation is very little diffused, and hence 
the soil is mainly derived from primary and secondary deposits. 
Nowhere are found extensive tillable and continuous tracts as in 
the Hill-country; the good planting-ground is mostly confined to 
the river-bottoms and valleys ; only in particular counties are 
larger tracts of tillable land to be obtained. As already remarked, 
tin's high table-land is mostly rocky, dry, and sterile ; but owing 
to good meadow-grounds, it is particularly well ;i hpted to cattle- 
raising, which therefore is followed in a wry extensive manner. 

These Highlands have, however, for Texas a particular impor- 
tance in other respects; it is mainly there that mining will, in 
future, be prosecuted. 

As regards the evidences of mineral wealth, we need not, for 
known reasons, look for them in the surface of the Lowlands. 
The whole of the Hill-country encourages no hope of rich mineral 
treasures. Throughout this entire division, however, coal has 
been discovered in many places ; but, according to all scientific 
principles and personal observations, I must declare that there has 
been found no coal belonging to the genuine coal-formation ; but 
only such of the tertiary and secondary periods— the so-called 
lignite or brown coal. It is, also, nowhere found in extensive and 
vast deposits, rarely easy to work ; although that of the secondary 
division, as approaching nearer in age to genuine stone-coal, pos- 
sesses in a considerable degree the elements of fuel. In many 



382 Texas in its G cr, gnostic and Agricultural Aspect. [June, 

parts of the undulating Hill-country are found masses of petrified 
wood. As Roemer already correctly concluded, this belongs to 
the tertiary formation ; and we can, therefore, by this means de- 
cide with certainty upon its presence there. The immense pro- 
portion of silex in this formation has petrified the wood, instead 
of carbonizing it. 

On the bank-slopes of the Red river, near Shreveport, I found 
a layer one to two feet thick, which was half carbonized, and half 
petrified ; and in the same stratum lay large logs of cypress in a 
half carbonized and half petrified state. 

The large deposits of iron-ore in the tertiary formation of 
Eastern Texas may become of somewhat more importance than 
the coal in the Hill-country, but they by no means equal in value 
the ore-deposits of older origin. The iron is here found mainly 
. as iron sandstone, and in many counties, as in Henderson, Ander- 
son, etc., in such quantities that whole ranges of hills are formed 
of it ; and the region presents many times, by their rocks and the 
ravines between, a quite romantic character ; this is particularly 
the case with the so-called big rocks between Vanzandt and. Hen- 
derson counties. The tertiary formation is also rich in salt de- 
posits, and in many places the salt is successfully obtained from 
3alt-springs. In the iron regions we encounter in some places 
very strong mineral springs, especially sulphur-springs. They 
hold in combination much carburetted hydrogen gas and sulphu- 
ret of iron ; when they come to the surface, they liberate blackish 
gray and yellowish precipitates of sulphur and sulphuret of iron; 
but they do not come from any considerable depth like thermal 
springs, since they have nearly as low a temperature as the ordi- 
nary springs of the neighborhood. On the Neches river, as well 
as on the Sabine, I found larger deposits of a blackich-iron sand- 
stone, which was quite loose and brittle ; it holds iron mostly as 
sulphuret of iron. Owing to its slight coherency, the latter may, 
through several influences, be easily decomposed, and then on 
the one side give cause to the sulphur springs, and on the other 
to the sulphate of iron produced in that region. There are also 
many beds of clay, which contain alum, or bittersalt, and impart 
for this reason a strong taste to water; in particular places, in 
summer, there is seen in the bottom of tumblers, after the evapo- 
ration of the water, a white crust of this salt. Of greater impor- 
tance to mining in Texas are the Highlands. 



1 879.] Texas in its Geognostic and Agricultural Aspect. 383 

From the mouth of the Little Wichita into the Red river down 
to the Colorado river, where the Pecan bayou empties into the 
same, there lies, towards the west, a region about one hundred 
miles wide, that belongs to a much older mountain formation, the 
so-called coal or transition mountain. In this is found in abund- 
ance the copper-schist or the Permian system, as also the Silurian 
Shumard looked already upon this region as belonging to the 
coal-formation; and the organic remains which exist in the rocks 
speak most plainly; such are trilobites, fossil fishes of the families 
of Ganoids and sharks, and the imprints of the ferns with Equi- 
setaccous and other plants. I have found also in this formation 
various Mollusca, chiefly /> ?<,',/. '/ ,unl L iunL\ n-^nJ.wt 1, 
wholly petrified in the iron-ore, called sphaerosiderite. We 
find now and then, on the surface of this coal-formation, copper- 
ore, consisting mainly of malach lly penetrated 
in veins through sandstone; it is often several inches thick. 
There are also found immense masses of iron-ore in very many 
different conditions, lying around loose on the slopes, in ravines, 
and everywhere ; and especially those that appear most numer- 
ous, are the hematite and ironspar or sphaerosiderite; and 
which, it seems, have been taken by some persons for copper ; 
yet I have no doubt but that considerable copper and other 
ore deposits may still lie hidden in some deeper stratum. The 
different iron-ores contain, according to my analysis, twenty 
to seventy per cent, pure iron, and among them many spars, a 
little zinc, and traces of cadmium. If we compare these ores with 
those of other countries, it is apparent that they are among the 
best, and most easily reduced ; they are the same ores out of 
which nearly nine-tenths of all the iron in England is produced. 

From these geological and palaeontological facts, we are per- 
mitted with all certainty to conclude that, although hitherto no 
positive data have existed, there must be throughout this whole 
division large, extensive, and genuine coal-beds. In the geologi- 
cal State museum at Austin can be seen large pieces of genuine 
stone-coal, but without any precise information as to the place of 
discovery. 

Bismuth and antimony, it is claimed, have already also been 
found. Some time ago the newspapers gave information that a 
very rich silver mine had been discovered in Montague county ; 
but it may well be doubted whether this news is correct, and it may 



384 Texas in its Geognostic 0* ■ :ct. [June, 

have been published from interested motives. Gold, silver, lead, 
and molybdenum are, however, found in the previously mentioned 
primitive mountain formation of the Highlands, where in later 
times, in Llano county, a silver mine is said to have been put in 
operation. Westward of the coal-formation, particularly along 
Red river and in the Staked Plains, lie very large beds of gyp- 
sum; but the future must reveal to us how large treasures in 
metals lie in the still unknown regions of the west. 

If we cast a retrospective look over the whole, we may assert 
with all certainty that Texas is approaching a very promising fu- 
ture. It is a country in Which, on account of its fine and favor- 
able position, not only all the plants of the temperate zone flour- 
ish, but also many of those of the tropics. The wine-culture, to 
which many a State owes its prosperity, is yet in the germ ; but 
the results attained on a small scale hitherto, the great number of 
excellent wild grapes, as also the above-described constitution 
and combination of the soil, — are all speaking evidences of its 
adaptation to this noble fruit. 

Texas has its own pine-forests in the east, which will be fully 
adequate to supply the whole State with lumber, and to fence in 
the fields ; in the interior it has its own granary ; and when once 
her own hand has wrought her own iron with her own coal, then 
will she supply not only her own wants, but many of those of the 

Nowhere are there extensive swamps which makes residence 
unhealthy ; the country has also no sections which suffer from ex- 
cessive drouth. Winters have neither the northern cold, nor the 
summers the tropical heat ; and pleasant breezes throughout the 
whole summer keep the air continually, not only in a refreshing 
condition, but contribute much to the salubrity of the country. 
Though we may not have to point out lofty, romantic mountains, 
still there are regions highly favored by nature, particularly those 
about San Antonio and New Braunfels, with their mighty springs, 
and their ever clear and refreshing water, that are especially note- 
worthy ; which places, if they were lying on the sea, would justly 
be called the Texan Nice. 



1879.] Recent Literature. 385 

RECENT LITERATURE. 

Webster's Annelids of the Virginian Coast.— The worms 
of the coasts of North America have been sadly neglected by 
American naturalists. The annelid fauna of New England has 
been pretty thoroughly examined by Prof. A. E. Verrill, but with 
this exception, a few scattered descriptions by Stimpson and 
Leidy, and one or two others, comprise the whole literature of 
the subject. We have in Prof. H. E. Webster's Annelida Chaeto- 
poda of the Virginian coast, a valuable- contribution to the litera- 
ture of this group. In this pamphlet of seventy-two pages the 
author has enumerated fifty-nine species, representing forty-nine 
genera and twenty-three families, of which twenty-seven species 
and four genera {Lepidaiiietria, Aricida, Cabira and Phronia) are 
new. The work is illustrated by eleven lithographic plates in 
which the author's individuality has been preserved.— J. S. K. 

Rutley's Study of Rocks. 1 — This little work gives a very fair 
idea of lithology, as it is taught upon the European continent at 
the present time. It is for the English reading student the best 
and almost only source from which he can obtain an idea of 
modern lithology outside of the very few schools in which the 
subject is taught; Von Cotta's " Rocks Classified and Described " 
having been antiquated long before it was published. 

Mr. Rutley's book bears marked evidence that its author 
" crammed " for the occasion, and shows, if anything, less origin- 
ality than his published papers. Yet in spite of this " cramming" 
he seems to be ignorant even of the lithological literature of his 
own isle. It is to be considered as the work of a tyro, and not 
that of a master, like many of our ordinary text-books. The 
work is recommended to the American student because it is the 
only thing of its kind to be had, and hence is necessary to any 
student who cannot read German. 

Some of its defects are the lack of any mention of Des 
Cloizeaux's method of determining the feldspars, or of Pumpelly's 
ingenious modification of it; of Streng's method of distinguish- 
ing! nephelite from apatite, or of the monoclinic character of the 
micas as shown by Tschermak. 

On page 179 the remarkable statement is made that the feld- 
spars are the "principal rounded crystals in vitreous rocks.' 1 
His vitreous rocks are removed from the rocks of which they are 
the glassy modifications ; his trachytes range from sixty to 
eighty per cent, of silica, including both the Yhyolites and" the 
greater portion of the andesitcs ; chcrzolite and dunite are 
removed from their natural position ; in fact, his classification is 
about as much without form and void as he could well make it. 
ase I [67), he, as well as the Ger- 



386 Recent Literature. [June, 

mans, have utterly confounded, under one name, that which is a 
product of a cooling magma, and that which is a secondary altera- 
tion product in rocks. On page 274 he states that " Petrology 
becomes the study of an endless cycle of changes from eruptive 
to sedimentary, and from sedimentary to eruptive rocks." A 
cycle of which the last half is neither sustained by field or 
microscopic research, nor by physics. 

Such errors as picotite for pyrope (p. 141), chrysolite for 
chrysotile (p. 271) disfigure the work. Speaking of tridymite, on 
page 152, he says, "It has also been mentioned as occurring in 
some Irish rock, but the author is unable either to recall the pre- 
cise locality or to find the reference." 

Had he looked on the upper part of the same page 1 on which 
his own paper on tachylyte is published, to which he refers so 
often, he would have found it, as well as in numerous other scien- 
tific journals published in England and on the continent. — 
HI. E. W. 

Wright's Contributions to American Helminthology. 2 — 
In this paper of twenty-six pages and two plates, we have a valu- 
able addition to our knowledge of the parasitic worms, which 
have been studied in this country by Leidy, Wyman, Vcrrill, 
Packard, Minot and Fitz. Thirteen species are enumerated, of 
which five are new. One new genus {Sphyrani/ra) is proposed, 
while Leidy 's genus Cliuastamum is united with Distomum. In 
the descriptions of the species are included many anatomical facts; 
M mot's statement that the water vascular system and parenchyma 
spaces are connected in Distomum is confirmed. Some of the 

the urinary bladder of the musk-turtle ; Sphyrainira oslcri occurred 
in the mouth and gills of Menobranclms lateralis, Tccnia dispar in 
Kaua halecina. The round worm which was so prevalent in the 
shad last spring is referred by our author to Asearis adunca Rud. 
The two plates which illustrate the article are well drawn and 
printed.-.?. 5. K. 

Scientific Results of the Chesapeake Zoological Labora- 
tory M — The speedy publication and finished nature of the papers 
in this volume speaks well for the industry shown by those who 
worked at' this hastily equipped laboratory, and shows that 
elaborately constructed laboratories and expensive museums are 
not, from new and improved biological methods, essential to the 



1879. J Recent Literature. 387 

bered that Cuvier laid the foundations of his fame as a com- 
parative anatomist at out-of-the-way spots on different points of 
the coast of France ; Quatrefages made his most important 
researches on the coast in fishermen's houses, his tables of boards 
and his equipments most scanty. Better than elaborate and costly 
microscopes and laboratory apparatus is energy, industry and a 
mind well trained in the methods of research. All of these 
qualities are evinced in the publication before us, and is the result 
of workers trained in this country. 

The contents, of what we hope will be the first of a series of 
similar biological contributions from the summer workshop of 
Johns Hopkins University, is an introductory giving an account 
of the foundation of the laboratory, to which the readers of this 
journal have already had their attention drawn. This is followed 
by papers on the Land Plants found at Fort Wool, bv N. B. Web- 
ster; a list of animals found at Fort Wool, by P. R. Uhler; 
Development of Lingula, by W. K. Brooks ; Lucifer tyfms t by 
Walter Faxon; Development of Gastropods, by W. K. Brooks ; 
Development of Squilla, by W. K. Brooks. The paper on the 
early stages of Amphioxus, by H. J. Rice, has been delayed by 
the sickness of the author, and will be printed elsewhere at an 
early date. 

Without disparagement to the other essays, that on Lingula 
will excite the most interest from the nature of the subject. The 
author, after a careful and fully illustrated study of the early 
stages of this shelled worm, as all must now regard it since 
Morse's discovery of its true relationship, concludes that the 
Brachiopoda are the most highly specialized representatives of 
the Polyzoon branch, the Rotifera, Polyzoa, and Veliger (a gen- 
eralized form from which the different types of Mollusks are sup- 
posed to have diverged) having so separated at a very early period 
from a common vermian stem. " The three stems appear to be 
sufficiently closely related to each other, and sufficiently sharply 
distinguished from all other animals, to constitute by themselves 
one of the fundamental divisions of the animal kingdom, which 
might be called, on account of the conspicuous character of the 
trochal disc, the Trockifera." 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of the Geological 
Surveys of Pennsylvania for 1878.— This document of four 
pages was printed for the use of the members of the Legislature, 
and is signed by Governor Hartranft, chairman of the Board. It 
conveys the information that twenty-four counties have been com- 
pletely surveyed; thirty-one counties partially, and thirteen coun- 
ties not surveyed. Thus a little less than half of the area of the 
State in counties has been surveyed, although actually rather 
more than half of the ground has been gone over. The most ex- 
tensive continuous tract finished is that west of the Alleghenies 
and south of Crawford and Elk counties. The rapidity with which 



the work has been done is expressed in 
have been able to publish each year reports of the work done the 
preceding year, an achievement which is believed to have been 
seldom accomplished in the history of Geological Surveys." The 
report states that two additional years will be requisite for the 
completion of the Survey, for which an appropriation of $100,000 
is asked. On this we remark, that this request is a very modest 
one so far as the time required is concerned, and is probably 
made with the view of representing the survey in as economical 
a light as possible. The unfinished tract includes the most diffi- 
cult ground; and will require relatively more time than that 
which has been completed : moreover no one supposes that the 
region reported as finished, could not be further elaborated, 
with advantage to all the interests concerned. Again, the impor- 
tant department of palaeontology has received little attention from 
the Survey, the only work so far done relating to the plants of the 
coal-measures. There should surely be complete monographs of 
the plants of other horizons, of the very numerous invertefcratt 
and of the important remains of the verlebrata found at several 
horizons and various localities within the State. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets.— Haec-kel's Genesis of Man. By Lester F. 



.Journ.C 



. T. Bocourt. (From Am 
imbia. By Geo. M. D?% 



.lion of Eozoon. I!v |. \V 
Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. Feb. 1879-) 8vo, pp. 4^7, pi- in- v. ] 

Feb. 10th, 1S79. Svo. From the author. 



[879-] Recent Literature. 

879.f V 8vo! pp.°2. * Fmm the'author. 

m." i'S;.) S^pp. i. From the a iu hoi . 

Further Notes on th< Mo linnic il Gen. ^ of T. .th Forms. By Jor 

1W. Acad. Nat. Sci.) Sv.., pp. 47-51. Philadelphia, 1879. From t 

N FFhesoM nil »or, North Carolina. By Dav 

Delia Balena di Taranto confrontata conquell I > 11 Xn -va Zel nd , 
lei Prof. Coram. G. Capelli 



, 1879. 8vo, pp. 25-56. 



ientific Man. Vol. 1, No. 



Studi sui Ragni Males! e Papuan!. Per T. Thorell n. Genova, 1878. 
PP- 313. 

Traces of an Early Race in fapan. Bv Tvhvanl S. Morse. (Reprinted fron 



General Notes. 



i some Sections of Tri 



LesAr hni.les rle France. Par Eu-ene Simon. Tome quatrieme. Contenar 
xmille des Drassid*. Paris, 1S7S. Svo, pp. 336, 5 plates. 



-Vorte. " Leben ist die 



GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

Davenport's Catalogue of the Davenport Herbarium. 1 — 

This is a. catalogue of the Davenport Herbarium of North 

American Ferns of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 

which contains specimens of every authentic species of the ferns 



forty-two species. The catalogue is a valuable addition to our 
botanical literature, and also timely, as an unusual degree of 
interest is now bestowed by collectors to ferns. If all would 
pay as much attention to the young st i ;es m 1 s . :cific limits of 



1 879.] Botany. 391 

these beautiful plants as Mr. Davenport, and should this mode of 
study be extended to the higher plants, botanical science in this 
country would take a much higher stand than it now does, as 
collecting, cataloguing and the framing of local lists is but pre- 
liminary to the genuine study of the life-history, classification, 
genealogy and physiology of plants. 

Goodale's Concerning a few Common Plants. — This is a 
small i6mo of 61 pages, issued as one of the Guides for Science 
Teaching, published by the Boston Society of Natural History. 
It is used by the teachers of the public schools of Boston, who 
to the number of five hundred attend the Teachers' School of 
Science of this popular society. The present little work is a most 
successful effort to induce teachers to qualify themselves for 
giving to their pupils a series of object lessons in eleinentary 
botany. 

Allen's Charace.e American^.— This is the first part of what 
will prove a most useful monograph of our American Charas. It 
is published by the author, Dr. Timothy F. Allen, 10 E. 36th 
street, New York. A colored plate and a page of text form 
Part 1. 

Botanical News.— The Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 
for January and February contains a synopsis of discoveries and 
researches', in 1878, on fresh-water A!g;e, by F. Wolle. In the 
March number Prof. Eaton describes a new Hawaiian fern, and 
Arthur Hollick contributes a few notes on the abnormal absence 

of color in plants. In the Botanical Gazette for April, J. D. 

Smith records the occurrence of a tropical plant, Op 
palmatum, on the west coast of Florida; Mr. C. F. Austin de- 
scribes a number of new mosses. The number for May contains, 
among others, Notes on some rare plants, by W. Canby ; On yel- 
low snow, by T. C. Porter, and Descriptions of some new mosses, 

by C. F. Austin. Notes on Californian fungi, by M. C. Cooke, 

appear in Grevillea for March. Trimen's Journal of Botany for 

April, contains an article on the sources of Chinese matting, by 

H. F. Hance. The relation of forests to rainfall is discussed 

by Prof. J. E. Todd in the Iowa Horticultural Report for 1878. 
He believes with others that the growth of trees may increase the 
rainfall, and does not fear that the future forests of Iowa will ever 
seriously suffer from drouth. We have received from Dr. Her- 
mann Mi'illera pamphlet giving farther observations on the fer- 
tilization of flowers by insects. (Extracted from the Trans, of 
the Natural History Society of Prussian Rheinlands and West- 
phalia, xxxv, Bd. v.) 



General Notes. [June, 

ZOOLOGY. 1 

Unios. — The following synonomy is based upon 
series ot shells received from Prof. Witter, Muscatine, Iowa, and 
Dr. J. Schneck, Mt. Carmel, 111., purporting to be Unto nasttfiiS, 
That both series represented the same species was beyond doubt, 
but that it was U. nasutus was as plainly to be doubted. From 
obvious resemblances they were compared with U. nashvUL fists 
Lea, and U. uiississippit ns \ Con , and the sc\ <. ml sci ies were found 
to be identical, and it was further established that none of them 
were U. nasutus. The comparison was based upon the position and 
form of the cicatrices, the size, position and angulation of the 
teeth, crenulation of the lateral teeth, color of the nacre and of 
the epidermis (after treatment with oxalic acid to remove ferru- 
ginous matter). Then came the query, " which is which ?" The 
western collectors all call the shell U. nasutus, which is evidently 
incorrect. Nasutus is a fiat, slender shell, and, like U. complan- 
atns, belongs to the Atlantic slope, though both Mr. Lea and Mr. 
Say assert that " ; ;,. • rn waters." 

Mr. Le 

sible solutic 
7iasntus inhabits the ^ 
have been described by him (Mr. Say) for suhrostratus." Here £ 
thought suggested itself that both Mr. Lea and Mr. Conrad had 
described a ue:u spirit's, varieties of Say's old. a' suhrostratus. In 
my perplexity the shells were submitted to my friend Dr. Lewis,- 
of Mohawk, N. Y., for further study and correction. We com- 
pared them with Say's description of suhrostratus, with typical 
series of the other species mentioned above, and they were pro- 
nounced by him to be identical. Subsequent to this, after my ar- 
rival again East, Dr. Lewis writes (May 17, 1878), " I have got to 
the bottom of the synonomy of the shells you had from Dr. 
Schneck. He and many of the western collectors call the shell 
wrongly U. nasutus Say.' It is U. suhrostratus Say. Add to it the 
synonomy of U. nashvillensis Lea, and of U. mississippiensis Con., 
and you have it all complete." He further says, " Mr. Lea makes 
suhrostratus a synonomy of iris. Lea followed Say, who was in 

Say's suhrostratus. therefore, stands as a good species, and, 
because of its priority of publication (1831), we must write as its 
synonyms U. nashril'lensis Lea, and ( T . mississippiensis Con. 

There is a marked difference in the outline of the shell in the 
sexes of all these species. Nor is this difference without marked 
prominence in the same sex, which, as Gegenbauer has shown 
(Comp. Anat, p. 318), must be regarded as caused by the relative 
positions of the various organs. Every one, who has dissected 
any great number of Unios, knows full well the differences in rela- 
te departments of Ornithology and Mammalogy are conducted by Dr. Elliott 
Coues, U. S. A. 



1 379] Zoology. 393 

tive position of the various organs. It is more than probable 
that these differences result in a modification of function, and of 
so marked a nature that the external characters may be sensibly 
changed. 

Notwithstanding the work already done in the direction of 
synonomy, when a more complete knowledge of the anatomy of 
Unio is attained, and more is known of the modifications due to 
range and station, the number of species names will be sensibly 
diminished. This work will lie almost wholly in the line of thei'r 
o >mparati\ e anatomy and cmbry< >!o: ; "v. \< ;t • ai< '<,)•;;;. m.but all, mast 
receive their due attention, then the external expression of these 
organs will be far more clearly comprehended.— P. Ellsworth Call. 
f the Imported Cabbage-worm.— 
1 treating of this insect, I remarked, 
" There is every reason to fear that it may some day get a foot- 
hold in our midst," after showing that it was then confined to 
certain restricted parts of Canada and New England, and had not 
spread west of New York. It has been making further progress 
westward every season since. The past year it has done consid- 
erable damage as far west as Chicago, and I have also received 
good testimony that it was observed around St. Louis. I have 
given my reasons, in the report referred to, for believing that it 
will prove much more disastrous to the cabbage-fields around St. 
Louis than the Southern cabbage-worm (Puns frotodia), which 
has always been with us, and has done, at times, considerable 
damage, and I refer those who wish to be prepared with a full 
knowledge of the habits of this species, to that same report. 

As remedies, few liquids will prove more effectual than hot- 
water, judiciously applied, though one pound of whale-oil soap 
dissolved in about six gallons of water, or even strong tar-water 
may be used to advantage. The application should be made 
■several times during the year, as it will be most effectual when 
the worms are young. 

As preventive measures, the worms may be induced to trans- 
form under flat pieces of board laid upon any object that will 
raise them about an inch from the surface of the ground." These 
boards should be examined every week, and the transforming 
! ' ll ' v ' 1 ' °'- the chrysalids destroyed.' The butterflies may also be 
captured by hand-nets and prevented from laying their eggs. — 
Prof. C. V. Riley before the Mo. State Hort. Soc., Jan. 1879. 

Parthenogenesis in the Honey-bee.— In the article in the 
April American NATURALIST, p. 261, copied from the Comptcs 
Rciulus, we have illustrated the danger of hasty generalization. 
The writer of the article suggests that the " Dzicrzon Theory " 
rests on insufficient observation. This is far from the truth. The 
closest observation not only by German but also by many Ameri- 
can apiarists, not only of one queen and her progeny, as was the 



394 General Notes. [June, 

case with the author of the article, but of hundreds, has placed 
Dzierzon's theory on a certain basis. The writer says, referring 
to his single hive, " from this it is evident that the drone eggs, 
like those of the females, receive the contact of the semen 
deposited by the male in the female organs." 

It is well known that virgin queens will lay eggs that will pro- 
duce exclusively male bees. I have seen several such cases. I 
have known queens reared late in autumn to pass the winter as 
virgins and ever after to produce only male bees. Deformity of 
the queen, or clipping her wing while yet a virgin, so that she 
may be unable to take the " marriage flight," precludes mating, 
and as surely makes a " drone laying queen." Old queens with 
shriveled spermathecas are often drone layers. 

How did the writer know his queen in -question was not a 
hybrid ? He could not know. Many hybrid queens are to all 
appearance perfectly pure. Again, how did the writer know that 
the drones were hybrids or blacks ? Frequently the drones of 
our queens imported right from Italy, like the queens, are almost 
as dark as the drones of the German race, yet the three banded 
workers show the queen to be pure. One case alone, however 
striking, should not be regarded as fatal to so well established a 
theory. The case given, so far as given, is no evidence against 
parthenogenesis of the drone bees.— A. J. Cook. 

Perez' paper in the Annates des Sciences Natnrelles for April, 
1878 (only just received), is followed by one published in June, 
1878, by A. Sanson, who thinks that Perez goes too far in quali- 
fying the insufficiency of the observations of Dzierzon, and who 
has not given the most exact interpretation to his own (Perez) 
observations. The view that the honey bee is parthenogenetic is 
confirmed by the fact that a number of other insects are produced 
from unfertilized eggs; besides Mr. Sanson believes that the 
hybrids produced in Perez' hive were the result of the action of 
the law governing the reproduction of hybrids of all kinds, in the 
different branches of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and 
which recognizes ancestral influences, atavism, the reversion to 
characters not existing in the immediate parents. In truth, the 
queen manifested the law of heredity which is observed in all 
hybrids. She had the external characters of the pure Italian, at 
least those of color ; coupling with a brown male the eggs it laid 
gave birth to workers of varied characters such as exist in all 
hybrids. Sanson also criticises adversely the views of Gerard 
based on the observations of Perez. Gerard admits that in the 
hive examined by Perez, there were workers which laid eggs. 
Sanson doubts whether careful observations would have shown 
the co-existence in this hive of fertile queens and workers. — 
Editors Naturalist. 

The Anatomy of the Ant 



1 879.] Zoology. 395 

tions of Drs. Chapman and Parker of Philadelphia. Dr. Chap- 
man dissected a young gorilla which belongs to the Museum of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, and a young chimpanzee 
which had been living in the Zoological Gardens of that city. 
The observations on the gorilla relate chiefly to the muscular and 
circulatory systems. Dr. Chapman found in the anterior limb a 
distinct extensor primi internodii pollicis muscle, but no trace of 
flexor longus pollicis. He also observed an artery not previously 
described, which is given off from the femoral from the middle of its 

inner aspect of the foot. While admitting that this vessel may 
be anomalous, its size and importance, and presence on both sides, 
lead Dr. Chapman to propose for it the name of the long saphen- 
ous artery. The same writer, in his observations on the brain of 
the chimpanzee, finds that the posterior lobe of the cerebral hem- 
isphere does not cover the cerebellum, in accordance with the 
view of Professor Owen. Dr. Parker's investigations lead him 
on the other hand to the opinion that the posterior lobes do 
cover the cerebellum as stated by Prof. Huxley. 

On a Difference between the Rana esculent a and other 
species of Batrachians. — In July, 1877, while engaged in a 
series of experiments on the effect of dry and moist heat on 
animals previously subjected to various operations, I found that 
not one of my frogs responded to dry heat applied to any portion 
of the skin. The application was made with a red or white-hot 
metal rod. This was so surprising a result that it seemed very 
probable that it depended on some peculiarity of the Batrachians 
experimented upon. The observations were made on the Rami 
clamitans and it, ally, A', pi picas, and were continued unconnectedly 
until June, 1878, up to which time I had not found a frog in whom 
the heated rod acted as a sensory irritant. Burning the sensory 
nerves failed to produce any movements, the motor nerves how- 
ever were excitable for this' method of irritation. 

After my return to Geneva, in July, these experiments were 

some Rana temporaria were obtained from Berne. These were 
found to be very sensitive to dry heat. This sensitiveness 
remained when the heated rod was applied underneath the skin. 
The nerves also were very readily excited by dry heat. At the 
same time the Rami I'sat/iiita from the same locality were so 
insensible to dry-heat th.it they would allow themselves, though 
free to move, to be burned to a crisp in the reducing flame. The 
same experiment could not be made with a Rana temporaria, as 
these animals jumped away as soon as the heat became uncom- 
fortable. These observations were found to hold good of annuals 
without as well as of those with brain and medulla oblongata; of 
those in whom the skin had been dried as well as in those in 
which this organ was moist ; in females as well as in males. 



396 General Notes. [June, 

Hyla viridis, nita were all 

sensitive to dry-heat applied to the skin or sensory nerves. 

The frogs examined in September gave the same result as 
those examined previously. In the beginning of October, in sev- 
eral R. temporaria the skin was found to be no longer sensitive to 
dry heat, the sensory nerves, however, remained sensitive to this 
irritant. The Rana esculenta were as in the previous month. 

The first week of November the temperature was almost con- 
tinually below the freezing point. On examining the sensitive- 
ness for heat, I found that the Rana esculenta had become quite 
sensitive to impressions of heat. The frogs of the temporafi* 
species had at the same time their sensibility for this irritant 
greatly reduced. At this time I received, through the kindness 
of my friend Mr. Richard Lomer. who assisted me in quite a 
number of my experiments, a number of frogs from Heidelberg. 
At Heidelberg Mr. Lomer found that the skin of the Rana escu- 
lenta could be irritated by dry heat, while that of the Rana tem- 
poraria could not. 

Immediately on their arrival these frogs were examined, and 
both varieties were found to be sensible to heat, though the frogs 
of the esculenta species responded much slower than the tempo* 
raria. At the moment of writing (Nov. 23d) almost all the Rem* 
esculenta are insensible to heat. They become sensitive to this 
agent when their brain has previously been destroyed. Though 
this is true of the terminations of the sensory nerves in the skin, 
it is not true of the nerve trunks, these always remaining 
insensible. 

All the varieties of Batrachians that I have thus far examined, 
appear to be sensible to moist heat from 35 ° C. upwards. 

As it is impossible for me to continue these observations on 
but a very limited number of Batrachians, it would afford me 
great pleasure were any of the readers of the American Natu- 
ralist, many of whom have such excellent opportunities for such 
researches, inclined to assist me in these investigations. It would 
be of great interest to know in all these examinations the locality, 
the time of the year and the temperature of the surrounding 
atmosphere in which the experiments are made.— B. F. Lauten- 
bach, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 23, 1878. 
ANTHROPOLOGY. l 

Anthropological Nkws. — The third number of the American 
An'iir.iarian contains the following papers: Native American 
Architecture, by E. A. Barber; The phonetic elements in Ameri- 
can languages, byJ3r. J. A. Farquharson ; The inscribed stone at 
Grave Creek mound, by Prof. M. C. Read ; Traces of Bible facts 
in the traditions of all nations, by Rev. Stephen D. Feet ; Myth- 
ological text in the Klammath language, with comments by A. 

> Edited by Prof. Otis T. Mason, Columbian College, Washington, D. C. 



1S79] Anthropology. 397 

S. Gatschet. Nearly one-half of the number is occupied with 
correspondence and notes that are quite as valuable as the 
more extended articles, if the authors of the latter will pardon us. 
It should be well understood that very few of our special periodi- 
cals are paying expenses. In order to keep them alive, therefore, 
the friends of that branch of knowledge must make sacrifices to 
sustain them. So let it be with the Antiquarian. 

We have received from the author, Mr. John Campbell, M. A., 
Montreal, a pamphlet entitled, " The affiliation of the Algonquin 
languages." The paper is supplemented with a linguistic chart 
showing the supposed affiliation of the Algonquin tongues with 
the Malayo-polyenesian, Ural-altaic, Asiatic-hyperborean and 
Peninsular languages. 

The volume containing the report of the forty-fourth session of 
the Congres Archeologique de France, held at Senlis, in 1877, is 
devoted principally to that branch of archaeology which is out- 
side of our area. There are a f 
on the prehistoric archaeology of France which will pay the 

The first and the second fasciculus of the Bulletins of the 
Societe d Anthropologic de Paris, for the year 1878, contain very 
valuable matter of general import. 

On page 13 Paul Bert speaks of barometric pressure as a fac- 
tor in civilization, on the occasion of presenting his book entitled: 
La Pression Barometrique, recherches de physiologie ex'per- 
imentale. 

On page 56 is a communication, by M. Coudereau, upon the 
precocity of development in relation to nourishment. At the 
close of the article is a series of questions which M. Condereau 
proposes to be put in the hands of travelers. 

The article by Dr. P. Topinard on the insertion of the hair of 
negroes in tufts is as interesting as it is original. We make a few 
extracts from it. " The fundamental division of the human races 
into two branches rests, by common consent, upon the character- 
istics of the hair; of this classification Bory de Saint- Vincent is 
the author. The first branch contains the races with straight 
hair, the second, the races with woolly hair." 

There is a subdivision of the second branch made by M. 
Haeckel, and generally accepted. It depends upon the manner 
in which the woolly hair is distributed over the surface of the 
body and more particularly of the head. In one case their inser- 
tion is continuous, like the straws in a field of wheat. In the 
other it occurs in bouquets, or isolated tufts, having between them 
free spaces where the skin is glabrous. M. Haeckel calls 'the 
former eriocomi, the latter lophocSmi. The origin of this character, 
of such great importance, if it is true, goes back to Barrow, at 
the commencement of this century. The Hottentots, said he, 
have hair of a singular nature; it does not cover the head totally, 



398 General Notes. [June, 

but is in little tufts a small distance from one another. When 
they cut it short it resembles a shoe-brush, with this difference 
that the tufts are twisted into little knots the size of a pea. The 
same assertion is made by travelers concerning other negro races. 

But as far as my observation goes, the character according to 
which M. Haeckel and others cut into two subdivisions, the grand 
branch of negroes does not exist at all. Among all the negroes 
the hair grows uniformly upon the surface of the head and of the 
body. Among all there are tufts. But these tufts are not indi- 
cated upon the skin. The hair of the negro varies in aspect more 
than 'people ordinarily imagine, as Hombron was one of the first to 
remark. It is presented under three principal forms, between 
which there are all soil groups. 

The first is the typical form, which characterizes most generally 
the inferior negro races, to which the Hottentots belong ; it is the 
arrangement of the hair called " grains of pepper." This appear- 
ance is produced by the shortness, the turns of the spirals being 
very close and giving rise to very narrow coils or rings, perhaps 
2-4 millimetres; by the hairs being very numerous; and finally, 
by the total abandonment of the hair to itself. 

The second is in the form of locks twisted in curls, small or 
targe, from 6-8 millimetres in diameter; locks which one might 
speak of as tufts, but much elongatt d, at times reaching 25 centi- 
metres (Fritsch). Evidently Barrow meant this, when speaking 
of certain Hottentots, " when they let their hair grow, it falls on 
the neck in twisted tassels, somewhat like fringe," this form and 
the preceding Bonwick observed among the Tasmanians. 

The third form is presented in the shape of a cushion or com- 
pact mat, more or less large, elastic, returning to its original curl 
when compressed with the hand. It is a distribution of the hair 
in which the spirals are mixed, confounded without the least ap- 
pearance of order. It is encountered most frequently in the 
negro races with long hairs and at the same time with less savage 
races who take some pains with their toilet. It is in this form 
that we meet these bizarre coiffures, described by travelers among 
the Caffres, Mpongwes, Somalis, Papuans, etc. 

These same hairs, sufficiently abandoned to themselves, return 
to the preceding form with more or less facility. 

Finally, taking into account my own experience, and after at- 
tentively reading the travels describing the Hottentots, Papuans. 
and other negroes, I conclude that the division of the woolly- 
haired races by M. Haeckel into hplwcomi and criocomi is without 
foundation. On page 94 will be found the report of a committee 
consisting of MM. Bordier, Topinard and Bertillon, to examine 
a negro in one of the hospitals. 



1879] Geology and Paleontology. 399 

GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY. 

The Tertiary Eruptive Rocks. — The trachytic formation is 
a most interesting one, but also very complicated. Hungary 
may be considered as the cradle of our notions respecting it since 
the time of Beudant. Richthofen imported the classification to 
California as it was established about eighteen years ago, based 
chiefly on habitus-characters. The geologists of the Vienna 
school have continued the study of it, and about some twelve 
years ago they published the geological map of Hungary too, 
also showing the considerable progress made since the departure 
of Richthofen. 

The geologists of the 40th parallel have accepted as a base the 
classification of Richthofen, but with some alterations suggested 
by Zirkel; and that is about the classification adopted by Endlich 
and the other geologists of Prof. Hayden's staff, with the only 
differ, nee that they have abandoned the propylite. 

Owing to the method employed, the petrographical part, as 
regards the feldspars, the true base of classification is incomplete: 
firstly, the plagioklastie feldspars are not distinguished specially; 
secondly, every glassy feldspar has been taken for (potash) sani- 
dine, which is not the case. 

In Hungary and some adjacent countries, the trachytes have 
been the object of my detailed studies nearly since Richthofen's 
time. I commenced as field-geologist, and have continued as 
such, but making the aid of petrography serviceable to my field- 
work. I came to the conviction that those two branches of inves- 
tigation are contributing to the appreciation of the true nature of 
the eruptive rocks in a surprising manner; the mineralogical 
association also agreeing with the chronology of the eruptive 

If you have no objection I will give a sketch of my classifica- 
tion of the Tertiary eruptive rocks : 

1. Basalt, Leucitite. 

2. Augite— Anorthite, Trachyte (no quartz, no biotite). This in 
its normal state is the porphyre trachytique of Beudant, the 
andesite of Ruch, the augite of German geologists; in its modi- 
fied state it can take up the habitus of greenstone (augite propy- 
lite), and in other circumstances it may become basaltic, but it is 
never rhyolitic. 

3. Biotite— Aniphibolc-labradontc Trachyte. Without or with 



u l> the gi u ■•.pylite.i.or the basaltic, and very 

. the rhyolitic modification. 
In some Hungarian trachytes of this type the garnet occurs in 
the mineralogical association, apparently replacing the lime-feld- 



400 General Notes. [June, 

spar. Of two labradorite-trachytes of the same country, the one 
being with, the other without garnet, the latter is younger. 

4. Biotitc-AmphibfL Andcsin (aligoclasc) Trachyte. Without or 
with quartz, without or with augite. 

In its normal state it may belong partly to the " echter trachyt," 
or to the amphibole-andesite ; in its modified state it passes in 
some cases to greenstone (propylite), rarely to basalt (oligoclase 
basalt), but by taking up a pearlitic and sphaerulitic structure, 
often to rhyolite. 

5. Biotite Ortlioclase (plagioclasc) Trachyte. Without or with 
quartz ; without or with amphibole. 

In a normal state it may have the appearance of syenite or 
granite; in its modifications the rhyolitic in flu highest degree 
(pearlite, pitchstone, obsidian) is often met with. 

In Hungary volcanic activity also ended in an outburst of ba- 
salt, and it is convenient to give to it a special color on the map, 
though its formation maybe regarded as an episode accompan) ing 
nearly every one of the four periods, so that not only the augite- 
anorthite trachyte has been followed by a basaltic outflow, but 
after the close of the biotite labr. trachyte eruption, an outburst of 
basalt took place also, in which some of the associated minerals 
of this trachytic type may be recognized; and so there may have 
been basaltic eruptions at the end of the biotite-andesite, and 
rarely of the orthoklase trachyte too ; but such distinctions not 
being observable in the field, the custom of uniting them in the 
geological map' is to be maintained. 

The leucitite is closely allied with the orthoclase-trachyte ; in 
Italy it is always to be found in the region of orthoclase-trachyte. 
It is a kind of basic modification of the biotite orth. olig. trachyte. 
It can be colored as basalt with some additional mark. 

The greenstone modification has been produced originally by 
solfitaric, and subsequently by metamorphic and still existing ac- 
tion. The rhyolite is the modification of an older acid-trachyte, 
in most cases of the biotite orth. olig. trachyte (with or without 
quartz), produced by submarine activity of a newer basic trachyte 
breaking up under it. The orthoclase being more easily fusible 
than the labradorite or the (nearly) infusible anorthite, and having 
the property, of forming very fusible hydrosilicates much more 
easily than all the plagioclastic feldspars, is converted into the 
glassy hydrated compounds (rhyolites). Every rhyolite indicates 
the contact with a younger trachyte of a more basic character, in 
most cases with the augite-trachyte. The rhyolites may be of a 
different age, because every one of the three younger trachytic 
periods can have produced this modification; but the most char- 
acteristic pearlites and obsidians have, of course, been formed in 
the newest period of the trachytic eruption. 

In such regions, where after the outflow of biotite orth. trachyte 
no new eruptions ensued, no rhyolite is to be found ; the biotite 



1 879.] Geology and Palceontology. 40 1 

orth. trachyte occurs in its normal porphyritic, syenitic or granitic 

On the map the greenstone-trachyte (propylite) and the rhyo- 
lite, as important habitus-characters, are to be signalized by a 
secondary mark on the respective trachytes. 

The chronological order has been established by means of the 
sedimentary formations formed wholly or partly by trachytic 
ejections, aided by the breaking of younger trachytic masses 
through older ones, in which case in 'the region of contact the 
minerals of two different types may be found mingled. 

The trachytic types as enumerated according to their order of 
basicity, exhibit at the same time also the chronological series of 
the eruptions. The limits of time for the trachytic formation in 
Hungary are the following : 

1. The eruption of the augite-anorthite trachyte took place in the 

Upper Miocene (Sarmatische Stufe). 

2. The biotite-amphibole labradorite trachyte corresponds to the 

Middle Miocene (Mediterranean Stufe). 

3. The bioli: appeared during the 

Lower Miocene. 

4. The biotite orthoclase trachyte is the product of the beginning 

of the trachytic cyclus of eruption during the Upper Eocene. 
For the field-geologist, who visits a country for the first time, 

contented with a general one, but one which should still be in ac- 
cordance with the former, lie ma}' arrive at that by means of 
some microscopical minerals, some habitus properties, aided in 
many cases even by panoramic characters of the single trachytic 
types, all that being taken into consideration not only on the 
eruptive rocks themselves, but also on the sediments containing 
trachytic fragments. 

Two classes are easily distinguish -d : th ■ ugil -trachyte and 
the biotite-amphibole trachyte ; the former is the younger, the lat- 
ter the older. Since the time of Beudant, the " trachyte micasse 
amphibolique " has maintained itself and is well characterized by 
the microscopical minerals mentioned. 

With the aid of rhyolites three classes can be established: 
the oldest trachyte being the biotite orthoclase (quartz) trachyte. 
The presence of pearlite and other glassy modifications involves 
two distinct types of trachytes; the rhyolite is the transformation 
of the older acid type by a younger one of a more basic feldspar, 
which remains in some cases concealed under the cover of the 
rhyolite, while in other instances it breaks through it. On the 
line of contact the highest degree of rhyolithism is perceptible, 
while with the increasing distance the normal state is more and 
more preserved. 

The general features of these three classes are so prominent, 
that once acquainted with them, they are to be discovered every- 



402 General Notes. [Ju 

where, notwithstanding the varieties 
less, but which do not exercise any ii 
ters needed for the above classification. 

The order of eruptions is the same not only in Hungary, but 
down southward as far as to the region of the active volcanoes of 
Italy and Greece. Velain has found it so on the isle of Reunion ; 
Professor Heddle Forster informs me, that in the Tertiary volca- 
nos of the Hebrides the first out-flow is a granitic rock with ortho- 
clase, the second an augitic rock with labradorite, the third amyg- 
daloids and basalt with labradorite. The admirable work just 
issued, "Santorin et ses eruptions," by Fouque, confirms this 
order also for that volcanic island ; the amphibol-labradorite, more 
acid rocks are older, the augite labradorite-anorthite more basic 
nicks younger. 

There is no doubt, that the trachytes cf the Rocky Mountains 
will follow the same law; but as regards the limits of time, the 
cyclus of eruption may exhibit a difference in the relative age. 

corresponding to distinct volcanic basins, formed in different times 
As regards the cyclus of trachytic eruptions in Hungary, and in 
the western part of the United States, there are many indications 
that lead me to adopt the opinion that our cyclus antedates yours. 

In order to enable us to pursue more extensive comparative 
studies, descriptions are not sufficient; the objects must be seen 
too, at least samples of rocks should be at our disposal. You are 
very generous and liberal, whenever the interests of science are in 
question ; may I ask you to let me have some of your duplicates 
of typical rocks. 

We have in Hungary a beautiful series of pliocene, miocene 
and eocene rocks, and so the age of eruptions can be well settled. 
Your scries seems far from being so clear, and so complete, the 
connection between the trachytic series and the sedimentary for- 
mations is consequently not so evident. 

I should like very much to have samples of your marine clays 
and sands of miocene and eocene also. Professor Hantken. the di- 
rector of the Hungarian Geological Institut at Budapest, is the spe- 
cialist for the nummuiites, orbitoides ,-uid Foraminifera generally. 
It would be very good for science, if he could have an opportunity 
to make comparative investigations ; while on the other hand, I 

them.—/)/ 7> >!> S r > /'■ / ' U i ami (,, ' ;i " tin Uni- 
versity of Budapest. {Extract from a letter to Prof. Hay den) 

New Jurassic Dinosauiua. — A second species of Camarasaurus^ 
from the Jurassic of Colorado, is indicated by three cervical ver- 
tebrae, and probably by other remains in my collection. The 
dimensions of these specimens are a little less than that of the 
largest neck vertebras of the Camarasaurus supretnus, but the 
average length is not very different. The proportions are charac- 



1 879.] Geology and Paleontology. 403 

teristic. The centrum is little depressed, the vertical and trans- 
verse diameters of the cup being nearly equal. The form is thus 
much more slender than in the C. snpra/nts, indicating a neck 
somewhat like that of the Trionyches or Chelodince. 

The parapophyses descend backward- ami downwards from the 
edge of the anterior ball ; they are much shorter than the dia- 
pophyses, which are decurved. The side of the centrum and coos- 
sified base of the neural arch are excavated by a large fossa, which 
is somewhat subdivided. A smaller fossa is in front of it above 
the parapophysis. Still another divides the posterior base of the 
neurapophysis, on each side of the neural arch. The 






EXPLANATION 1 


OF CUTS. 






Cervical vertebra of 


Camarasam 




■us, one-ten 


th natural size. 


I, right 






urfaee. I'i 








2 and 3 from another.' 












zygapophyses sur 


>port a str. 


ong supc 




t, and their superior 


edges converge 1 












spine at or postc 


ri ,rt. th. 




'of the 1 


ength of the 




arch, as is the cas 


e in //-, 


tcrias an 


iplcxus. 


The externa 


! bases 


of the zygapoph} 




xavated 


deeply. 


Length of c 


entrum 


m. .430 ; vertical 


diameter 


of cup, 


.140; tt 


ansverse do. 


, .160; 



404 General Notes. [June, 

expanse of diappphysis, .380 ; of posterior zygapophyses, .450 ; 
elevation of do., .250; elevation of do. with crest, .360. The 
species is named Co. 'rasa s kptodir.us. 

Bones of an allied species recently received from Colorado, re- 
present a most gigantic animal. The transverse diameter of the 
cervical vertebra is fifty-six inches, and that of the distal end of 
the femur, twenty-one inches. 

A species of the carnivorous Dinosaurian genus Hr 
has lately been received from another locality, which adds con- 
siderably to our knowledge of it. Vertebrae, limb bones and 
teeth found together, confirm the correctness of my supposition 
as to the true affinities of the genus. 1 The animal obtained is 
about the size of the / The dorsal vertebrae 

display the zygapophysial mass greatly elevated on a stem which 
has a quadrate section, with anterior and posterior grooves. 
There is no hyposphenal articulation. The diapophyses are wider 
than deep, ar ly upwards from the superior mar- 

gins of the zygapophyses, and have a prominent anterior superior 
border ; the neural spine is short and compressed. The centrum 
is amphiplatyan and moderately compressed at the middle. The 
caudal vertebrae are not very elongate, and have a compressed 
hexagonal section. The chevron facets are on produced bases. 
- of the teeth are less compressed than 
id species, and have two denticulate ec 
sal centrum m. .100; vertical diameter of < 
diameter of do., .073 ; elevation of postzygapophyses from cen- 
trum, .122 ; elevation of neural spine above centrum, .292 ; length 
of diapophyses below, .130; length of a caudal centrum, .048; 
depth in front .050; distal width of femur, .250. I name this 
species in honor of my friend Professor Seel< 
leyanus.—E, D. Cope. 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 2 
African Exploration. — To the account given in our last num- 
ber of the various expeditions engaged in explorations on the 
western coast of Africa, we have now to add these further details. 
M. le Comte de Semelle who started from Fernando Po in May, 
1878, to explore the upper Niger and Benue, returned to that set- 
tlement on February 13th, last, and has forwarded an account of 
his discoveries to Europe. 

M. Soleillet has also been obliged to return to St. Louis, Senegal 
from Sego on the Niger, in consequence of the refusal of the 
Sultan of Sego to allow him to pass through his territory. 

The Athenccum (April 12, 1S7S; gives the following astronomi- 
cal observations taken by M. de Brazza, Okanda's residence 
amongst the Bateke, i° 34' 59" S., n° 59' 48" E.; Obemba, an 

1 This journal, Fd>. 23, 1S78 (March number). 
■ Edited by Ellis H. Yarnall, Philadelphia. 



1 879.] Geography and Travels. 405 

Apfuru village, i° 31' 40" S.; deserted spot, 0° 14' N, 12° 17' 
30" E.; Nghimi, i° 3/ 56" S., 1 1° 23' E. The places are in the 
basin of the Ogowe with the exception of Obemba which is in 
that of the Congo. Four rivers crossed between 1° 30' S. and o° 
30' N. latitude flow eastward. Obemba is on the Alima, a pow- 
erful river which was navigated down to 12° 32'. The longitudes 
are reckoned from Paris. 

Turning now to the eastern coast of the " Dark Continent," 
we find still more to record in the researches and enterprises 
undertaken both by scientific and religious societies. A survey- 
is being made by the Portuguese for a "railroad from the Delagoa 
bay to the Transvaal. The opening of the road from Dar-es-Sa- 
laam to lake Nyassa is progressing favorably. In December forty 
miles of the route had been traced out and no serious difficulties 
encountered. The dreaded tsetse-fly does not prevail in this re- 
gion and bullocks and donkeys were employed in the work. Mr. 
Keith Johnston and his companion Mr. Thomson arrived at Zan- 
zibar on the 5th of January. During a short detention at Aden 
the latter made an exploratory trip to Somali-! m 1 aid he has sent 
a paper to the Royal Geographical Society containing an account 
of the region and its inhabitants, and of the geology and physical 
geography of the neighborhood. Mr. Johnston has engaged 
Chuma, Livingstone's favorite attendant, as headman in the jour- 
ney to Nyassa. Since the death of his old master, Chuma has 
had much experience of travel in the country east of Nyassa. 

For recent additions to our knowledge of that lake and its sur- 
roundings we are indebted to reports in the London Academy. 
It states that at a meeting of the Society of Arts a paper by Mr. 
Cotterill " On the Opening out of the Districts to the North of 
Lake Nyassa," was read, in which this country, walled in by the 
great Kondi mountains — believed to be more than 12,000 feet 
high — is spoken of as among the most beautiful and fertile tracts 
in Africa. Only among the Himalayas is scenery found at all 
comparable to that of the Kondi country. Mr. Johnston is espec- 
ially instructed to examine this range of mountains thoroughly, 
their elevation, extent, the passes through them, etc. It consti- 
tutes the water-parting of the Rufiji and Nyassa systems. The 
Acodrtuy also notices a paper by Dr. James Stewart, read before 
the Royal Geographical Society, " On the Second Circumnaviga- 
tion of lake Nyassa." The effect of this more recent sur\V\- 
(made September, 1877) is to shift the position of the lake twenty- 
four miles further west. Gold was discovered in the vicinity of 
Mount Waller which is 4,000 feet above the level of the lake. 
At the northern extremity of the lake a river called the Rom- 
bushe flowing into the lake was discovered. 

It is now possible to steam over the 350 miles comprising the 
length of the Nyassa in forty or fifty hours, and, excepting a gap 
about seventy miles in length where cataracts intervene, to sail 



406 General Notes. [June, 

from the London docks to the north end of the lake by way of 
the Zambesi and Shire rivers. 

Accounts of the progress of the exploration making on the 
western side of the Nyassa by the Missionaries from Livingstimia 
down to October 30, 1878, have been received in Scotland. The 
party left Livingstonia on August 12, 1878, and journeying first 
in a south-westerly direction, reached a mountain plateau some 
4500 or 5000 feet above the sea-level. They then traveled 
through an open country, well watered, with a soil composed of 
disintegrated granite. Turning northwards they struck across 
the river Lintippe westwards and traveled for some time through 
a deserted but once populous country, Finally they reached 
Chivere's country, which is open, well watered and populous, but 
entirely devoid of trees. Reaching the coast south of the lake 
Chia they proceeded north along the coast and when last heard 
from had reached Kuta bay — Randepe on Livingstone's map. 

The Nature states that the exact position of Blantyre, which 
lies to the east of the Murchison Falls on the Shire, and was 
never before accurately ascertained, has been found to be S. lat. 
15° 45' 25" and E. long. 35 14' 1 1". 

Ill fortune has continued to attend the Belgian African Expe- 
dition. Lieut. Wauthier died of dysentery on the 1 9th of Decem- 
ber last, near lake Chaia, a small body of water some eighty miles 
south-east of Tabora in Unyanyenbe. Dr. Dutrieux was with 
him at his death, but the remaining chief, M. Cambier, when last 
heard from, had passed Tabora on the road to Mcene, M. 
Dutalis has arrived at Zanzibar and will hereafter command the 
expedition. Mr. H. M. Stanley accompanies him and will act as 
guide and interpreter. Capt. Popelin will also soon leave Bel- 
gium to execute the plan of forming a chain of stations across 
Central Africa from Zanzibar to the Loango coast. The means 
for this important undertaking are supplied by the King of the 
Belgians. 

Another Missionary of the (English) Church Mission to the 
Victoria Nyanza, Mr. Penrose, has met with a violent death at the 
hands of the natives. He was on his way to the Nyanza and was 
attacked and murdered at nearly the same time as the death of 
Lieut. Wauthier occurred and near the same lake Chaia. It is 
stated that the attack was made in revenge by marauders who 
had been previously defeated by the Abbe Debaize of the French 
Scientific Expedition. Letters have been received from the hitter, 
in Paris, dated October 17, 1878, near Tabora, the capital of 
Unyamalzi. He had so far been most successful, having accom- 
plished his march with great rapidity, without loss either in men, 
supplies, or instruments, and was in perfect health. He states 
that the power of the Arabs wanes daily, and their place is being 
taken by the English. The power of the Sultan of Zanzibar is 
merely nominal. The Sultan reigns but the English Consul gov- 



1 879.] Geography and Travels. 407 

erns. Two of the French missionaries from Algeria have died, 
one of them by illness and the other having been killed by a lion. 
Letters down to October 17, 1878 have been received by the 
London Missionary Society from their mission at Ujiji on lake 
Tanganyika. The death from apoplexy of the leader of the 
party, Rev. Mr. Thomson, is announced. The Arabs report the 
grass in the Lukuga (Cameron's supposed outlet of the lake) as 
having been swept away in the last rainy season by the rising of 
the lake waters. They say it is now an out-flowing river, and one 
of them had gone down it to the Kamolondo ( ?) lake. 

We learn from the Nature that a German Scientific Expedition 
under Herr C. Denhardt has recently explored the course of the 
river Dana They only advanced about sixty miles into the in- 
terior. They could hear nothing of Mount Kinea,and it is proba- 
ble the stream does not take its rise from its slopes as hitherto 

Mr. Mackay of the English Church Missionary Society reached 
the south-eastern shores of the Victoria Nyanza at Kagei in July, 
1878. Having received a conciliatory message from Lukongeh, 
chief of the Ukerewe, by whom his colleagues, Messrs. Smith anil 
O'Neill were killed, he visited him. Lukongeh stated he had no 
quarrel with white men and that the death of his friends was 
caused by their interference in the affairs of an Arab. On his re- 
turn to Kagei Mr. Mackay met the Rev. Mr. Wilson, who had 
crossed over from Uganda and the two returned together to King 
Mtesa's, after Mr. Mackay had succeeded in putting together the 
sections of a small steamer in which he transported across the 
lake the stores of machinery, tools and useful articles sent out for 
the instruction of the natives. The British Government has been 
informed of Mtesa's intention to send an embassy to the Queen, 
ip a direct road from the Nyanza to the 
i country. He is ready to welcome Eng- 
lishmen, but desires no more dealings with the Arabs, and is very 
much afraid of the Egyptians. Rumanika, the old King of Kara- 
gwe is dead, and Mtesa has dispatched an army to secure the 
throne for one of the deceased king's sons. 

The Missionaries sent out by the Society by the Nile route ar- 
rived at Regiaf above Gondokoro about November 7th. 

At a conference of telegraph engineers and others held at the 
Royal Geographical Society's rooms in London, on the 6th of 
January, last, a report was adopted recommending a route for an 
overland telegraph from Khartum to Pretoria. The following are 



. open 

ie Ma> 



Livin.^roniatc/Tet'e 



The practicability of making and keeping open such a line is as- 
serted by Capt. Cameron, Mr. H. M. Stanley, Mr. Ziegler, Di- 
rector of the London and Red Sea Coast Telegraphs, Sir. F. 
Goldsmid, of the overland Indian Telegraph, and others. Mean- 
while the British Government has decided to lay a cable from 
Aden to Zanzibar, thence to Port Natal via Mozambique and 
Delagoa bay. Madagascar and the Mauritius may also be con- 
nected with this line. 

MICROSCOPY. 1 

American Society of Microscopists. — This Society, which 
was the outgrowth of the Microscopical Congress at Indianapo- 

Tucsday morning, August 19th, with the probability that its ses- 
sions will continue until Friday night the 22d. This will leave 
ample time for those who wish to attend also the meeting of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, at Sara- 
toga, on the 27th of the same month. The people of Buffalo 
have organized a local committee, with sub-committees on finance, 
on transportation, on accommodations and rooms, on entertain- 
ments, and on microscopical soiree. The place for headquarters 
of the Society, and for holding the meetings, has not yet been 
finally decided upon, but will soon be announced. Arrangements 
are being made with great care and consideration, and those who 
remember the superb reception given in that city to the A. A. 
A. S. a few years ago, will need no assurance that the meeting 
will be made pleasant as well as profitable. 

National Committee on Micrometry. — This committee, in 
the formation of which most of the active microscopical societies 
of the country have taken part, has been organized with the fol- 
lowing officers and members : F. A. P. Barnard, LL.D., president 
of Columbia College, N. Y. city, chairman; R. H. Ward, M.D.. 
Troy, N.Y., secretary; George E. Fell, C.E., Buffalo, N.Y.; Henry 
Jameson, M.D., Indianapolis, Indiana; Prof. S. A. Lattimore, 
Rochester, N.Y. ; Prof. Edward W. Morley, Hudson, Ohio ; Jos- 
eph G. Richardson, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.; Prof. Stephen P. 
Sharpies, Boston, Mass.; Prof. H. L. Smith, Geneva, N.Y.; Prof. 
Albert H. Tuttle, Columbus, Ohio ; J. J. Woodward, M.D., Wash- 

1 This department is edited by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. Y. 



1 8 79 .] Scientific News. 4D9 

ington, D.C.; Lester Curtis, M. D., Chicago, 111.; the San Fran- 
cisco society is represented on the committee, though not yet 
by a western man. The committee is already engaged in discus- 
sion of the large number of reports and letters that have been re- 
ceived on the subject. 

Lead Cells. — Cells may be made readily, and at small ex- 
pense, from the thin sheets of lead with which tea boxes are 
ordinarily lined. This material may be obtained from any grocer, 
and is prepared expeditiously by the following method : It should 
be smoothed by rubbing and slightly moistened with water, so 
that when placed upon a turn table it will adhere sufficiently to 
be marked with a lead pencil. Using thin glass covers as patterns 
concentric rings may be traced and then removed by means of the 
sharp point of a penknife. The rings thus formed may be fixed 
upon the slide with cement, and the depth of the cell increased 
by placing several of these upon each other, allowing a sufficient 
interval for partial drying. Shallow cells in particular are formed 
with the greatest ease by this method, and they seem to be dura- 
ble.— M. A. Veeder, Lyons, N. V. 

[Cells of paper or cardboard are made with great success in the 
same way, on the modern turntables. Tin or lead cells arc gen- 
erally attached to the slide with Kill's cement or shellac varnish. 
~Ed.] ^ 

SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
— The National Academy of Sciences, held its spring session 
in Washington, commencing April 15th. A number of impor- 
tant papers were read, and election for officers was held. This re- 
sulted in the election of Prof. Wm. B. Rogers, of Boston, as presi- 
dent, and Prof. O. C. Marsh as vice-president; Prof. J. H. C. Coffin, 
home secretary; Prof. F. A. P. Barnard, foreign secretary; Fair- 
man Rogers, treasurer; Professors Band, Agassi/, Newcomb, W. 
Gibbs and A. Hall, and General M. C. Meigs, members of council. 
The new members of the Academy elected at this meeting are 
Prof. Cleveland Abbe, distinguished for his researches in meteor- 
ology; Prof. J. W. Farlow, botanist, of Harvard University; Dr. 
Horatio C. Wood, of Philadelphia, prominent in biology; and 
Prof. J. Willard Gibbs, of New Haven, a student of mathematical 
physics. The following are among the papers read : S. H. Scudder, 
The Palaeozoic cockroaches ; S. Weir Mitchell, The relations of 
neuralgic pains to storms and to the earth's magnetism ; Joseph 
LeConte, On the extinct volcanoes about Lake Mono, and their 
relations to the glacial drift; E. 1). Cope, On the extinct species 
of the rhinoceros and allied forms, of North America; E. W. Hil- 
gard, The loess of the Mississippi and the aeolian hypothesis ; G. 
K. Gilbert, On the stability and instability of drainage lines; C. V. 
Riley, The hybernations and migrations of Alctia 'argilhu-ca (the 
parent of the cotton worm) ; A. Agassiz, Report on dredgings in 



410 Proc. Sci. Socs & Selected [Articles i S i Sen lis. [June, 'yg. 

the Carribean sea by the U. S. Coast Survey steamer Blake, Com- 
mander John R. Bartlette, U. S. Navy, commanding; G.J. Brush, 
On a mineral locality in Fairfield county, Connecticut; J. S. New- 
berry, On the great silver deposits recently discovered in Colo- 
rado, Utah and Nevada. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, Feb. 11.— The President, Dr. Ruschenberger 
read an extract from a letter from Dr. Siegfried, U.S.N., descrip- 
tive of the aborigines of the island of Botel Tobago. Rev. H. C. 
McCook gave an account of his studies upon the habits of leaf- 
cutting ants of Texas. 

Feb. 18— The President in the Chair. A paper entitled, On the 
structure of the Chimpanzee, by Dr. H. C. Chapman was pre- 
sented for publication. Dr. Leidy exhibited some specimens of 
\lus lotus which had been obtained from a Swedish 
woman, this tape-worm appeared to be very rare in this country, 
being the first he had ever seen. Dr. Leidy also gave the results 
of his examination of the second chimpanzee, which recently died 
at the Zoological Garden, stating that in this specimen the cere- 
brum fairly covered the cerebellum; longitudinal valvula conn& 
ventes were found in the middle of the small intestine, and forty- 
five Peyer's patches were counted. The development of the 
laryngeal pouch was also considered. 

New York Academy of Sciences, April 7. — Prof. J. S. 
Newberry read a paper on the occurrence of gold with the silver 
ores of Nevada. 

April 21. — Prof. Arnold Guyot presented a paper on the 
topography of the Catskills. 

April 28. — Prof. J. S. Newberry remarked on the devices em- 
ployed in nature for the distribution of the seeds of plants. 

Boston Society of Natural History, April 16. — Dr. S. 
Kneeland spoke on the mineralized phosphatic guanos of the 
Pacific islands. 

SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.— April. Ob- 
servations on the structure of cells and nuclei, by E. Klein. On 
the apical and oral systems of the Echinodermata, by P. H. Car- 
penter. The development of the earth-worm, by N. Klemen- 
berg (shows that the brain is formed independently of the ventral 
nervous cord, and criticises Scmpor's views as to the derivation 
of the nervous system of vertebrates from that of worms). The 
Nematoid Hsematozoa of man, by T. R. Lewis (confirms Man- 
son's discovery of the migration of a human ha?matozoon from 
the blood of a mosquito, and records the life-history of the 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xiii. — JULY, 1879. — No. 7. 



'THE present aspect of the fields in the immediate neighbor- 
■*■ hood of the south grounds of the University of California, at 
Berkeley, when compared with their general appearance five years 
ago, when the flora of the locality was first noticed by me, exhib- 
its a marked contrast ; and though during this time the vary- 
ing character of the vegetation from year to year attracted my 
attention, the altered physiognomy of the fields particularly 
impressed me this past season, and curiosity has led me to seek 
for the causes which have produced what may be regarded as a 
most striking change. 

The complexity of questions of this kind is increased, not only 
through the simpler factors involved, some of which are given 
below, but by the sequence of relationship of such factors to each 
other, which it is difficult to detect. 

The climatology of the seasons during which such changes 
have been progressing ; — the tillage of proximate lands, and the 
introduction of new plants, or of plants new to a locality, through 
this agency or by other artificial means more or less direct, winch 
follow the settlement of a region; — other changes which follow 
through neglect of tillage, as where the cultivation of farm- 
ing lands is abandoned, as is generally the case where such lands 
are divided and cut into small parcels for village or town plats or 
lots ; — these are a few of the more conspicuous agencies which 
produce changes of the kind mentioned herein, in the local flora 
of such neighborhoods. Again, the time required for the growth 



412 Form of Seeds as a Factor [July. 

of a plant, from the sprouting of the seed to maturity, differs 
greatly in different plants, and the seeds of some plants germinate 
in much less time than the seeds of others. From this cause 
the aspect of the fields changes during the same season ; those 
plants whose seeds start quickly and attain maturity in the shortest 
time, dominate for awhile and give one aspect to the fields in the 
first part of the season, and those plants whose seeds sprout slowly 
only reach maturity after the earlier have passed their prime or 
died, then dominate 1 and later in the season give to the fields a 
a different complexion or appearance. 

The occurrence of these changes and the domination of this or 
that plant inside of or within the number of plants which form 
the flora of a certain region, may be conspicuously modified, in 
one year or season as compared with another, by the character of 
the season as previously referred to. As some plants thrive best 
with only a moderate supply of moisture, and are dwarfed, 
decreased in number of individuals or suppressed- by the " drown- 
ing" of the seeds as the farmers call it, through excess of " wet" 
— so the latter might be highly favorable to the germination of 
the seeds and earlier development of the plants of some other 
species, which in normal or ordinary seasons would appear 

The effect of only one such season might extend through 
several seasons, and materially modify the landscape features in 
its annual plants for a period of many years. 

Without further enlarging in this direction on certain points 
which have been referred to, as they cannot properly be passed 
unnoticed, attention is called to another class of factors, not 
generally recognized, but of sufficient importance not to admit of 
exclusion, wherein. natural selection is illustrated as performing 
its part in a different way. 

The domination of "the fittest," the character of a season con- 

IX cotoidtriag this print the freqt* hftl; I what may be 

cntillcl "Cheat Wheat, brought to mitul ; >.,mc t < eiuliii" < l!l 



1 879.] in Natural Selection in Plants. 413 

sidered, has been inferentially if not directly shown, where the 
effect of an unusually wet season is referred to ; so certain plants 
which now dominate in my immediate neighborhood illustrate 
how natural selection has assisted, to say the least, in producing 
the change in the open fields near my residence in Berkeley, 
through the advantage which one form of seed has over seeds of 
a different form. And this aside from its interest to the scientific 
observer, is of special interest to the farmer, for it enters into the 
economics of his business, as may be seen further on. 

Only a few years ago the entire region hereabout, from the hills 
to the shore of the bay, was either farmed or used for pasturage. 
Where not tilled, over large portions of this area, the wild mus- 
tard (Brassica nigra) abounded, and was regarded by the farmers 
as a pesT; it grew and thrived nearly everywhere, and often 
attained a height sufficient "to hide all of a standing